心理科学进展, 2019, 27(1): 160-170 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00160

研究方法

功能性近红外光谱技术在说谎研究中的应用

白学军,, 章鹏, 张琪涵, 宋璐, 杨宇

天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074

Applications of functional near-infrared spectroscopy to lying researches

BAI Xuejun,, ZHANG Peng, ZHANG Qihan, SONG Lu, YANG Yu

Academy of Psychology and Behaviour, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China

通讯作者: 白学军, E-mail: bxuejun@126.com

收稿日期: 2016-11-16   网络出版日期: 2019-01-15

基金资助: * 文化名家暨“四个一批人才”工程,国家留学基金委“建设高水平大学公派研究生”项目资助.  201708120080
天津师范大学“博士研究生学术新人”项目.  2017BSXR006

Received: 2016-11-16   Online: 2019-01-15

摘要

功能性近红外光谱技术(functional near-infrared spectroscopy, fNIRS)是近年来新兴起的一种脑成像技术, 其凭借生态效度高,成本低等优势已成为一种具有广阔前景的测谎技术.研究者使用了被动说谎和主动说谎的实验范式, 验证了fNIRS技术在说谎研究中的可行性和准确性, 揭示了其在探讨年幼儿童说谎行为和真实互动情景中自发说谎行为的神经机制中的优势.未来研究应综合运用多种指标和方法, 考察说谎行为的神经网络, 加强真实人际互动情景下自发谎言神经机制和儿童说谎认知发展神经机制的研究, 这将有助于揭示说谎的本质, 提高测谎效力.

关键词: 功能性近红外光谱技术 ; 人际互动 ; 测谎

Abstract

The Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is one of the most promising functional neuroimaging tools in recent years due to its high ecological validity, low cost, and less sensitivity to head motions. Experimental paradigms of instructed lies and spontaneous lies have been used to verify the feasibility and accuracy of fNIRS technology in previous lying researches, and provided an opportunity to explore the cognitive mechanisms involved in lying among children, and the neural mechanisms of lying in real interaction scenarios. Future researches should use multimodal methods and indexes to enhance the accuracy of lie detection, and could explore the brain networks and the neural development of lying behavior to enrich research perspectives.

Keywords: functional near-infrared spectroscopy ; interpersonal interaction ; lie detection

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本文引用格式

白学军, 章鹏, 张琪涵, 宋璐, 杨宇. (2019). 功能性近红外光谱技术在说谎研究中的应用 . 心理科学进展, 27(1), 160-170

BAI Xuejun, ZHANG Peng, ZHANG Qihan, SONG Lu, YANG Yu. (2019). Applications of functional near-infrared spectroscopy to lying researches. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(1), 160-170

1 引言

“人类是如何进行说谎和识别谎言的?” 一直以来都是心理学,认知神经科学,刑事侦查学等多个学科的研究热点(Sip et al., 2010).说谎(lying) (有时也叫欺骗, deception)是指个体在知道事实真相的情况下, 为了获得好处或者避免损失, 故意地使用言语或者非言语信息使他人产生某种错误信念的行为(张亭玉, 张雨青, 2008; 崔茜, 蒋军, 杨文静, 张庆林, 2013; Abe, 2009, 2011; Masip, Garrido, & Herrero, 2004).这种定义既包含了日常生活中的说谎行为, 也包含了互动游戏中个体使用的策略行为(胡志善, 2015), 如隐瞒,否认,伪造,吹牛,欺诈等各种不同形式的谎言类型.从上述定义可以看出, 说谎或者欺骗行为具有两个重要特征:第一, 它是一种社会性行为, 至少涉及说谎者/欺骗者和被欺骗者两个互动对象; 第二, 它是一种有意意图行为(Lisofsky, Kazzer, Heekeren, & Prehn, 2014).有些情景中, 故意说真话也是一种欺骗, 因为欺骗者使用真实的信息来传递错误的信念, 研究者(Ding, Sai, Fu, Liu, & Lee, 2014; Volz, Vogeley, Tittgemeyer, von Cramon, & Sutter, 2015)把这种类型的谎言称之为高级欺骗(sophisticated deception)或者二级欺骗(second- order verbal deception), 这种说谎方式是人际互动中常用的策略(Carrión, Keenan, & Sebanz, 2010; Sip et al., 2010).鉴于, 国内外研究者一般把“说谎”和“欺骗”等同于说谎进行研究(张亭玉, 张雨青, 2008), 因此, 本文也统一使用“说谎”一词, 但如果后文中用“欺骗”更确切, 我们也会使用“欺骗”一词.

在人类日常生活中, 说谎是普遍存在的一种现象.研究发现, 人类说谎开始于幼儿期(Evans & Lee, 2013).一项调查显示, 一个人每天至少说1~2次谎(DePaulo, Kashy, Kirkendol, Wyer, & Epstein, 1996).其中, 一些具有自私自利和反社会性质的谎言会给个人或者社会带来严重的损失和危害(崔茜 等, 2013; 董珊珊, 陈飞燕, 何宏建, 2013).因此, 及时准确地识别谎言即“测谎(lie detection)”, 对于个体的发展和社会的稳定具有重要的意义(梁静 等, 2014; Farah, Hutchinson, Phelps, & Wagner, 2014).但人类自身识别谎言的能力不足(Blandón-Gitlin, Fenn, Masip, & Yoo, 2014; Bond Jr, & DePaulo, 2008).因此, 研究者一直都在努力地寻找有效的测谎方法.早期研究者主要研究说谎时的表情,声音以及肢体动作等外在行为表现, 后来开始探讨心跳,血压,皮肤电等生理指标(Farah et al., 2014).随着认知神经科学的兴起, 研究者开始采用事件相关电位(Event Related Potential, ERP)和功能核磁共振成像(functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, fMRI)等技术研究说谎的神经机制, 并在此基础上发明了脑成像测谎仪技术.脑成像测谎技术的开发和应用让人们对大脑是如何进行说谎的有了深入的认识, 使得测谎技术有了科学的依据.然而, 由于传统脑成像技术本身存在着很多的缺陷, 如生态效度不高, 导致无法达到理想的测谎效果; 测谎成本高, 导致无法开展大规模测谎研究, 也不利于把实验室的研究成果推广到应用中.这就促使人们寻找新的测谎技术(董珊珊 等, 2013).

