心理科学进展, 2019, 27(1): 20-26 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00020

研究前沿

发展性阅读障碍的视觉注意广度技能

赵婧,

首都师范大学心理学院, 北京市“学习与认知”重点实验室, 北京 100037

Skills of visual attention span in developmental dyslexia

ZHAO Jing,

Beijing Key Laboratory of Learning and Cognition, School of Psychology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100037, China

通讯作者: 赵婧, E-mail: conanzj@126.com

收稿日期: 2018-04-16   网络出版日期: 2019-01-15

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金项目.  31500903

Received: 2018-04-16   Online: 2019-01-15

摘要

发展性阅读障碍在许多任务中都出现同时性加工多个视觉刺激的困难, 即视觉注意广度缺陷.本文分别综述了国内外探查阅读障碍视觉注意广度的研究.目前, 相关研究结果仍存争议, 这可能与背景语言的正字法深度以及被试年龄发展差异有关.未来研究还需利用干预,跨语言比较等方法进一步探讨阅读障碍与视觉注意广度之间的关系, 并结合脑电,脑成像技术探究汉语阅读障碍视觉注意广度的内在神经机制.

关键词: 视觉注意广度 ; 汉语阅读 ; 发展性阅读障碍 ; 正字法深度

Abstract

A specific deficit in individuals with developmental dyslexia has been repeatedly found in many tasks that had one aspect in common, that was, the processing of multiple visual elements in parallel. This skill is regarded as the visual attention span. This paper reviews the relevant literature about the visual attention span of the dyslexics in the contexts of alphabetic languages and Chinese. Currently, the relevant findings have been still in debate, and the inconsistent results may be attributed to the differences in orthographic depth of the background language and the participants’ ages. Future studies can further explore the relationship between visual attention span and reading disability through the methods of the intervention study and cross-language comparison; meanwhile the neural mechanisms underlying the visual attention span of Chinese individuals with dyslexia could be investigated by the neuroimaging techniques.

Keywords: visual attention span ; Chinese reading ; developmental dyslexia ; orthographic depth

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本文引用格式

赵婧. (2019). 发展性阅读障碍的视觉注意广度技能 . 心理科学进展, 27(1), 20-26

ZHAO Jing. (2019). Skills of visual attention span in developmental dyslexia. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(1), 20-26

为建设学习型社会, 提高国民科学文化素养, 政府正在大力倡导“全民阅读”.然而在阅读习得过程中, 一些个体直至成人也未能达到正常阅读水平, 表现出发展性阅读障碍(Developmental Dyslexia, 以下简称DD).世界卫生组织ICD-10将发展性阅读障碍定义为个体在一般智力,动机,生活环境和教育条件等方面与其它个体没有明显差异, 也没有明显的视力,听力,神经系统的损伤, 但其阅读成绩明显低于同龄人平均水平(World Health Organization, 1993).DD在人群中的比例约为5%~17% (黄晨, 赵婧, 2018; Cao et al., 2017), 其作为一种常见的学习困难会显著影响个体的学习效率和生活质量.以往大量研究已对DD的致病机理进行了行为和神经机制层面的探究.其中, 值得注意的是, 阅读障碍者在许多任务中都较一致地表现出同时性加工多个视觉刺激的困难(e.g. Bosse, Tainturier, & Valdois, 2007; Lobier, Zoubrinetzky, & Valdois, 2012; Valdois et al., 2014).Bosse等人(2007)认为这一视觉加工过程反映的是视觉注意广度方面的能力, 并据此提出了阅读障碍的视觉注意广度缺陷理论.该理论认为DD的核心问题在其视觉注意广度上.以往研究发现, 有约51%的阅读障碍者表现出视觉注意广度缺陷(Zoubrinetzky, Bielle, & Valdois, 2014), 且流畅阅读过程涉及快速同时加工多个视觉字符, 视觉注意广度缺陷会阻碍文字字形快速解码过程进而降低阅读效率(Lallier & Carreiras, 2017).因此, 许多研究者对阅读障碍者的视觉注意广度技能进行探究, 这一方面的研究已成为相关领域的研究热点之一(e.g. Zoubrinetzky, Collet, Serniclaes, Nguyen-Morel, & Valdois, 2016; Germano et al., 2014; Saksida et al., 2016; Lallier & Carreiras, 2017).那么, 视觉注意广度缺陷与阅读困难的关系到底如何?视觉注意广度对阅读过程的可能影响机制是怎样的?并且, 鉴于视觉注意广度与文字字形的整体加工和基于整体词汇通路的形义匹配过程密切相关(van den Boer, Bergen, & de Jong, 2014; Zhao, Liu, Liu, & Huang, 2017), 而视觉整体分析,形义匹配技能对汉语阅读过程有着显著的意义(Liu, Chen, & Chung, 2015), 视觉注意广度则可能在汉语阅读发展中发挥持续性的重要作用(Zhao et al., 2017).那么, 汉语发展性阅读障碍的视觉注意广度如何?是否会有相应的语言特异性表现出来?下面将先梳理国内外探查阅读障碍者视觉注意广度的研究, 并在此基础上提出以往研究的不足以及未来研究的方向.

1 拼音文字背景下发展性阅读障碍者视觉注意广度的研究

1.1 发现阅读障碍视觉注意广度存在缺陷的研究

Valdois等人(2003)最早采用全部/部分报告法探查两位患有阅读障碍的法语青少年(13,14岁左右)的视觉注意广度技能.他们的研究以五个字母组成的无意义字符串作为刺激材料, 刺激快速呈现200 ms以避免眼球转动, 之后要求被试出声报告全部呈现的字母(不要求顺序, 此为全部报告法任务)或说出线索位置处的特定字母(此为部分报告法任务).结果表明, 其中一位阅读障碍者在全部和部分报告法任务下的反应正确率均显著低于同年龄正常阅读者, 表现出视觉注意广度缺陷.之后的研究者进一步扩大被试量, 采用相同的视觉任务, 在有阅读障碍的法语,英语,葡萄牙语儿童中(10岁左右)均发现了视觉注意广度缺陷(Bosse et al., 2007; Germano et al., 2014; Zoubrinetzky et al., 2016).然而, 有研究者指出, 关于视觉注意广度的测查任务是出声报告且加工的目标刺激是字母, 这其中涉及到语言加工过程, 所以阅读障碍最后表现的缺陷很可能不是视觉注意的问题而是形音转换的问题(Ziegler, Pech- Georgel, Dufau, & Grainger, 2010).Lobier等人(2012)基于全部报告法范式进行调整, 以图形非言语材料作为目标刺激, 并结合类别辨别任务进行非言语反应, 以此来测查视觉注意广度, 其研究在排除了可能的语言因素干扰的基础上, 仍发现法语阅读障碍儿童在该任务上的行为表现显著落后于同年龄正常阅读者, 说明阅读障碍者存在视觉注意广度缺陷.

