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阶层差异职业性别隔离的影响机制 —— 基于社会支配倾向视角
北京师范大学心理学院, 北京 100875
The Mechanism of Occupational Segregation: A Social Dominance Perspective
QIAO Zhihong;ZHENG Jinglu;SONG Huiting;JIANG Ying
School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
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从社会支配倾向的角度解释阶层差异职业性别隔离现象。研究1采用问卷调查法对性别、社会支配倾向和职业选择之间的关系进行检验。结果表明, 男性更倾向于选择增加阶层差异的职业, 而女性更倾向于选择减少阶层差异的职业。职业性别隔离存在自我选择机制。研究2通过模拟招聘对社会支配倾向、性别偏见和招聘偏见的关系进行了验证。结果表明, 增加阶层差异的机构倾向于招聘男性应聘者, 而减少阶层差异的机构倾向于招聘女性应聘者。性别偏见在社会支配倾向和招聘偏见之间起到部分中介的作用。

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关键词 职业性别隔离社会支配倾向性别偏见    

The occupational segregation has been maintained for centuries in labor markets of various countries. Based on Social Dominance Theory, this research explained the occupational segregation phenomenon from social dominance orientation (SDO). And the author also aims to figure out the effect of sexism in this process. Due to the fact that each person and institution has different levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), men and women are inclined to choose the institutions whose values are identified with themselves. This process is called the self-selected mechanism of occupational segregation. Besides, when institutions face the choice of an employee, in order to maintain the priority of men, they do the same as individuals. According to Pratto et al, occupations can be divided into hierarchy enhancing ones and hierarchy attenuating ones. To explain more specifically, the hierarchy enhancing institutions are inclined to prefer men and the hierarchy attenuating institutions are more interested in women. It’s called the institution–selected mechanism of occupational segregation. We designed two studies to test the hypotheses above. In Study 1, the questionnaire survey was used to exam the relationship among gender, SDO and career choice. Data was collected from 187 students of Beijing Normal University. The result of Study 1 showed that men tended to choose hierarchy enhancing jobs and women tended to choose hierarchy attenuating jobs. Furthermore, SDO had a full mediating effect between gender and hierarchy jobs. The results indicated that occupational segregation had a self-selected mechanism, which means that men and women chose different jobs because of their different levels of SDO. In Study 2, an experiment was designed to test the relationship among SDO, sexism and hiring bias, in order to confirm the institution–selected mechanism of occupational segregation. 274 students from Beijing Normal University were recruited to do the tasks in study 2. They were asked to choose two resumes that best appeal to their respective institution in the capacity of an employer. One institution is a Securities Company, and the other is a charity organization. The results showed that hiring bias existed in different hierarchy institutions. The hierarchy enhancing institutions tended to choose male applicants and the hierarchy attenuating institutions tended to choose female applicants. Besides, both SDO and sexism could predict hiring bias, and sexism had a partial mediating effect between SDO and hiring bias. In conclusion, this research showed that during the forming process of occupational segregation, both self-selected mechanism and institution-selected mechanism are playing an indispensable part. This dynamic process provides us a new perspective to regard SDO and sexism, of which the former is not merely objective cognitions of group differences nor the latter is perceived social attitudes. In fact, they legitimize the inequality of social system. Through the connection of gender and different institutions and jobs, sexism and occupational segregation maintain in the society.

Key wordsoccupational segregation    social dominance orientation    sexism
收稿日期: 2013-02-21      出版日期: 2014-05-24

国家社科基金项目“大学生就业能力的结构及其与就业结果的关系研究” (11BRK019)资助。

通讯作者: 乔志宏   
乔志宏;郑静璐;宋慧婷;蒋盈. 阶层差异职业性别隔离的影响机制 —— 基于社会支配倾向视角[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00691.
QIAO Zhihong;ZHENG Jinglu;SONG Huiting;JIANG Ying. The Mechanism of Occupational Segregation: A Social Dominance Perspective. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2014, 46(5): 691-701.
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