功能性近红外光谱技术(functional Near- Infrared Spectroscopy, fNIRS)的兴起, 为说谎研究提供了一个新的契机.这种技术主要是利用脑组织中的氧合血红蛋白(oxyhemoglobin)和脱氧血红蛋白(deoxyhemoglobin)对600~900 nm不同波长的近红外光吸收率的差异特性, 通过测定透过脑皮层漫射光的强度, 然后通过朗伯比尔定律(Beer-Lambert Law)量化方程, 计算出光衰减的密度来推测氧合血红蛋白和脱氧血红蛋白的浓度相对变化, 进而间接来推测大脑的神经活动(刘宝根, 周兢, 李菲菲, 2011; Niioka et al., 2018; Scholkmann et al., 2014).与fMRI和ERP等技术相比, fNIRS具有安全性高,成本低,噪音小,可移动,兼容性好以及对被试身体活动限制性相对较小等优势(刘宝根 等, 2011; Ferrari & Quaresima, 2012), 这些优势将有利于进一步将研究成果推广到实践应用.同时, fNIRS在说谎研究中具有独特的优势:第一, 它可以在相对真实,自然的情景下检测大脑皮层血氧信号活动的变化情况, 在方法学上, 弥补了fMRI技术生态效度不足的问题.同时, fNIRS可以在真实的人际互动情景中同时检测互动双方的脑活动(叶佩霞, 朱睿达, 唐红红, 买晓琴, 刘超, 2017; Scholkmann, Holper, Wolf, & Wolf, 2013), 可以让研究者更好地理解社会互动过程中自发说谎心理过程的脑机制(刘佩龙, 2015; Zhang, Liu, Pelowski, & Yu, 2017); 第二, fNIRS可以在较长一段时间内对被试进行多次重复测量, 适合用于开展长期的追踪研究(刘涛, 刘星辰, 2017; Boas, Elwell, Ferrari, & Taga, 2014), 可以用来考察儿童说谎时大脑活动的特点及其是怎样随着大脑的发展而变化的; 第三, fNIRS能同时提供氧合血红蛋白(oxyhemoglobin, O2Hb),脱氧血红蛋白(deoxyhemoglobin, HHb)以及总血红蛋白(total hemoglobin, tHb; tHb = O2Hb + HHb)三种指标(Scholkmann et al., 2014), 提高谎言识别的准确性.但是, 另一方面, fNIRS的成像原理决定其也有一定局限性, 例如, 其时间分辨率要比ERP差, 空间分辨率不如fMRI, 只能检测大脑浅皮层2~3 cm处的血氧浓度的相对变化情况(刘宝根 等, 2011; 刘涛, 刘星辰, 2017).不过, fMRI研究已经证实说谎行为涉及一些与执行功能,心理理论等相关的脑区, 如大脑前额叶皮层和颞顶联合区等脑区均位于大脑浅皮层处(见元分析: Christ, Van Essen, Watson, Brubaker, & McDermott, 2009; Lisofsky et al., 2014), 可以很好地被fNIRS检测到(Ding et al., 2014).因此, fNIRS是一种适合研究说谎行为脑活动规律的有效工具.

本文对以往采用fNIRS进行说谎研究的实验范式和现状加以梳理, 并分析当前fNIRS在说谎研究中存在的问题和不足, 指出今后的研究方向.

2 应用fNIRS研究说谎的范式

本文借鉴梁静等人(2014)对说谎研究范式的分类方法, 依据说谎的自主性将fNIRS研究中使用的范式分为被动说谎范式和主动说谎范式两类.

2.1 被动说谎范式

被动说谎范式是指被试按主试的要求或者根据实验中的提示线索说谎或者说真话的实验范式(梁静 等, 2014).有时也被称为指导性说谎(instructed lies) (Yin, Reuter, & Weber, 2016).fNIRS研究中主要使用的被动说谎范式包括犯罪知识测试范式(guilt knowledge test, GKI)和假装失忆范式(feigning memory impairment).

2.1.1 犯罪知识测试范式

犯罪知识测试范式, 是测谎研究中最经典的范式, 被认为是在实验室研究中测谎的“黄金标准” (Ben-Shakhar & Elaad, 2003).目前, GKI测谎研究主要有模拟犯罪测试(陈昊, 2013;周小梅, 2013; Bhutta, Hong, Kim, & Hong, 2015; Hu, Hong, & Ge, 2012; Sai, Zhou, Ding, Fu, & Sanget, 2014; Niioka, et al., 2018; Tian, Sharma, Kozel, & Liu, 2009; Trinh, Khoa, & Van Toi, 2013; Vega et al., 2016),卡片测试(Bhutta, Hong, Naseer, & Khan, 2014; Izzetoglu et al., 2003; Nghia et al.,2013),个人真实信息测试(Li et al., 2015; Lin, Sai, & Yuan, 2018)三种具体的研究方法(傅根跃, 马艳, 丁晓攀, 2008).

模拟犯罪测试一般将被试分为犯罪组(guilty group)和无辜组(innocent group).实验分为模拟犯罪和犯罪知识测谎两个阶段(Sai et al., 2014).模拟犯罪阶段让犯罪组的被试进行模拟偷窃犯罪(如, 从一个红色的盒子里偷走一枚戒指).在犯罪知识测试阶段, 研究者会询问被试一系列直接与犯罪信息相关的项目和与犯罪信息无关的项目(周小梅, 2013; Niioka et al., 2018; Sai et al., 2014).对犯罪组被试而言, 对犯罪相关信息做“否”的回答就是说谎.

卡片测试范式一般要求被试抽取一张扑克牌, 并让其记住这张扑克牌卡片上的信息, 然后随机给被试呈现一系列有关不同花色的扑克牌的问题(如, 当被试抽取的花色为黑桃5时, 询问被试“你有黑桃5这张牌吗?你有红桃2这张牌吗?这张是红桃5吗”), 被试否认自己抽取的那张牌的正确信息就是说谎(Bhutta et al., 2014).

个人真实信息测试中, 一般实验前事先收集被试的个人真实信息, 然后给被试呈现一系列测试项目, 这些项目一般包含被试个人真实信息的关键项目(如名字, 出生日期)和其他一些同类的中性控制项目(如其他人的名字, 出生日期).同样对被试而言, 否认个人真实信息就是说谎(傅根跃 等, 2008; Lin et al., 2018).

模拟犯罪测试,卡片测试,个人真实信息测试三种范式的实质是隐瞒信息, 故犯罪知识测试范式又叫隐瞒信息测试范式(Concealed Information Test, CIT) (Farah et al., 2014).模拟犯罪测试中有些研究者直接利用犯罪组被试和无辜组被试在隐瞒犯罪信息相关项目时神经活动的差异来区分无辜组和犯罪组被试(Niioka et al., 2018).还有些研究者, 以犯罪组被试对犯罪信息和犯罪无关信息存在不同认知, 而无辜组对两类信息的认知相同为依据, 利用犯罪信息和犯罪无关信息诱发的神经信号反应的差异作为指标来区分无辜者和犯罪者(崔茜 等, 2013; 周小梅, 2013; Sai et al., 2014).与情景模拟犯罪测试范式不同的是, 卡片测试和个人真实信息测试两种范式只有一组被试, 研究者通过比较被试诚实做答和故意错误时诱发的大脑激活模式的差异来探讨说谎的神经机制, 故有时也将这两种范式称为差异性欺骗范式(Differentiation of deception paradigm, DDP) (梁静 等, 2014).还有研究者认为卡片测试和个人真实信息测试两种范式的本质就是有意的对正确信息进行错误反应, 故将该范式称为故意错误范式(intentional false responding) (崔茜 等, 2013).