为了深入探究阅读障碍的致病机理, 有研究者结合功能性磁共振成像(functional magnetic resonance imaging, 以下简称fMRI)技术考察阅读障碍者视觉注意广度的相关脑机制(Peyrin et al., 2011, 2012; Reilhac, Peyrin, Démonet & Valdois, 2013; Lobier, Peyrin, Pichat, Le Bas & Valdois, 2014).Peyrin等人(2012)的fMRI研究采用与视觉注意广度密切相关的视觉分类任务, 比较了一名存在视觉注意广度缺陷的法语阅读障碍成人与40名同年龄正常阅读者之间的脑功能差异.结果显示, 该成人阅读障碍者在加工多个视觉刺激时, 在双侧顶上小叶和左侧缘上回的激活强度显著低于对照组.之后的研究采用视觉分类任务和基于全部报告法修改的知觉匹配任务在较大样本量的法语阅读障碍成人(Reilhac et al., 2013)和儿童(Peyrin et al., 2011)中均发现了类似的研究结果, 即, 阅读障碍者在顶上小叶的激活强度低于同年龄正常阅读者.为了进一步排除语言因素的可能影响, Lobier等人(2014)采用以非言语材料作为刺激的视觉分类任务探查12名具有视觉注意广度缺陷的法语阅读障碍成人的相关神经活动特点.他们的研究结果与之前的研究结果类似, 也显示出阅读障碍者在双侧顶上小叶的激活强度低于同年龄正常阅读者.鉴于顶上小叶主要与空间注意,眼动控制有关 (Blythe, Häikiö, Bertam, Liversedge, & Hyönä, 2011), 因此, 以上研究发现为阅读障碍者的视觉注意广度缺陷提供了神经层面的证据.

同时, 已有研究进一步探究视觉注意广度缺陷与阅读困难之间的可能因果关系.Costanzo, Menghini, Caltagirone, Oliveri和Vicari (2013)发现高频重复性地经颅磁刺激作用于阅读障碍成人的双侧顶叶区域可提高其非词阅读准确性.一项针对一名具有视觉注意广度缺陷的法语阅读障碍女童的个案研究(Valdois et al., 2014)发现, 对其进行持续6周(3小时/周)的视觉空间注意训练(包括视觉注意广度,视觉搜索,视觉匹配和视觉解析), 可在行为层面增大阅读障碍者的视觉注意广度, 提高其阅读速度; 在脑机制层面增强其双侧顶叶的激活强度.视觉空间注意的一项重要反映指标就是视觉注意广度(黄晨, 赵婧, 2018), 因此以上结果均在一定程度上为视觉注意广度缺陷与阅读障碍的因果关系提供了支持性证据.最近Valdois团队的一项研究(Antzaka et al., 2017)发现经常玩动作视频类游戏的成人被试比不玩此类游戏的被试在全部和部分报告法任务下的成绩均更高, 说明他们的视觉注意广度技能更强; 同时, 前者的假词阅读正确性也显著高于后者, 并且视觉注意广度技能与其假词阅读正确性显著正相关, 该结果在一定程度上也反映了视觉注意广度与阅读(困难)之间存在可能的因果关系.

此外, 一些神经机制层面的研究为视觉注意广度缺陷对阅读困难的影响机制提供了可能的解释.已有研究发现, 在视觉注意广度任务下, 左侧顶叶脑区与左腹侧颞枕联合区表现出显著的功能连接(Lobier et al., 2014).顶叶区域属于视觉背侧通路, 它是人类两条主要的视觉通路之一.另一条通路是腹侧通路, 其中包括颞枕联合区, 该脑区主要负责视觉字形加工(Dehaene & Cohen, 2011).视觉刺激输入后, 视觉整体信息会通过背侧通路快速向上传递至初级视皮层,顶叶等脑区, 顶叶对视觉刺激会进行整体分析, 分析的结果会被进一步快速反馈至腹侧通路, 以自上而下引导视觉刺激细节的编码加工过程(Bullier, 2001).据此可推测, 阅读障碍者顶叶注意功能受损, 与其功能上有着密切联系的左侧颞枕联合区的活动也会受到消极影响, 进而影响字形识别等阅读过程.

1.2 未发现阅读障碍存在视觉注意广度缺陷的研究

然而, 也有不一致的研究结果.相关的研究发现阅读障碍者与正常阅读者在视觉注意广度任务上的表现无显著差异(Hawelka & Wimmer, 2008; Yeari, Isser, & Schiff, 2017).Hawelka和Wimmer (2008)分别以字母,数字和图形作为刺激, 采用改变刺激呈现时间的部分报告法任务测查个体辨别目标序列中各个位置上刺激所对应的时间阈限.其研究发现, 当刺激是字母和数字时, 德语阅读障碍成人在各个位置上的辨别时间阈限均显著长于同年龄正常阅读者; 但当刺激是图形时, 无显著组别差异.研究者认为阅读障碍在该任务上的缺陷仍反映的是语言方面的问题, 其基础视觉注意能力没有受损.但由于该研究最后测得的时间阈限都超过了600 ms, 已远超Valdois等人研究中常用的刺激呈现时间200ms, 这样过长的刺激呈现时间可能会带来多余的眼球运动等其他认知过程, 并进而影响研究结果.Yeari等人(2017)的研究结果显示, 希伯来语阅读障碍成人在全部和部分报告法任务下的刺激识别敏感性均与控制组无显著差异.有研究者指出视觉注意广度会受到语言正字法深度的影响(Awadh et al., 2016).据此可推测, 以往不一致的研究结果可能与不同研究中语言背景的正字法深度(即字形与语音对应关系的一致性程度, 正字法深度越浅则形音对应关系越一致)差异有关.在发现阅读障碍者存在视觉注意广度缺陷的研究中, 其背景语言的正字法深度是深层或中等深度(如法语,英语); 而未发现阅读障碍者有视觉注意广度缺陷的研究对应的背景语言经常具有浅层正字法深度(如德语,希伯来语).正字法深度会对阅读策略的发展模式产生一定影响(Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001).在浅层正字法深度的语言中, 读者倾向于使用基于形音对应规则的亚词汇通路策略进行逐字母拼读, 进而使得在阅读过程中编码加工的正字法单元较小.而相反地, 在深层正字法语言中, 包含更多字母的较大的正字法单元的读音相对于较小正字法单元而言会更具有一致性, 因此读者在阅读过程中偏好采用基于词汇通路的整词阅读策略(Ziegler & Goswami, 2005).由此可推测, 视觉注意广度也会受到正字法深度的调节和影响, 视觉注意广度可能在具有深层正字法深度的语言加工中发挥着更显著的作用.最近, 一项跨语言的研究结果(Awadh et al., 2016)支持了以上推论.Awadh等人(2016)对比了阿拉伯语,法语和西班牙语成人的视觉注意广度技能.他们的研究结果表明, 只有法语成人的视觉注意广度与出声阅读流畅性显著相关, 其中法语比其他两种语言具有更深的正字法深度.此研究发现说明, 视觉注意广度与深层正字法深度语言背景下的阅读技能更密切相关.并且, 在具有深层正字法深度的语言背景下, 由于平时阅读过程中经常加工较大的正字法单元, 所以其中读者的视觉注意广度技能会比浅层正字法深度语言背景下的读者更好.因此, 相应的阅读障碍的视觉注意广度缺陷可能也会在深层正字法深度的语言背景中更显著的表现出来; 而在浅层正字法深度的背景语言中, 可能阅读障碍者和正常阅读者的视觉注意广度都偏小, 因此组别差异不容易显著表现.但以上推论仍有待于在进一步研究(特别是在深层正字法语言背景下的研究)中加以明确.

同时, 另一个需要考虑的影响视觉注意广度的重要因素是年龄发展.特别是在具有深层正字法深度的背景语言的阅读发展过程中, 个体在早期发展阶段主要依赖于亚词汇拼读策略进行阅读; 而随着年龄增长, 其阅读策略逐渐转变为主要依靠整词通路进行阅读(Coltheart et al., 2001).鉴于视觉注意广度在基于整词通路的阅读策略中的作用比基于亚词汇通路的编码过程中的作用更显著(Lallier & Carreiras, 2017), 据此可推测视觉注意广度在深层正字法语言背景下的阅读发展晚期发挥的作用可能更明显, 这个推论在Bosse和Valdois (2009)进行的一项横断发展研究中得到了支持.他们的研究发现视觉注意广度技能在法语阅读中的作用呈现出随年龄逐渐增强的发展趋势.那么, 阅读障碍者的视觉注意广度技能具有怎样的发展模式呢?鉴于视觉注意广度在整词通路中发挥着更显著的作用, 处于深层正字法语言背景下的阅读障碍者的视觉注意广度缺陷是否会在晚期发展阶段更加明显呢?以上这些问题仍有待之后的研究加以探查.

2 汉语背景下发展性阅读障碍者视觉注意广度的研究

不同于拼音文字, 汉语缺乏形音对应规则并具有很深的正字法深度.同时, 汉字视觉字形结构复杂, 对汉字字形进行有效且准确的视觉编码是之后进一步的形音匹配,形义匹配等高级语言加工过程的前提和基础(Liu et al., 2015).并且, 汉语属于无切分文本, 在阅读汉语文本时, 清晰的辨别词边界可保证有效地对文本信息空间位置编码和流畅阅读过程(Liu et al., 2015).由此可知视觉空间加工与汉语阅读过程密切相关.以往研究也发现了视觉注意广度在汉语阅读过程中发挥着重要的作用(Zhao et al., 2017).那么, 不同年龄段汉语阅读障碍者的视觉注意广度表现具体如何?其发展趋势是否会与基于深层正字法深度的拼音文字背景下的预期一致, 即在阅读发展早期视觉注意广度缺陷不显著, 在发展晚期才显现呢?亦或是表现出汉语特异性, 在早期发展阶段也表现出显著的视觉注意广度缺陷?鉴于视觉空间注意可能也会在整字水平的形音匹配过程中发挥作用(Ben-Shachar, Dougherty, Deutsch, & Wandell, 2007), 而视觉注意广度是视觉空间注意的重要反映指标之一(Bosse et al., 2007; 黄晨, 赵婧, 2018), 那么在汉语阅读发展的早期, 视觉注意广度是否会对中介于拼音进行的整字通路的形音匹配过程产生一定影响并与阅读产生紧密联系, 进而使得处于发展早期的汉语阅读障碍儿童表现出显著的视觉注意广度缺陷呢?

目前, 探究视觉注意广度与汉语阅读(困难)之间关系的研究也较为欠缺.米晓丽(2016)采用出声全部/部分报告法测查小学二至五年级汉语阅读障碍儿童的视觉注意广度, 其中的目标刺激是5个高频汉字.研究结果显示, 汉语阅读障碍儿童的视觉注意广度测试成绩与同年龄正常阅读者无显著差异.研究者认为汉语阅读障碍儿童的视觉注意广度无明显缺陷.然而以上研究的被试是选取自小学二至五年级, 年龄跨度较大, 这可能会带来被试年龄发展变化对结果的额外影响.之后有研究者通过汉语流畅阅读测试从66名初二学生中筛选出14名流畅阅读困难儿童, 并采用以非言语图形材料作为刺激的视觉图形识别(visual 1-back)任务测查视觉注意广度.结果显示, 流畅阅读困难儿童在该视觉任务上的正确率显著低于同年龄控制组儿童; 而且流畅阅读困难儿童的视觉注意分布模式呈现W型, 而正常阅读者呈倒U型, 说明前者的视觉注意广度更狭窄.以上结果说明汉语流畅阅读困难儿童存在视觉注意广度缺陷(Zhao, Liu, Liu, & Huang, 2018a).为了进一步直接探查汉语阅读障碍者视觉注意广度的发展模式, Zhao, Liu, Liu和Huang (2018b)同时在小学低,中,高年级中比较了阅读障碍儿童和同年龄正常阅读者的视觉注意广度技能.结果表明小学中,低年级阅读障碍儿童的视觉注意广度测试成绩与同年龄正常阅读者无显著差异; 而小学高年级阅读障碍儿童表现出显著的视觉注意广度缺陷.之后, 研究者在每个年龄段内进行偏差分析以筛选出有视觉注意广度缺陷的个体, 结果表明小学中,低年级中也有阅读障碍儿童存在视觉注意广度缺陷, 但人数比例偏低(低年级阅读障碍者:10%; 中年级阅读障碍者:5.26%), 而高年级阅读障碍者中存在视觉注意广度缺陷的较多(38.89%).以上结果反映了汉语阅读障碍者的视觉注意广度缺陷可能表现出发展性增强的趋势, 这与基于深层正字法深度的拼音文字背景下的预期一致.并且Zhao等人(2018b)进一步采用发展轨迹分析方法(developmental trajectory method)发现, 阅读障碍者视觉注意广度的这种发展模式是异常的发展趋势而非发展滞后.那么这种异常发展的视觉注意技能与阅读困难之间是否存在因果关系?这仍有待于进一步研究加以明确.

3 展望与小结

从以上的综述和分析中可以看出, 拼音文字研究已对阅读障碍者的视觉注意广度进行了大量的探究.有些研究发现阅读障碍者存在视觉注意广度缺陷, 并且进行视觉注意广度相关的训练能提高其阅读能力.然而, 目前研究结果仍存在争议.不一致的研究结果可能受到被试年龄与背景语言正字法深度的影响.相比之下, 汉语的相关研究仍较为欠缺, 且仅有的研究结果还不完全一致.未来我们可从以下几方面进一步对汉语发展性阅读障碍的视觉注意广度进行系统研究.