上述三种GKI范式因其易于操控,所得结果一致性较高, 被广泛地应用于fNIRS的测谎研究中.

2.1.2 假装失忆范式

假装失忆范式就是让被试有意将明明已经学过的或者看到过的东西说成没有学过或者见过, 从而表现出较差的回忆成绩, 让人相信自己记忆受损, 以避免惩罚或者获得奖励.与扑克牌卡片测试和个人真实信息测试中故意错误反应不同的是, 该范式中会告诉被试不能对所有测试项目只是简单地做出完全相反的错误反应, 因为在实际生活中这样做很容易被人识别出来, 而是要尽可能地使用策略, 不让人发现是在伪装(崔茜 等, 2013; 李放 等, 2016; Lee et al., 2005; Li et al., 2015).

该范式是通过检测被试伪装时引起的大脑神经信号的变化来考察伪装这种说谎行为的脑机制, 具有较高的生态效度, 因为伪装是人类社会生活中普遍存在的一种现象(Li et al., 2015), 然而, 人类无法控制自己伪装时大脑的活动(Lee et al., 2005).Li等人(2015)利用此范式考察了被试在期待奖励和避免惩罚两种动机条件下假装失忆时的脑机制.实验要求被试有策略地说谎, 如果能骗过测谎机器, 被机器判断为“失忆”, 就会获得一定的金钱奖励或者避免金钱惩罚.结果发现, 与控制条件相比, 在奖惩动机条件下假装失忆时引起的大脑前额叶皮层的激活水平更高, 奖励动机条件下, 被试显著激活额下回, 惩罚动机条件下显著激活额中回和额上回.对二者直接比较发现, 避免惩罚动机条件下大脑左侧额中回的激活程度大于期待奖励动机条件, 这说明避免惩罚时的说谎动机要比获得相同价值的奖励动机要强烈.

上述被动说谎范式主要反映了个体抑制真实反应,编造谎言以及执行说谎反应时的认知控制过程, 这类范式可以有效地帮助研究者探索认知控制在说谎中的作用.虽然这一认知过程确实是说谎的一个必要阶段和重要的成分, 但真实人际互动情景中的自发说谎行为还包括决策阶段和结果反馈阶段(丁晓攀, 2012; Ding et al., 2014), 涉及到奖赏预期,风险评估,情绪加工以及心理理论等心理过程(Abe, 2011; Pornpattananangkul, Zhen, & Yu, 2018; Sip, Roepstorff, McGregor, & Frith, 2008).另外被动说谎范式缺乏真实情景中说谎应有的意图性,自发性以及社会互动性等特点, 因此其生态效度受到质疑(赛李阳, 2012; Sip et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2017).同时研究还发现, 自发性说谎和被动说谎时的脑激活模式不同(Lisofsky et al., 2014; Yin et al., 2016; Zhang et al., 2016).如, Zhang等人(2016)的研究还发现, 主动说谎和被动说谎在脑网络上存在差异.与被动说谎相比, 主动说谎的脑功能网络表现出更大的聚类系数,较短的平均路径长度,更大的平均节点度等“小世界”属性.这些都说明, 要把依据实验室情景中基于被试说谎范式提取的说谎时大脑激活基本的模式推广到实际应用中, 还需要研究者进一步验证其有效性.

2.2 主动说谎范式

主动说谎范式是一种新型的测谎方法, 这种方法并不直接要求被试进行说谎或者诚实反应, 而是在实验中创设说谎机会(丁晓攀, 2012; Carrión et al., 2010; Ding, Gao, Fu, & Lee, 2013; Greene & Paxton, 2009; Yin, et al., 2016)或者在人际互动情境下创造接近生活的说谎场景(赛李阳, 2012; 刘佩龙, 2015; Ding et al., 2014; Sip et al., 2010; Volz et al., 2015; Tang et al, 2015; Zhang et al., 2017), 让被试自主选择是否说谎, 可以考察更为真实的说谎行为(崔茜 等, 2013; 梁静 等, 2014), 有时也叫自发说谎(spontaneous lying) (李放 等, 2016; Yin et al., 2016).fNIRS研究中采用的主动说谎范式主要包括简单猜硬币朝向游戏和面对面博弈游戏两种.这两种游戏的区别在于前者不涉及与他人互动, 后者涉及与他人进行博弈, 游戏结果决定双方的利益, 更符合真实生活中的说谎行为.

2.2.1 简单猜硬币朝向游戏

猜硬币朝向游戏是在游戏情景中诱发自发说谎行为的实验范式(Greene & Paxton, 2009).实验中要求被试在计算机上玩一个猜测硬币出现在屏幕左边还是右边的游戏, 被试被告知他们在实验中所获得的奖励是由自我报告中猜测结果的正确率决定.同时, 实验者让被试在猜测的时候加入特定手部动作, 并用事先隐藏好的摄像机来记录其手部动作(丁晓攀, 2012).这样做的目的是让研究者可以通过事后分析准确判断被试在每一次猜测中是否说谎, 避免了Greene和Paxton (2009)研究中可能把正确报告猜对硬币朝向的正确率概率较高的被试而误划分成不诚实组的可能性, 提高了研究结果的可靠性.同时, 研究者不仅可以比较同一个人主动说谎和主动说真话时大脑的活动特点, 还可以比较被试通过说谎获得奖励(猜错了说谎)和诚实失去奖励(猜错了说真话)以及诚实获得奖励(猜对说真话)和诚实失去奖励(猜错说真话)等不同条件之间大脑活动的异同(Ding et al., 2013), 丰富了我们对不同谎言和真话神经机制的认识.

2.2.2 面对面博弈游戏

面对面博弈游戏主要考察社会互动情境下的自发性说谎.目前, fNIRS研究中使用的面对面博弈游戏包括面对面猜硬币的博弈游戏(赛李阳, 2012; Ding et al., 2014),“吹牛”博弈游戏(刘佩龙, 2015),双人赌博游戏(Zhang et al, 2017)以及改编后的最后通牒任务(Tang et al, 2015).这些双人博弈游戏都是通过有意误导他人接受错误信息这一心理过程来考察社会互动情景中的自发说谎行为.

面对面猜硬币的博弈游戏中, 研究者让被试和一名实验助手进行面对面的猜硬币游戏来赢钱.实验中要求被试把硬币藏在一只手里, 让主试来猜测藏在哪只手, 被试可以通过说谎或者说真话来误导主试以赢得硬币, 这个实验情景中说真话也是一种有欺骗意图的行为(赛李阳, 2012; Ding et al., 2014), 因此, 还增加了一个完全真话组(要求被试每次都要诚实的告诉硬币藏在哪只手里)作为控制条件.胡志善(2015)把“猜硬币”游戏改为更容易被儿童理解的“猜糖果”游戏, 来考察真实情境中儿童说谎行为的神经机制.