第一, 对汉语阅读障碍视觉注意广度进行干预训练研究, 以探查视觉注意广度与汉语阅读困难的可能因果关系.目前在汉语背景下, 还未见直接基于视觉注意广度进行的相关干预研究.鉴于视觉注意广度属于视觉空间注意范畴(Bosse et al., 2007; 黄晨, 赵婧, 2018), 以往关于汉语阅读障碍的视觉空间注意训练的研究为此提供了一定的理论启示.在前期干预研究中, Meng及其同事(Meng, Lin, Wang, Jiang, & Song, 2014; Wang et al., 2014)采用视觉搜索任务(即要求被试在刺激背景中搜索L或T)对一部分被试的视知觉能力进行了为期4周的训练, 结果发现, 训练组阅读障碍儿童的阅读流畅性能力,汉字识别准确性均得到明显改善, 而未经训练的阅读障碍儿童则没有明显变化.该结果反映出视觉空间注意缺陷与阅读障碍之间的可能因果关系.在Qian和Bi (2015)研究中, 采用与视觉空间注意密切相关的视觉搜索,视觉追踪任务, 对28名三至五年级小学生(阅读障碍训练组8名,阅读障碍非训练组9名,以及同年龄控制组11名)进行为期5周(2次/周,1小时/次)的训练.该研究结果显示, 训练组后测的快速命名成绩显著高于前测, 但另外两组被试的快速命名成绩也出现了类似的增长.研究者指出这种结果可能与他们被试样本量小,训练周期短等因素有关, 同时也可能与被试年龄,语言特异性和阅读障碍的群体异质性有关.因此, 今后探查阅读障碍与视觉注意广度缺陷之间因果关系的研究可以在充足样本量的前提下, 在不同年龄段的汉语阅读障碍者中比较其视觉注意广度和各水平阅读技能的训练效果.

第二, 在不同正字法深度背景语言下开展阅读障碍视觉注意广度技能的跨语言研究.以往研究结果表明, 视觉注意广度与阅读过程的关系可能会受到背景语言正字法深度的调节(Lallier & Carreiras, 2017; Lallier, Acha, & Carreiras, 2016).在浅层正字法语言中, 由于形音一致性程度高, 读者常采用亚词汇通路的逐字母拼读策略进行阅读, 与此相应的是较小的正字法单位, 只需较小的视觉注意广度即可进行流畅阅读; 而在深度正字法文字阅读过程中, 读者往往使用整词阅读策略, 这对应着较大的正字法单位, 需要较大的视觉注意广度.因此, 未来研究可以通过比较不同正字法深度背景语言下阅读障碍者的视觉注意广度技能, 以此来揭示不同语言特性对视觉注意广度的可能影响.

第三, 采用事件相关电位,脑成像等技术, 探讨汉语发展性阅读障碍视觉注意广度的内在神经机制.汉语阅读障碍者与阅读相关的神经机制存在语言特异性, 如其语音加工缺陷主要表现在与整字字形到音节语音通达有关的左侧额中回的功能和结构异常, 不同于拼音文字背景下阅读障碍者在左侧额下回的结构和功能异常(赵婧, 张逸玮, 毕鸿燕, 2015).特别是在阅读的早期视觉解码过程中, 由于汉字不同于线性拼音文字, 其具有复杂的视觉字形结构, 汉字字形的整体视空加工在汉语阅读发展中所起的作用比在拼音文字阅读中更大(Wang et al., 2014).而且已有研究也发现了汉语阅读障碍者字形整体视觉加工缺陷相关神经机制的语言特异性, 即其相比于正常阅读者表现出在双侧颞枕区的激活异常(Cao et al., 2017); 相比之下, 拼音文字背景下的阅读障碍者的视觉字形解码缺陷主要体现的是左侧化的神经活动特点(Paulesu et al., 2001).那么, 在视觉注意广度这一参与阅读早期视觉编码过程的基础认知技能上, 汉语阅读障碍者表现出的相应神经活动特性(包括相关脑电成分,脑区激活以及与其他相关脑区的功能连接情况等)是与拼音文字相关研究发现相似, 表现出跨语言一致性?还是会表现出汉语特异性?这仍需进一步研究加以明确.

第四, 以往相关研究大多是对视觉注意广度进行整体性考察, 对其内在机制方面的研究仍较为欠缺.在多动症, 轻度认知障碍等临床研究中, 有研究者根据Bundesen及其同事(1990, 2005)提出的视觉注意理论, 采用基于参数估计的方法将视觉注意分离成几种相互独立的子成分, 以进一步深入细致的探究相关视觉注意缺陷的内在机制(Habekost, 2015).那么, 是否可以通过此类方法来揭示阅读障碍视觉注意广度缺陷的内在本质呢?对此问题进行探究将有助于加深对阅读障碍致病机理的了解; 同时, 也为汉语发展性阅读障碍的早期鉴别和非语言干预等提供新的思考角度.

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61Phonological deficit is characterized by less activation in the left dIFG.61Dyslexia is associated with weaker functional connectivity from the left STG to FG.61Task performance effect was identified by comparing AC to DD and RC.61Age effect was identified by comparing RC to AC and DD.

Coltheart M., Rastle K., Perry C., Langdon R., & Ziegler J . (2001).

DRC: A dual route cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud.

Psychological Review, 108(1), 204-256.

URL     PMID:11212628      [本文引用: 2]

This article describes the Dual Route Cascaded (DRC) model, a computational model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. The DRC is a computational realization of the dual-route theory of reading, and is the only computational model of reading that can perform the 2 tasks most commonly used to study reading: lexical decision and reading aloud. For both tasks, the authors show that a wide variety of variables that influence human latencies influence the DRC model's latencies in exactly the same way. The DRC model simulates a number of such effects that other computational models of reading do not, but there appear to be no effects that any other current computational model of reading can simulate but that the DRC model cannot. The authors conclude that the DRC model is the most successful of the existing computational models of reading.

Costanzo F., Menghini D., Caltagirone C., Oliveri M., & Vicari S . (2013).

How to improve reading skills in dyslexics: The effect of high frequency rTMS.

Neuropsychologia, 51(14), 2953-2959.

URL     PMID:24184439     

61We used hf-rTMS to facilitate underactive reading brain areas in dyslexics.61Hf-rTMS over the left STG increases word reading speed and text reading accuracy.61Hf-rTMS over both L-IPL and R-IPL improves non-word reading accuracy.61L-STG and L-IPL have a task specific role and right homologues a compensatory role.61Hf-rTMS improves dyslexic reading skills and opens new treatment perspectives.

Dehaene S.., Cohen L. (2011).

The unique role of the visual word form area in reading.

Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(6), 254-262.

URL     PMID:21592844      [本文引用: 1]

Reading systematically activates the left lateral occipitotemporal sulcus, at a site known as the visual word form area (VWFA). This site is reproducible across individuals/scripts, attuned to reading-specific processes, and partially selective for written strings relative to other categories such as line drawings. Lesions affecting the VWFA cause pure alexia, a selective deficit in word recognition. These findings must be reconciled with the fact that human genome evolution cannot have been influenced by such a recent and culturally variable activity as reading. Capitalizing on recent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, we provide strong corroborating evidence for the hypothesis that reading acquisition partially recycles a cortical territory evolved for object and face recognition, the prior properties of which influenced the form of writing systems.

Germano G. D., Reilhac C ., Capellini, S. A. & Valdois, S. (2014).

The phonological and visual basis of developmental dyslexia in Brazilian Portuguese reading children.

Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1169.

URL     PMID:4196516      [本文引用: 2]

Evidence from opaque languages suggests that visual attention processing abilities in addition to phonological skills may act as cognitive underpinnings of developmental dyslexia. We explored the role of these two cognitive abilities on reading fluency in Brazilian Portuguese, a more transparent orthography than French or English. Sixty-six children with developmental dyslexia and normal Brazilian Portuguese children participated. They were administered three tasks of phonological skills (phoneme identification, phoneme, and syllable blending) and three visual tasks (a letter global report task and two non-verbal tasks of visual closure and visual constancy). Results show that Brazilian Portuguese children with developmental dyslexia are impaired not only in phonological processing but further in visual processing. The phonological and visual processing abilities significantly and independently contribute to reading fluency in the whole population. Last, different cognitively homogeneous subtypes can be identified in the Brazilian Portuguese population of children with developmental dyslexia. Two subsets of children with developmental dyslexia were identified as having a single cognitive disorder, phonological or visual; another group exhibited a double deficit and a few children showed no visual or phonological disorder. Thus the current findings extend previous data from more opaque orthographies as French and English, in showing the importance of investigating visual processing skills in addition to phonological skills in children with developmental dyslexia whatever their language orthography transparency.

Habekost T. . (2015).

Clinical TVA-based studies: A general review.

Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 290.

URL     PMID:4364300      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract In combination with whole report and partial report tasks, the theory of visual attention (TVA) can be used to estimate individual differences in five basic attentional parameters: the visual processing speed, the storage capacity of visual short-term memory, the perceptual threshold, the efficiency of top-down selectivity, and the spatial bias of attentional weighting. TVA-based assessment has been used in about 30 studies to investigate attentional deficits in a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions: (a) neglect and simultanagnosia, (b) reading disturbances, (c) aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and most recently (d) neurodevelopmental disorders. The article introduces TVA based assessment, discusses its methodology and psychometric properties, and reviews the progress made in each of the four research fields. The empirical results demonstrate the general usefulness of TVA-based assessment for many types of clinical neuropsychological research. The method's most important qualities are cognitive specificity and theoretical grounding, but it is also characterized by good reliability and sensitivity to minor deficits. The review concludes by pointing to promising new areas for clinical TVA-based research.

Hawelka, S. & Wimmer H. (2008).

Visual target detection is not impaired in dyslexic readers.

Vision Research, 48(6), 850-852.

URL     PMID:18177914      [本文引用: 1]

In two previous studies we assessed a difficulty of dyslexic readers with letter string processing by using variants of the partial report paradigm, e.g., Averbach and Coriell [Averbach, E., & Coriell, A. S. (1961). Short-term memory in vision. Bell Systems Technical Journal, 40, 309 328] which requires report of a letter name in response to a position cue. The poor dyslexic performance was interpreted as evidence for a visual-attentional deficit of dyslexic readers. In the present study, we avoided verbal report by using a task which only required the detection of predefined targets (letters or pseudoletters) in strings. On this purely visual task, the dyslexic readers did not differ from non-impaired readers. This finding speaks against a basic visual-attentional deficit; rather it suggests that the dyslexic deficit on partial report paradigms stems from a problem in establishing a string representation which includes position and name codes.

Lallier M., & Carreiras M. (2017)

Cross-linguistic transfer in bilinguals reading in two alphabetic orthographies: The grain size accommodation hypothesis.

Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25(1), 386-401.

URL     PMID:28405906      [本文引用: 5]

Reading acquisition is one of the most complex and demanding learning processes faced by children in their first years of schooling. If reading acquisition is challenging in one language, how is it wh

Lallier, M. Acha, J. & Carreiras M. (2016).

Cross-linguistic interactions influence reading development in bilinguals: A comparison between early balanced French-Basque and Spanish-Basque bilingual children.

Developmental Science, 19(1), 76-89.

URL     PMID:25754374     

Abstract This study investigates whether orthographic consistency and transparency of languages have an impact on the development of reading strategies and reading sub-skills (i.e. phonemic awareness and visual attention span) in bilingual children. We evaluated 21 French (opaque)-Basque (transparent) bilingual children and 21 Spanish (transparent)-Basque (transparent) bilingual children at Grade 2, and 16 additional children of each group at Grade 5. All of them were assessed in their common language (i.e. Basque) on tasks measuring word and pseudoword reading, phonemic awareness and visual attention span skills. The Spanish speaking groups showed better Basque pseudoword reading and better phonemic awareness abilities than their French speaking peers, but only in the most difficult conditions of the tasks. However, on the visual attention span task, the French-Basque bilinguals showed the most efficient visual processing strategies to perform the task. Therefore, learning to read in an additional language affected differently Basque literacy skills, depending on whether this additional orthography was opaque (e.g. French) or transparent (e.g. Spanish). Moreover, we showed that the most noteworthy effects of Spanish and French orthographic transparency on Basque performance were related to the size of the phonological and visual grain used to perform the tasks. 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Liu D., Chen X ., & Chung, K. K. H. (2015).

Performance in a visual search task uniquely predicts reading abilities in third-grade Hong Kong Chinese children.

Scientific Studies of Reading, 19(4), 307-324.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

This study examined the relation between the performance in a visual search task and reading ability in 92 third-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. The visual search task, which is considered a measure of visual-spatial attention, accounted for unique variance in Chinese character reading after controlling for age, nonverbal intelligence, vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and rapid automatized naming. Visual search skill also explained unique variance in reading comprehension after further controlling for Chinese character reading. The findings of the present study underscore the importance of visual-spatial attention for Chinese reading, at both the character and text levels.

Lobier M. A., Peyrin C., Pichat C., Le B. J. F., & Valdois S . (2014).

Visual processing of multiple elements in the dyslexic brain: Evidence for a superior parietal dysfunction.

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 479.

URL     PMID:4083222      [本文引用: 2]

The visual attention (VA) span deficit hypothesis of developmental dyslexia posits that impaired multiple element processing can be responsible for poor reading outcomes. In VA span impaired dyslexic children, poor performance on letter report tasks is associated with reduced parietal activations for multiple letter processing. While this hints towards a non-specific, attention-based dysfunction, it is still unclear whether reduced parietal activity generalizes to other types of stimuli. Furthermore, putative links between reduced parietal activity and reduced ventral occipito-temporal (vOT) in dyslexia have yet to be explored. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in 12 VA span impaired dyslexic adults and 12 adult skilled readers while they carried out a categorization task on single or multiple alphanumeric or non-alphanumeric characters. While healthy readers activated parietal areas more strongly for multiple than single element processing (right-sided for alphanumeric and bilateral for non-alphanumeric), similar stronger multiple element right parietal activations were absent for dyslexic participants. Contrasts between skilled and dyslexic readers revealed significantly reduced right superior parietal lobule (SPL) activity for dyslexic readers regardless of stimuli type. Using a priori anatomically defined ROI, we showed that neural activity was reduced for dyslexic participants in both SPL and vOT bilaterally. Finally, we used multiple regressions to test whether SPL activity could predict vOT activity in each group. In the left hemisphere, SPL activity modulated vOT activity for both normal and dyslexic readers. In contrast, in the right hemisphere, SPL activity modulated vOT activity only for dyslexic readers. These results bring critical support to the visual attention interpretation of the VA Span deficit. In addition, they offer a new insight on how deficits in automatic vOT based word recognition could arise in developmental dyslexia.

Lobier M., Zoubrinetzky R., & Valdois S . (2012).

The visual attention span deficit in dyslexia is visual and not verbal.