面对面“吹牛”博弈游戏模拟了真实工作情境中的说谎行为.游戏中一个被试扮演“吹牛者” (劳动者)角色, 一个扮演“破牛者” (监督者)角色.这个游戏中吹牛者可以选择向破牛者诚实地报告自己的劳动成果, 也可以为了获得更多的报酬选择虚报自己的劳动成果.但当吹牛者说谎话的时候, 如果破牛者不相信, 则吹牛失败, 就会失去奖励.反之, 就会获得更多奖励(刘佩龙, 2015).

双人赌博游戏真实地模拟了生活中玩打牌游戏的情境.游戏中一个被试扮演“庄家(banker)”角色, 另外一个被试扮演“闲家(follower)”角色.每轮游戏实验开始时随机抽取两张, 分给两位玩家, 庄家可以看自己拿到牌的大小并下注, 闲家不能看自己拿到牌的大小, 只能依据庄家的下注金额来决定是否跟注, 且跟注金额不能低于庄家.如果闲家不下注, 庄家自动赢得该筹码, 本轮实验结束.如果闲家决定下注, 那么等闲家下注后翻开牌比较大小, 牌面上数字大的那方赢钱.在这个游戏中庄家角色可以虚张声势来欺骗对方.例如, 庄家拿到了大牌, 故意表现出自己拿到的是小牌, 让闲家进行投注, 使自己获得更多利益.同样, 如果庄家拿到了小的牌时故意表现出自己拿到了大牌的样子, 让闲家放弃投注, 庄家便成功地骗过了闲家角色避免了损失(Zhang et al., 2017).

改编后的最后通牒任务是Tang等人(2015)在经典的最后通牒范式的基础上, 不让接受者知道分配金钱的总数, 这样分配者可以选择告诉接受者真实分配金额数, 也可以选择告诉接受者虚假的金额数让自己获得利益.这样就可以通过被试报告分钱金额数来考察被试是否会为了自己获得利益虚报分钱金额来主动欺骗接受者.

上述面对面博弈游戏的实验情境模拟了真实社会生活情境的多种说谎情景, 实验中欺骗者和被欺骗者之间具有实时的互动和交流, 双方可以利用对方的言语信息和非言语信息进行判断, 充分体现了说谎的社会互动性的本质特征.同时研究者借鉴神经经济学领域的研究思路, 让实验中的每轮决策将影响双方最终能得到多少报酬, 这样能增强被试的说谎动机, 诱发出被试更强的情绪体验, 使实验结果具有较高的生态效度(董珊珊 等, 2013; 刘佩龙, 2015).这些实验范式为研究者在探索真实互动生活情境中的说谎行为的神经机制提供了行之有效的方法.

3 应用fNIRS研究说谎的进展

和fMRI研究一样(Abe, 2009), 根据研究目的, 可以将目前说谎行为的fNIRS研究分为两个方向:第一, 研究说谎的认知神经机制, 即考察说谎与诚实反应脑激活模式的异同(胡志善, 2015; 刘佩龙, 2015; 赛李阳, 2012; Ding et al., 2013, 2014; Tang et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2017); 第二, 研究fNIRS测谎技术的准确性, 即利用说谎所诱发的神经信号作为测谎指标, 结合特定的统计方法, 在个体水平上进行鉴别分析(Bhutta et al., 2015; Hu et al., 2012; Sai et al., 2014; Vega et al., 2016).

3.1 说谎的认知神经机制

fMRI技术被认为是脑功能测量的“黄金标准”, 最初使用fNIRS技术开展的说谎研究是在先前fMRI的说谎研究基础上进行的, 其目的是证实用fNIRS研究说谎行为神经机制的可靠性.Izzetoglu等人(2003)首次将fNIRS技术引入到测谎研究中, 结果发现说谎引起了被试大脑前额叶皮层有更大程度的激活.这说明基于fNIRS信号可以正确区分说谎和诚实的反应, 是一种可以用来研究说谎神经机制的有效工具.后续很多研究者利用fNIRS, 结合多种的经典测谎范式发现了额上回(superior frontal gyrus),额中回(middle frontal gyrus),额下回(inferior frontal gyrus)以前运动区皮层(the premotor cortex)和额眶回(orbitofrontal area)等大脑前额叶皮层相关的脑区在说谎行为中所起的作用(胡志善, 2015; 刘佩龙, 2015; 赛李阳, 2012; 李放等, 2016; Ding et al., 2013, 2014; Li et al., 2015, 2018; Niioka et al., 2018; Tian et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2016).还有研究发现, 人际互动情景中的自发说谎会显著激活颞上沟(superior temporal sulcus, STS)和颞顶联合区(temporo- parietal junction, TPJ) (Tang et al., 2015; Zhang et al, 2017).这些结果与已有fMRI元分析的研究结果基本一致(Christ et al., 2008; Lisofsky et al., 2014) .同时再次证明, 诚实反应是“基线式反应”, 而说谎反应则是需要消耗更多认知资源的“任务反应” (Mameli et al., 2017; Spence et al., 2004), 包括抑制诚实反应,编造谎言,进行说谎反应,监控自己的行为并推测他人的想法等复杂的认知过程(Abe, 2011; Mameli et al., 2017).还有研究还发现, 自发说谎行为除了需要执行控制相关的脑区参与之外, 还包含奖赏机制和自我评价等认知过程(丁晓攀, 2012; 刘佩龙, 2015; Ding et al., 2013, 2014), 如, 欺骗成功时比欺骗失败时大脑右侧额上回(BA8/10)和左侧额中回(BA9/10)等与奖赏机制有关的脑区激活程度要大, 通过诚实获得奖励(猜对了说真话)比通过不诚实获得奖励(猜错了说谎)时右侧额中回(BA8/9)这个与自我评价有关的脑区的激活水平要高(丁晓攀, 2012).总之, 在过去15年里, 研究者通过使用fNIRS进行了大量的研究, 充分证实了fNIRS在测谎研究中的可靠性.

同时, 由于儿童的自控能力相对较差, 以及传统脑成像技术的局限性(如, fMRI和ERP对被试头动敏感, 限制被试的身体活动) (邹雨晨, 李燕芳, 丁颖, 2015; Moriguchi & Hiraki, 2013), 目前绝大多数脑成像的测谎研究多采用被动说谎范式, 在实验情景中关注成人说谎行为的神经机制.对于低龄儿童以及在真实的人际互动情景中说谎行为的脑机制还缺乏了解.fNIRS凭借其具有安全无创和便携, 以及对被试头动相对不敏感, 减少了对被试身体活动限制等独特的优势, 使它非常适合对年幼儿童说谎行为和真实互动情景中自发说谎行为的神经机制进行研究.