Cortex, 48(6), 768-773.

URL     PMID:21982580      [本文引用: 1]

The visual attention (VA) span deficit hypothesis of dyslexia posits that letter string deficits are a consequence of impaired visual processing. Alternatively, some have interpreted this deficit as resulting from a visual-to-phonology code mapping impairment. This study aims to disambiguate between the two interpretations by investigating performance in a non-verbal character string visual categorization task with verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Results show that VA span ability predicts performance for the non-verbal visual processing task in normal reading children. Furthermore, VA span impaired dyslexic children are also impaired for the categorization task independently of stimuli type. This supports the hypothesis that the underlying impairment responsible for the VA span deficit is visual, not verbal.

Meng X., Lin O., Wang F., Jiang Y., & Song Y . (2014).

Reading performance is enhanced by visual texture discrimination training in Chinese-speaking children with developmental dyslexia.

PLoS One, 9(9), e108274.

[本文引用: 1]

Paulesu E., Démonet J. F., Fazio F., McCrory E., Chanoine V., Brunswick N ., et al. Frith, U. (2001).

Dyslexia: Cultural diversity and biological unity.

Science, 291 (5511), 2165-2167.

URL     PMID:11251124      [本文引用: 1]

The recognition of dyslexia as a neurodevelopmental disorder has been hampered by the belief that it is not a specific diagnostic entity because it has variable and culture-specific manifestations. In line with this belief, we found that Italian dyslexics, using a shallow orthography which facilitates reading, performed better on reading tasks than did English and French dyslexics. However, all dyslexics were equally impaired relative to their controls on reading and phonological tasks. Positron emission tomography scans during explicit and implicit reading showed the same reduced activity in a region of the left hemisphere in dyslexics from all three countries, with the maximum peak in the middle temporal gyrus and additional peaks in the inferior and superior temporal gyri and middle occipital gyrus. We conclude that there is a universal neurocognitive basis for dyslexia and that differences in reading performance among dyslexics of different countries are due to different orthographies.

Peyrin C., Démonet J. F., Guyen-Morel M. A ., Le Bas, J. F. & Valdois, S. (2011).

Superior parietal lobule dysfunction in a homogeneous group of dyslexic children with a visual attention span disorder.

Brain & Language, 118(3), 128-138.

URL     PMID:20739053      [本文引用: 2]

A visual attention (VA) span disorder has been reported in dyslexic children as potentially responsible for their poor reading outcome. The purpose of the current paper was to identify the cerebral correlates of this VA span disorder. For this purpose, 12 French dyslexic children with severe reading and VA span disorders and 12 age-matched control children were engaged in a categorisation task under fMRI. Two flanked and isolated conditions were designed which both involved multiple-element simultaneous visual processing but taxed visual attention differently. For skilled readers, flanked stimuli processing activated a large bilateral cortical network comprising the superior and inferior parietal cortex, the inferior temporal cortex, the striate and extrastriate visual cortex, the middle frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex while the less attention emanding task of isolated stimuli only activated the inferior occipito-temporal cortex bilaterally. With respect to controls, the dyslexic children showed significantly reduced activation within bilateral parietal and temporal areas during flanked processing, but no difference during the isolated condition. The neural correlates of the processes involved in attention emanding multi-element processing tasks were more specifically addressed by contrasting the flanked and the isolated conditions. This contrast elicited activation of the left precuneus/superior parietal lobule in the controls, but not in the dyslexic children. These findings provide new insights on the role of parietal regions, in particular the left superior parietal lobule, in the visual attention span and in developmental dyslexia.

Peyrin C., Lallier M., Démonet J. F., Pernet C., Baciu M., Le Bas J. F., & Valdois S . (2012).

Neural dissociation of phonological and visual attention span disorders in developmental dyslexia: FMRI evidence from two case reports.

Brain and Language. 120(3), 381-394.

URL     PMID:22285025      [本文引用: 1]

A dissociation between phonological and visual attention (VA) span disorders has been reported in dyslexic children. This study investigates whether this cognitively-based dissociation has a neurobiological counterpart through the investigation of two cases of developmental dyslexia. LL showed a phonological disorder but preserved VA span whereas FG exhibited the reverse pattern. During a phonological rhyme judgement task, LL showed decreased activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus whereas this region was activated at the level of the controls in FG. Conversely, during a visual categorization task, FG demonstrated decreased activation of the parietal lobules whereas these regions were activated in LL as in the controls. These contrasted patterns of brain activation thus mirror the cognitive disorders dissociation. These findings provide the first evidence for an association between distinct brain mechanisms and distinct cognitive deficits in developmental dyslexia, emphasizing the importance of taking into account the heterogeneity of the reading disorder.

Qian Y., &Bi H.Y . (2015).

The effect of magnocellular- based visual-motor intervention on Chinese children with developmental dyslexia.

Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1529.

URL     PMID:4593944     

Magnocellular (M) deficit theory points out that the core deficit of developmental dyslexia (DD) is the impairment in M pathway, which has been evidenced in many previous studies. Based on the M deficit, some researchers found that visual intervention focusing on M deficit improved dyslexics M function as well as reading abilities. However, the number and reliability of these training studies were limited. Therefore, the present study conducted an M-based visual-motor intervention on Chinese children with DD to investigate the relationship between M deficit and Chinese DD. Intervention programs included coherent motion detection, visual search, visual tracking, and juggling, which were related to M function. The results showed that M function and phonological awareness of training dyslexic group were improved to a normal level as age-matched normal children after intervention, while non-training dyslexics did not. It supported M deficit theory, and suggested M deficit might be the core deficit of Chinese DD.

Reilhac C., Peyrin C ., Demonet, J. F. & Valdois, S. (2013).

Role of the superior parietal lobules in letter-identity processing within strings: FMRI evidence from skilled and dyslexic readers.

Neuropsychologia, 51(4), 601-612.

URL     PMID:23270676      [本文引用: 2]

Traditionally, the ventral occipito-temporal (vOT) area, but not the superior parietal lobules (SPLs), is thought as belonging to the neural system of visual word recognition. However, some dyslexic children who exhibit a visual attention span disorder - i.e. poor multi-element parallel processing - further show reduced SPLs activation when engaged in visual multi-element categorization tasks. We investigated whether these parietal regions further contribute to letter-identity processing within strings. Adult skilled readers and dyslexic participants with a visual attention span disorder were administered a letter-string comparison task under fMRI. Dyslexic adults were less accurate than skilled readers to detect letter identity substitutions within strings. In skilled readers, letter identity differs related to enhanced activation of the left vOT. However, specific neural responses were further found in the superior and inferior parietal regions, including the SPLs bilaterally. Two brain regions that are specifically related to substituted letter detection, the left SPL and the left vOT, were less activated in dyslexic participants. These findings suggest that the left SPL, like the left vOT, may contribute to letter string processing. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Saksida A., Iannuzzi S., Bogliotti C., Chaix Y., Demonet J. F., Bricoout L., .. Ramus F . (2016).

Phonological skills, visual attention span, and visual stress in developmental dyslexia.

Developmental Psychology, 52(10), 1503-1516.