3.1.1 儿童说谎的认知神经机制

说谎是儿童期的一个常见现象(Evans & Lee, 2013).然而由于传统脑成像技术的限制, 之前的研究只是从行为的层面探讨儿童说谎行为的产生及其发展特点, 很少有研究考察说谎行为的发展认知神经机制.fNIRS的出现为研究者考察说谎行为的认知发展神经机制提供了一个新的工具, 尤其为研究者揭开儿童早期说谎行为的神经机制之谜提供了契机.

目前研究者已经利用fNIRS对头动不敏感的优势来考察说谎行为的发展神经机制(丁晓攀, 2012; 胡志善, 2015; Ding, Wu, Liu, Fu, & Lee, 2017).丁晓攀(2012)以7~12岁儿童为被试, 以猜硬币朝向游戏考察儿童的主动说谎行为的神经机制.结果发现, 与诚实反应(猜错说真话)相比, 儿童说谎(猜错说假话)时显著激活左侧额中回和右侧额上回; 诚实获得奖励时(猜对了说真话)比诚实时失去奖励(猜错了说真话)时大脑左侧额上回的激活程度要高.这些结果与以成人为被试, 在相同范式下得到的结果基本类似(丁晓攀, 2012; Ding et al., 2013), 说明和成人一样, 执行功能和奖赏机制也在儿童说谎行为中发挥重要作用.与成人被试研究结果不一致的是, 通过诚实获得奖励(猜对了说真话)和通过说谎获得奖励(猜错了说谎)时大脑激活水平无显著差异.研究者认为, 可能是因为7~12岁儿童自我的评价水平发展得还不成熟, 他们还不能够正确地评价“诚实获得”和“说谎获得”奖励二者之间的区别, 所以导致儿童猜对了说真话与猜错了说谎两种条件下神经信号变化没有像成人被试一样出现差异(丁晓攀, 2012).胡志善(2015)以4~6岁(幼儿园小,中,大班)儿童和成人为被试, 采用“猜糖果”游戏.结果也发现, 儿童和成人说谎时脑激活模式不同, 儿童说谎者时只激活前运动区皮层.而成人的却激活了大脑前额叶皮层和颞顶联合区.Ding等人(2017)还考察了7~12岁儿童说谎时的脑网络特征, 结果发现, 儿童说谎时脑网络的全局和局部效率都降低.这说明, 说谎引起了儿童脑网络之间连接的改变, 这项研究从脑功能连接角度揭示了儿童说谎的神经机制.

这些研究弥补了以往关于儿童说谎神经机制的不足, 但目前的研究才刚刚起步, 未来需要更多的研究来探讨说谎行为是怎样随着大脑的发育而发展的, 为“儿童说谎行为是如何产生的”这一科学问题提供更多的实验证据, 这对于我们深入理解说谎行为产生的本质有着非常重要的作用.

3.1.2 人际互动情景中说谎的神经机制

现实生活中, 说谎行为都是发生在复杂的人际互动情境中, 涉及说谎者和被欺骗者, 互动双方是相互影响的.为了考察人际互动过程中说谎行为的神经机制, 研究者有必要在人际交互情景中同时测量说谎者和被欺骗者双方的脑活动.然而, 由于传统技术的限制, 绝大多数脑成像研究关注的均为单个被试在被动说谎时的脑机制, 或在“伪交互”的情境下(给被试呈现互动对象的照片或者实验助手充当另外一个互动对象)记录说谎者的脑活动(Lisofsky et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2017).因此, 还不清楚在真实的社会环境中研究说谎者与被欺骗者进行互动时的脑活动的信息是怎样传递的.在日益强调说谎研究生态效度的趋势下, 如何实现测谎实验情景的真实性(梁静, 颜文靖, 陈文锋, 傅小兰, 2016; Sip et al., 2010), 研究发生在真实人际互动情景中的自发说谎行为以及说谎者和被欺骗者脑间信息的传递过程, 是目前研究者面临的问题.fNIRS的出现为解决这一问题提供了机遇.fNIRS不仅可以记录被试在真实,自然的情境下记录被试说谎时大脑神经活动的变化情况, 而且还可以同时测量说谎者和被欺骗者的脑活动.

Tang等人(2015)和Zhang等人(2017)利用近红外超扫描技术和面对面博弈游戏考察了说谎的行为背后的神经机制.Tang等人(2015)结果发现, 面对面情景中, 两个被试大脑右侧颞顶联合区同步性越高, 个体就越诚实, 这说明, 个体的说谎行为与个体间意图分享成正相关.Zhang等人(2017)的结果发现, 与诚实相比, 说谎时大脑颞顶联合区的激活水平增强.对脑活动的同步性分析发现, 颞上沟在说谎时同步性增强, 尤其是在两个女性被试之间.这两项研究中, 颞顶联合区和颞上沟的脑活动同步性增强, 可能是因为面对面人际互动时欺骗者和被欺骗者会利用非言语线索来推断对方的意图, 对于欺骗者而言, 他会推测被欺骗者是否相信自己的话, 被欺骗者会通过非言语线索来推测欺骗者是否说谎.

这两项研究, 克服了传统脑成像技术在“伪交互”的情境下研究说谎行为神经机制的不足, 提高了研究的生态效度.再次证明, 说谎行为的社会性, 决定了说谎在人际互动的情境下发生, 必然包含心理理论这个社会认知过程(Lisofsky et al., 2014).这些研究成果为Sip等人(2008)根据人际交互情境下的说谎提出说谎的认知神经机制理论提供了实验证据.

另外一方面, 说谎是一种有意意图行为(Lisofsky et al., 2014).人际互动情景, 故意说真话也是一种欺骗, 因为欺骗者使用真实的信息来传递错误的信念.那么在一个可以产生说真话欺骗或者说谎话欺骗的社会博弈情境中, 大脑是如何加工这两种谎言的?个体如何评价不同说谎策略所导致的结果?赛李阳(2012)和Ding等人(2014)采用fNIRS技术和面对面猜硬币的博弈游戏的研究发现, 与控制组完全真话条件相比, 实验条件中被试通过真话来欺骗对方时也会显著激活大脑前额叶皮层(右侧额上回, BA6).证明了意图在说谎中的作用.Ding等人(2014)的研究还发现, 在反应阶段, 说假话进行欺骗时右侧额中回皮层(BA46)激活程度高于说真话进行欺骗.研究者认为, 虽然通过说真话欺骗和说假话欺骗都是说谎行为, 但与说真话欺骗相比, 说假话欺骗时需要编造谎言, 因此需要更多的认知控制资源.而胡志善(2015)的研究发现, 说真话进行欺骗时大脑前额叶皮层激活程度高于说假话进行欺骗, 研究者认为通过说真话来欺骗对手比说假话进行欺骗需要更多认知资源.在反馈阶段, 两项研究都发现说真话欺骗条件下大脑前额叶皮层(右侧额上回, BA10)的激活水平显著大于说谎话欺骗条件.这说明, 被试更在乎通过说真话欺骗时的结果, 尤其是欺骗失败时.