URL     PMID:27690491      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract In this study, we concurrently investigated 3 possible causes of dyslexia phonological deficit, visual stress, and a reduced visual attention span n a large population of 164 dyslexic and 118 control French children, aged between 8 and 13 years old. We found that most dyslexic children showed a phonological deficit, either in terms of response accuracy (92.1% of the sample), speed (84.8%), or both (79.3%). Deficits in visual attention span, as measured by partial report ability, affected 28.1% of dyslexic participants, all of which also showed a phonological deficit. Visual stress, as measured by subjective reports of visual discomfort, affected 5.5% of dyslexic participants, not more than controls (8.5%). Although phonological variables explained a large amount of variance in literacy skills, visual variables did not explain any additional variance. Finally, children with comorbid phonological and visual deficits did not show more severe reading disability than children with a pure phonological deficit. These results (a) confirm the importance of phonological deficits in dyslexia; (b) suggest that visual attention span may play a role, but a minor one, at least in this population; (c) do not support any involvement of visual stress in dyslexia. Among the factors that may explain some differences with previously published studies, the present sample is characterized by very stringent inclusion criteria, in terms of the severity of reading disability and in terms of exclusion of comorbidities. This may exacerbate the role of phonological deficits to the detriment of other factors playing a role in reading acquisition.

Valdois S., Bosse M. L., Ans B., Carbonnel S., Zorman M., Davvid D., & Pellat J . (2003).

Phonological and visual processing deficits can dissociate in developmental dyslexia: Evidence from two case studies.

Reading and Writing, 16(6), 541-572.

Valdois S., Peyrin C., Lassus-Sangosse D., Lallier M ., Démonet, J. F. & Kandel, S. (2014).

Dyslexia in a Frenche-Spanish bilingual girl: Behavioural and neural modulations following a visual attention span intervention.

Cortex, 53, 120-145.

URL     PMID:24508158      [本文引用: 2]

We report the case study of a French panish bilingual dyslexic girl, MP, who exhibited a severe visual attention (VA) span deficit but preserved phonological skills. Behavioural investigation showed a severe reduction of reading speed for both single items (words and pseudo-words) and texts in the two languages. However, performance was more affected in French than in Spanish. MP was administered an intensive VA span intervention programme. Pre ost intervention comparison revealed a positive effect of intervention on her VA span abilities. The intervention further transferred to reading. It primarily resulted in faster identification of the regular and irregular words in French. The effect of intervention was rather modest in Spanish that only showed a tendency for faster word reading. Text reading improved in the two languages with a stronger effect in French but pseudo-word reading did not improve in either French or Spanish. The overall results suggest that VA span intervention may primarily enhance the fast global reading procedure, with stronger effects in French than in Spanish. MP underwent two fMRI sessions to explore her brain activations before and after VA span training. Prior to the intervention, fMRI assessment showed that the striate and extrastriate visual cortices alone were activated but none of the regions typically involved in VA span. Post-training fMRI revealed increased activation of the superior and inferior parietal cortices. Comparison of pre- and post-training activations revealed significant activation increase of the superior parietal lobes (BA 7) bilaterally. Thus, we show that a specific VA span intervention not only modulates reading performance but further results in increased brain activity within the superior parietal lobes known to housing VA span abilities. Furthermore, positive effects of VA span intervention on reading suggest that the ability to process multiple visual elements simultaneously is one cause of successful reading acquisition.

van den Boer, M. Bergenr, E. & deJong P.F . (2014).

Underlying skills of oral and silent reading.

Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 128, 138-151.

URL     PMID:25173643      [本文引用: 1]

Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes.

Wang Z. K., Cheng-Lai A., Song Y., Cutting L., Jiang Y. Z., Lin O., .. Zhou X. L . (2014).

A perceptual learning deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia as revealed by visual texture discrimination training.

Dyslexia, 20(3), 280-296.

URL     PMID:24643918      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Learning to read involves discriminating between different written forms and establishing connections with phonology and semantics. This process may be partially built upon visual perceptual learning, during which the ability to process the attributes of visual stimuli progressively improves with practice. The present study investigated to what extent Chinese children with developmental dyslexia have deficits in perceptual learning by using a texture discrimination task, in which participants were asked to discriminate the orientation of target bars. Experiment l demonstrated that, when all of the participants started with the same initial stimulus-to-mask onset asynchrony (SOA) at 300090009ms, the threshold SOA, adjusted according to response accuracy for reaching 80% accuracy, did not show a decrement over 5090009days of training for children with dyslexia, whereas this threshold SOA steadily decreased over the training for the control group. Experiment 2 used an adaptive procedure to determine the threshold SOA for each participant during training. Results showed that both the group of dyslexia and the control group attained perceptual learning over the sessions in 5090009days, although the threshold SOAs were significantly higher for the group of dyslexia than for the control group; moreover, over individual participants, the threshold SOA negatively correlated with their performance in Chinese character recognition. These findings suggest that deficits in visual perceptual processing and learning might, in part, underpin difficulty in reading Chinese. Copyright 0008 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

World Health Organization . (1993).

The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders.

World Health Organization.

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Yeari M., Isser M., & Schiff R . (2017).

Do dyslexic individuals present a reduced visual attention span? Evidence from visual recognition tasks of non-verbal multi-character arrays.

Annals of Dyslexia, 67(2), 128-146

URL     PMID:27329474      [本文引用: 1]

A controversy has recently developed regarding the hypothesis that developmental dyslexia may be caused, in some cases, by a reduced visual attention span (VAS). To examine this hypothesis, independen

Zhao J., Kwok R. K. W., Liu M., Liu H., & Huang C . (2017).

Underlying skills of oral and silent reading fluency in Chinese: Perspective of visual rapid processing.

Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 2082.

URL     PMID:5222839      [本文引用: 3]

Reading fluency is a critical skill to improve the quality of our daily life and working efficiency. The majority of previous studies focused on oral reading fluency rather than silent reading fluency, which is a much more dominant reading mode that is used in middle and high school and for leisure reading. It is still unclear whether the oral and silent reading fluency involved the same underlying skills. To address this issue, the present study examined the relationship between the visual rapid processing and Chinese reading fluency in different modes. Fifty-eight undergraduate students took part in the experiment. The phantom contour paradigm and the visual 1-back task were adopted to measure the visual rapid temporal and simultaneous processing respectively. These two tasks reflected the temporal and spatial dimensions of visual rapid processing separately. We recorded the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task, as well as reaction time and accuracy in the visual 1-back task. Reading fluency was measured in both single-character and sentence levels. Fluent reading of single characters was assessed with a paper-and-pencil lexical decision task, and a sentence verification task was developed to examine reading fluency on a sentence level. The reading fluency test in each level was conducted twice (i.e., oral reading and silent reading). Reading speed and accuracy were recorded. The correlation analysis showed that the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task did not correlate with the scores of the reading fluency tests. Although, the reaction time in visual 1-back task correlated with the reading speed of both oral and silent reading fluency, the comparison of the correlation coefficients revealed a closer relationship between the visual rapid simultaneous processing and silent reading. Furthermore, the visual rapid simultaneous processing exhibited a significant contribution to reading fluency in silent mode but not in oral reading mode. These findings suggest that the underlying mechanism between oral and silent reading fluency is different at the beginning of the basic visual coding. The current results also might reveal a potential modulation of the language characteristics of Chinese on the relationship between visual rapid processing and reading fluency.