上述两项研究说明, 通过说真话欺骗与完全真话存在不同的神经基础, 这启示我们今后通过被试大脑激活模式来分辨信息发出者的意图, 为鉴别人际互动情景中被试到底是说真话还是想通过说真话来进行欺骗提供了科学依据, 研究弥补了行为数据的不足.但关于通过说真话欺骗和说假话欺骗的神经基础的研究结果不一致, 后续研究需进一步探讨二者的区别, 为今后识别两种不同类型的谎言提供科学依据.

3.2 测谎的准确性

上述研究表明, 认知负荷与说谎存在着十分紧密的联系, 基于认知负荷进行测谎研究能为测谎提供更为科学的理论依据(Blandón-Gitlin et al., 2014).目前的fNIRS的测谎研究和fMRI测谎研究一样, 研究者主要使用支持向量机(support vector machines, SVM)和线性判别(linear discriminant analysis, LDA)等算法从fNIRS信号中提取GKI这种经典的测谎范式中说谎和说真话时的执行功能的信号特征, 对说谎反应和说真话反应进行区分(周小梅, 2013; Bhutta et al., 2015; Hu et al., 2012; Li et al., 2018; Niioka et al., 2018; Sai et al., 2014; Tian et al., 2008, 2009; Vega et al., 2016).Bhutta等人(2013)对用SVM和LDA做分类器区分说谎正确率进行了比较, 结果发现, 用SVM的正确率(87.33%)高于LDA (78.34 %).但这项研究的样本量小, 其可靠性还需进一步验证, 今后研究者可以比较不同方法在鉴别谎言的有效性.

有研究还发现, 结合多种指标可以提高谎言识别的准确率.如, Tian, Dobbs, Carmen, Kozel和Liu (2008)将氧合血红蛋白,脱氧血红蛋白,总血红蛋白三种指标结合起来, 正确区分率可达到91%; Bhutta等人(2015)将皮肤电和fNIRS的结果进行联合分析发现, 正确识别谎言的准确性从单个方法的71.6% (fNIRS)和74.5% (皮肤电)提高到86.5%.Lin等人(2018)将ERP和fNIRS的信号结合起来分析发现, 正确识别谎言的准确性从单个方法的85% (ERP)和84% (fNIRS)提高到94%.周小梅(2013)用反应时,皮肤电,fNIRS信号三种指标进行测谎, 正确识别谎言的准确性高达92%.这项研究将行为,生理和认知神经三者结合起来, 考察同一说谎过程, 弥补了单一指标的不可靠性, 提高了测谎的准确性, 但目前在个体水平上, 鉴别说谎的正确率还不够理想.这可能是因为说谎是一个复杂的认知活动, 涉及到很多相关的神经活动, 而在目前fNIRS的测谎研究中, 大多采用大脑前额叶皮层这个执行控制的核心脑区的激活模式这个单一成分作为指标来区分说谎与诚实反应.

还有研究发现, 相比少量说谎的被试, 大量说谎的被试的认知负担会变得更小, 也就是说, 被试说谎越多, 说谎会变得越容易.对于经常说谎的人不需要太多努力来抑制真相, 左侧额中回的激活也减少.因此, 利用执行控制相关脑区的激活为指标只能鉴别出少量说谎的被试(准确率为83.3%), 鉴别说谎多的被试的正确率处于随机水平(准确率为48.4%) (Li et al., 2018).因此, 后续应用fNIRS进行测谎研究时应考虑寻找新的测谎指标, 同时应考虑说谎行为个体差异.

4 总结与展望

综上所述, 目前应用fNIRS在说谎行为的神经机制和谎言识别方面的研究结果, 与fMRI的研究结果保持高度一致, 很好地证明了fNIRS在谎言识别中的可靠性和准确性.更重要的是, 研究者利用这种技术的优势为我们揭开了在儿童说谎行为的神经机制和真实情景中人际互动中的欺骗行为的神经机制之谜, 让我们对大脑是如何进行说谎的有了更进一步的认识.它现在已成为一种具有广阔前景的测谎技术(lie detector).然而, 目前应用fNIRS在谎言领域的研究还处于起步阶段, 已有研究还存在一些不足.如, 测量指标的效度, 研究手段单一, 大多只关注大脑前额叶皮层缺乏对与说谎脑区的联系性与整体性的探讨, 今后研究者应该充分考虑fNIRS的优势和不足, 做到扬长避短.未来可以在以下五个方面进一步开展研究.

第一, 要综合考虑氧合血红蛋白,脱氧血红蛋白以及总血红蛋白三种指标.Tian等人(2008)的研究发现综合三种指标可以有效提高辨别谎言的正确率.因此, 后续研究应该同时考虑三种指标, 结合线性判别,多变量模式分析等新的机器学习算法进行个体水平鉴别, 提高研究的信度和测谎的准确性.此外, fNIRS有相对较高的时间分辨率和空间分辨率, 今后研究者应该充分利用这种优势, 同时分析说谎时的时间和空间信息, 更加全面地考察说谎时的脑活动特征(Ding et. al, 2013, 2014).

第二, 结合多种技术, 运用多模态脑成像方法系统全面地考察说谎行为的神经机制.已有研究已经证实, 有效的测谎可能需要多种技术结合, 同时对说谎产生的行为,生理指标以及脑功能的变化进行测量, 可以提高鉴别的准确性(周小梅, 2013; Bhutta et al., 2015; Lin et al., 2018 ).同时目前最大的局限就是其探测深度, 无法检测到与说谎有关的其他脑区, 如脑岛,杏仁核,伏隔核等与奖赏预期和情绪加工的脑区.今后在用fNIRS研究测谎和说谎时, 应考虑结合fMRI,ERP等其他技术进行测量, 有效实现脑成像在时间和空间分辨率上的优势互补, 使研究结果更加准确和可靠.同时, 运用经颅直流电刺激(transcranial direct currentstimulation, tDCS)和经颅磁刺激方法(transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS)等神经调控技术揭示哪些脑区直接参与控制个体的说谎行为(Maréchal, Cohn, Ugazio, & Ruff, 2017; Noguchi & Oizumi, 2018).通过综合多种方法获得的多模态数据可以为帮助我们深入理解大脑说谎的神经机制提供多角度的证据.

第三, 考察说谎行为的神经网络.说谎行为是一种复杂的认知活动过程, 说谎时需要多个功能区域的共同参与(丁晓攀, 2012; Ding et al., 2017).通过分析被试在说谎和不说谎状态下的被试脑网络特征之间的差异, 可以让我们更好理解说谎时不同大脑区域之间是否存在联系以及如何相互传递信息, 这可以使我们更好认识大脑是如何进行说谎的本质(董珊珊 等, 2013; 蒋伟雄, 刘华生, 廖坚, 李勇帆, 王维, 2015; Abe, 2011).