Zhao J., Liu M. L., Liu H. L., & Huang C . (2018

a). The visual attention span deficit in Chinese children with reading fluency difficulty.

Research in Developmental Disabilities, 73, 76-86.

URL     PMID:29274581      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract With reading development, some children fail to learn to read fluently. However, reading fluency difficulty (RFD) has not been fully investigated. The present study explored the underlying mechanism of RFD from the aspect of visual attention span. Fourteen Chinese children with RFD and fourteen age-matched normal readers participated. The visual 1-back task was adopted to examine visual attention span. Reaction time and accuracy were recorded, and relevant d-prime (d') scores were computed. Results showed that children with RFD exhibited lower accuracy and lower d' values than the controls did in the visual 1-back task, revealing a visual attention span deficit. Further analyses on d' values revealed that the attention distribution seemed to exhibit an inverted U-shaped pattern without lateralization for normal readers, but a W-shaped pattern with a rightward bias for children with RFD, which was discussed based on between-group variation in reading strategies. Results of the correlation analyses showed that visual attention span was associated with reading fluency at the sentence level for normal readers, but was related to reading fluency at the single-character level for children with RFD. The different patterns in correlations between groups revealed that visual attention span might be affected by the variation in reading strategies. The current findings extend previous data from alphabetic languages to Chinese, a logographic language with a particularly deep orthography, and have implications for reading-dysfluency remediation.

Zhao J., Liu M. L., Liu H. L., Huang C . (2018

b). Increased deficit of visual attention span with development in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia.

Scientific Reports, 8(1), 3153.

URL     PMID:29453430     

Abstract It has been suggested that orthographic transparency and age changes may affect the relationship between visual attention span (VAS) deficit and reading difficulty. The present study explored the developmental trend of VAS in children with developmental dyslexia (DD) in Chinese, a logographic language with a deep orthography. Fifty-seven Chinese children with DD and fifty-four age-matched normal readers participated. The visual 1-back task was adopted to examine VAS. Phonological and morphological awareness tests, and reading tests in single-character and sentence levels were used for reading skill measurements. Results showed that only high graders with dyslexia exhibited lower accuracy than the controls in the VAS task, revealing an increased VAS deficit with development in the dyslexics. Moreover, the developmental trajectory analyses demonstrated that the dyslexics seemed to exhibit an atypical but not delayed pattern in their VAS development as compared to the controls. A correlation analysis indicated that VAS was only associated with morphological awareness for dyslexic readers in high grades. Further regression analysis showed that VAS skills and morphological awareness made separate and significant contributions to single-character reading for high grader with dyslexia. These findings suggested a developmental increasing trend in the relationship between VAS skills and reading (dis)ability in Chinese.

Ziegler J. C., Pech-Georgel C., Dufau S., & Grainger J . (2010).

Rapid processing of letters, digits and symbols: What purely visual-attentional deficit in developmental dyslexia?

Developmental Science, 13(4), 8-14.

URL     PMID:20590718      [本文引用: 1]

Visual-attentional theories of dyslexia predict deficits for dyslexic children not only for the perception of letter strings but also for non-alphanumeric symbol strings. This prediction was tested in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with letters, digits, and symbols. Children with dyslexia showed significant deficits for letter and digit strings but not for symbol strings. This finding is difficult to explain for visual-attentional theories of dyslexia which postulate identical deficits for letters, digits and symbols. Moreover, dyslexics showed normal W-shaped serial position functions for letter and digit strings, which suggests that their deficit is not due to an abnormally small attentional window. Finally, the size of the deficit was identical for letters and digits, which suggests that poor letter perception is not just a consequence of the lack of reading. Together then, our results show that symbols that map onto phonological codes are impaired (i.e. letters and digits), whereas symbols that do not map onto phonological codes are not impaired. This dissociation suggests that impaired symbol-sound mapping rather than impaired visual-attentional processing is the key to understanding dyslexia.

Ziegler J.C., & Goswami U. (2005).

Reading acquisition, developmental dyslexia, and skilled reading across languages: A psycholinguistic grain size theory.

Psychological Bulletin, 131 (1), 3-29.

[本文引用: 1]

Zoubrinetzky R., Bielle F., Valdois S . (2014)

New Insights on developmental dyslexia subtypes: Heterogeneity of mixed reading profiles.

PLoS One, 9(6), e99337.

URL     PMID:24918441      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract We examined whether classifications based on reading performance are relevant to identify cognitively homogeneous subgroups of dyslexic children. Each of the 71 dyslexic participants was selected to have a mixed reading profile, i.e. poor irregular word and pseudo-word reading performance (accuracy and speed). Despite their homogeneous reading profile, the participants were found to split into four distinct cognitive subgroups, characterized by a single phonological disorder, a single visual attention span disorder, a double deficit or none of these disorders. The two subgroups characterized by single and contrasted cognitive disorders were found to exhibit a very similar reading pattern but more contrasted spelling performance (quantitative analysis). A qualitative analysis of the error types produced in reading and spelling provided some cues about the participants' underlying cognitive deficit. The overall findings disqualify subtyping based on reading profiles as a classification method to identify cognitively homogeneous subgroups of dyslexic children. They rather show an opaque relationship between the cognitive underpinnings of developmental dyslexia and their behavioral manifestations in reading and spelling. Future neuroimaging and genetic studies should take this issue into account since synthesizing over cognitively heterogeneous children would entail potential pitfalls.

Zoubrinetzky R., Collet G., Serniclaes W ., Nguyen-Morel, M. A. & Valdois, S. (2016).

Relationships between categorical perception of phonemes, phoneme awareness, and visual attention span in developmental dyslexia.

PLoS One, 11(3), e0151015.

URL     PMID:4780782      [本文引用: 2]

We tested the hypothesis that the categorical perception deficit of speech sounds in developmental dyslexia is related to phoneme awareness skills, whereas a visual attention (VA) span deficit constitutes an independent deficit. Phoneme awareness tasks, VA span tasks and categorical perception tasks of phoneme identification and discrimination using a d/t voicing continuum were administered to 63 dyslexic children and 63 control children matched on chronological age. Results showed significant differences in categorical perception between the dyslexic and control children. Significant correlations were found between categorical perception skills, phoneme awareness and reading. Although VA span correlated with reading, no significant correlations were found between either categorical perception or phoneme awareness and VA span. Mediation analyses performed on the whole dyslexic sample suggested that the effect of categorical perception on reading might be mediated by phoneme awareness. This relationship was independent of the participants VA span abilities. Two groups of dyslexic children with a single phoneme awareness or a single VA span deficit were then identified. The phonologically impaired group showed lower categorical perception skills than the control group but categorical perception was similar in the VA span impaired dyslexic and control children. The overall findings suggest that the link between categorical perception, phoneme awareness and reading is independent from VA span skills. These findings provide new insights on the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia. They suggest that phonological processes and VA span independently affect reading acquisition.

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