第四, 进一步探讨真实人际互动情景中自发说谎的神经机制.已有研究发现, 目前实验室情景下的简单欺骗反应与人际交互情境下的自发欺骗行为有所不同(Lisofsky et al., 2014), 基于实验室情景进行的测谎研究缺乏生态效度(Sip et al., 2008).随着无线遥感fNIRS技术的成熟和设备微型化的发展, 今后研究者可以考察日常情景中说谎行为的神经机制, 通过进一步加强真实情境下说谎行为神经机制的研究, 不断提高生态效度, 提高个体诊断的准确率, 有望于把实验室测谎技术推广到司法应用.同时, 真实的说谎行为离不开人际互动, 未来研究要注重人际互动在说谎行为中的重要性.研究者应充分利用fNIRS的优势, 进一步使用近红外超扫描技术深入考察人际交互作用下说谎和谎言识别神经机制的异同, 还可以探讨集体腐败或者协作欺骗(collaborative dishonesty)形成的神经机制(Weisel, & Shalvi, 2015).这将会利于提高研究的生态效度, 丰富我们对人际互动情景中说谎行为神经机制的认识(Abe, 2011).

第五, 对儿童早期说谎行为神经机制进行追踪研究.目前关于儿童说谎行为的神经机制的研究才刚刚起步, 而且已有的fNIRS研究大多采用横断设计的范式, 这种实验设计所获得的脑成像数据和结果都是静态的(邹雨晨 等, 2015).而借助fNIRS技术可以在较长一段时间内重复测量的优势, 对低龄儿童说谎的神经机制进行追踪研究(Moriguchi & Hiraki, 2013), 考察儿童说谎行为神经机制发展性变化的动态特征, 有助于回答说谎行为与相应神经基础的因果关系.因此, 研究者应进一步从个体发展的角度考察说谎行为是如何随着大脑的发育而发展的, 增强我们对说谎行为是怎么产生的这一科学问题的认识(Lisofsky et al., 2014).

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心理发展与教育, 31(6), 761-768.

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儿童早期阶段是各项认知能力和脑发育的关键阶段。近红外光谱成像技术(f NIRS)凭借其非侵害性、便捷操作以及对头动容忍度高等特点,在早期阶段儿童认知发展与脑发育的研究中得到越来越多的应用。从早期高级认知发展与前额叶功能的单侧优势变化、对应前额叶脑区逐渐专门化、发展关键期与前额叶功能的可塑性,以及前额叶功能异常与早期发展障碍的关系等四个方面对基于f NIRS技术开展的早期认知发展与脑发育的研究进展进行了梳理和分析。指出未来研究应探究儿童早期认知能力发展和脑发育的轨迹及关键期,探讨有发展性障碍家族风险儿童的早期大脑发育特点,为早期教育和发展障碍的早期预警提供依据。

Abe N. . (2009).

The neurobiology of deception: Evidence from neuroimaging and loss-of-function studies.

Current Opinion in Neurology, 22(6), 594-600.

URL     PMID:19786872      [本文引用: 6]

Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Visualization of how the brain generates a lie is now possible because of recent conceptual and technical advances in functional neuroimaging; this has led to a rapid increase in studies related to the cognitive neuroscience of deception. The present review summarizes recent work on the neural substrates that underlie human deceptive behavior. RECENT FINDINGS: Functional neuroimaging studies in healthy individuals have revealed that the prefrontal cortex plays a predominant role in deception. In addition, recent evidence obtained from loss-of-function studies with neuropsychological investigation and transcranial direct current stimulation has demonstrated the functional contribution of the prefrontal cortex to deception. Other research into the relationship between deception and the brain has focused on the potential use of functional MRI for lie detection, neural correlates of pathological lying, and brain mechanisms underlying inference of deceit by others. SUMMARY: Converging evidence from multiple sources suggests that the prefrontal cortex organizes the processes of inhibiting true responses and making deceptive responses. The neural mechanisms underlying various other aspects of deception are also gradually being delineated, although the findings are diverse, and further study is needed. These studies represent an important step toward a neural explanation of complex human deceptive behavior.

Abe N. . (2011).

How the brain shapes deception an integrated review of the literature.

The Neuroscientist, 17(5)560-574.

URL     PMID:21454323      [本文引用: 1]

How do people tell a lie? One useful approach to addressing this question is to elucidate the neural substrates for deception. Recent conceptual and technical advances in functional neuroimaging have enabled exploration of the psychology of deception more precisely in terms of the specific neuroanatomical mechanisms involved. A growing body of evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex plays a key role in deception, and some researchers have recently emphasized the importance of other brain regions, such as those responsible for emotion and reward. However, it is still unclear how these regions play a role in making effective decisions to tell a lie. To provide a framework for considering this issue, the present article reviews current accomplishments in the study of the neural basis of deception. First, evolutionary and developmental perspectives are provided to better understand how and when people can make use of deception. The ensuing section introduces several findings on pathological lying and its neural correlate. Next, recent findings in the cognitive neuroscience of deception based on functional neuroimaging and loss-of-function studies are summarized, and possible neural mechanisms underlying deception are proposed. Finally, the priority areas of future neuroscience research-human honesty and dishonesty-are discussed.

Ben-Shakhar G., & Elaad E. (2003).

The validity of psychophysiological detection of information with the Guilty Knowledge Test: A meta-analytic review.

Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(1), 131-151.

URL     PMID:12675401      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The authors performed a meta-analysis based on 169 conditions, gathered from 80 laboratory studies, to estimate the validity of the Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT) with the electrodermal measure. The overall average effect size was 1.55, but there were considerable variations among studies. In particular, mock-crime studies produced the highest average effect size (2.09). Three additional moderators were identified: Motivational instructions, deceptive ("no") verbal responses, and the use of at least 5 questions were associated with enhanced validity. Finally, a set of 10 studies that best approximated applications of the GKT under optimal conditions produced an average effect size of 3.12. The authors discuss factors that might limit the generalizability of these results and recommend further research of the GKT in realistic setups.

Bhutta M.R., &Hong K.S . (2013).

Classification of fNIRS signals for deception decoding using LDA and SVM.Paper presented at the meeting of 13th International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems (ICCAS 2013)(pp. 2093-7121).

Gwangju, South Korea.

Bhutta M. R., Hong K. S., Naseer N., & Khan M. J . (2014,September).

Hemodynamic signals based lie detection using a new wireless NIRS system.

Paper presented at the meeting of 13th he Society of Instrument and Control Engineers (SICE2014)(pp. 979-984). Sapporo, Japan.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

In this paper, we have demonstrated the ability of a new multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system to detect deception in a concealed information test (CIT) paradigm. Brain signals from prefrontal cortex area of four healthy male subjects are collected using two different machines for comparison. Oxy and deoxy-hemoglobin (HbO and HbR) signals are used to define the features and then data is classified using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Results show that the difference in HbO and HbR signals during lie and truth can be detected by the new wireless NIRS system.

Bhutta M.R., Hong, M. J., Kim, Y.H. &Hong, K. S . (2015).

Single-trial lie detection using a combined fNIRS-polygraph system.

Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 709.

URL     PMID:26082733      [本文引用: 6]

Deception is a human behavior that many people experience in daily life. It involves complex neuronal activities in addition to several physiological changes in the body. A polygraph, which can measure some of the physiological responses from the body, has been widely employed in lie-detection. Many researchers, however, believe that lie detection can become more precise if the neuronal changes that occur in the process of deception can be isolated and measured. In this study, we combine both measures (i.e., physiological and neuronal changes) for enhanced lie-detection. Specifically, to investigate the deception-related hemodynamic response, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is applied at the prefrontal cortex besides a commercially available polygraph system. A mock crime scenario with a single-trial stimulus is set up as a deception protocol. The acquired data are classified into “true” and “lie” classes based on the fNIRS-based hemoglobin-concentration changes and polygraph-based physiological signal changes. Linear discriminant analysis is utilized as a classifier. The results indicate that the combined fNIRS-polygraph system delivers much higher classification accuracy than that of a singular system. This study demonstrates a plausible solution toward single-trial lie-detection by combining fNIRS and the polygraph.

Blandón-Gitlin I., Fenn E., Masip J., & Yoo A. H . (2014).

Cognitive-load approaches to detect deception: Searching for cognitive mechanisms.

Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18(9), 441-444.

URL     PMID:4309739      [本文引用: 2]

A current focus in deception research is on developing cognitive-load approaches (CLAs) to detect deception. The aim is to improve lie detection with evidence-based and ecologically valid procedures. Although these approaches show great potential, research on cognitive processes or mechanisms explaining how they operate is lacking. Potential mechanisms underlying the most popular techniques advocated for field application are highlighted. Cognitive scientists are encouraged to conduct basic research that qualifies the ‘cognitive’ in these new approaches.

Boas D.A., Elwell, C. E., Ferrari M.r, & Taga G. (2014).

Twenty years of functional near-infrared spectroscopy: Introduction for the special issue.

Neuroimage, 85, 1-5.

URL     PMID:24321364      [本文引用: 1]

Papers from four different groups were published in 1993 demonstrating the ability of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to non-invasively measure hemoglobin concentration responses to brain function in humans. This special issue commemorates the first 20 years of fNIRS research. The 9 reviews and 49 contributed papers provide a comprehensive survey of the exciting advances driving the field forward and of the myriad of applications that will benefit from fNIRS. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

BondJr C.F., &DePaulo B.M . (2008).

Individual differences in judging deception: Accuracy and bias.

Psychological Bulletin, 134(4), 477-492.

[本文引用: 1]

Carrión R. E., Keenan J. P., & Sebanz N . (2010).

A truth that’s told with bad intent: An ERP study of deception.

Cognition, 114(1), 105-110.

URL     PMID:19836013      [本文引用: 2]

Human social cognition critically relies on the ability to deceive others. However, the cognitive and neural underpinnings of deception are still poorly understood. Why does lying place increased demands on cognitive control? The present study investigated whether cognitive control processes during deception are recruited due to the need to inhibit a tendency to state the truth, or reflect deceptive intent more generally. We engaged participants in a face-to-face interaction game and examined event-related brain potentials (ERPs) while participants lied and told the truth with or without deceptive intention. The same medial frontal negative deflection (N450) occurred when participants lied and when they told the truth with deceptive intent. This suggests that the main challenge of lying is not to inhibit a tendency to state the truth. Rather, the challenge is to handle the cognitive conflict resulting from the need to keep others mental states in mind while deceiving them.

Christ S. E., Van Essen D. C., Watson J. M., Brubaker L. E., & McDermott K. B . (2009).

The contributions of prefrontal cortex and executive control to deception: Evidence from activation likelihood estimate meta- analyses.

Cerebral Cortex, 19(7), 1557-1566.

URL     PMID:18980948      [本文引用: 2]

Previous neuroimaging studies have implicated the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nearby brain regions in deception. This is consistent with the hypothesis that lying involves the executive control system. To date, the nature of the contribution of different aspects of executive control to deception, however, remains unclear. In the present study, we utilized an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) method of meta-analysis to quantitatively identify brain regions that are consistently more active for deceptive responses relative to truthful responses across past studies. We then contrasted the results with additional ALE maps generated for 3 different aspects of executive control: working memory, inhibitory control, and task switching. Deception-related regions in dorsolateral PFC and posterior parietal cortex were selectively associated with working memory. Additional deception regions in ventrolateral PFC, anterior insula, and anterior cingulate cortex were associated with multiple aspects of executive control. In contrast, deception-related regions in bilateral inferior parietal lobule were not associated with any of the 3 executive control constructs. Our findings support the notion that executive control processes, particularly working memory, and their associated neural substrates play an integral role in deception. This work provides a foundation for future research on the neurocognitive basis of deception.

DePaulo B. M., Kashy D. A., Kirkendol S. E., Wyer M. M., & Epstein J. A . (1996).

Lying in everyday life.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(5), 979-995.

[本文引用: 1]

Ding X. P., Gao X., Fu G., & Lee K . (2013).

Neural correlates of spontaneous deception: A functional near- infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study.

Neuropsychologia, 51(4), 704-712.

URL     PMID:23340482      [本文引用: 8]

Deception is commonly seen in everyday social interactions. However, most of the knowledge about the underlying neural mechanism of deception comes from studies where participants were instructed when and how to lie. To study spontaneous deception, we designed a guessing game modeled after Greene and Paxton (2009) "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(30), 12506-12511", in which lying is the only way to achieve the performance level needed to end the game. We recorded neural responses during the game using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We found that when compared to truth-telling, spontaneous deception, like instructed deception, engenders greater involvement of such prefrontal regions as the left superior frontal gyrus. We also found that the correct-truth trials produced greater neural activities in the left middle frontal gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus than the incorrect-truth trials, suggesting the involvement of the reward system. Furthermore, the present study confirmed the feasibility of using NIRS to study spontaneous deception. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ding X. P., Sai L., Fu G., Liu J., & Lee K . (2014).

Neural correlates of second-order verbal deception: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study.

Neuroimage, 87, 505-514.

URL     PMID:24161626      [本文引用: 16]

61We examined neural correlates of second-order deception using fNIRS methodology.61It activates prefrontal cortex involved in planning and goal processing.61Lying to deceive engenders more prefrontal activities than telling-truth to deceive.61Second-order deception also involves of the cortical reward system.

Ding X. P., Wu S. J., Liu J., Fu G., & Lee K . (2017).

Functional neural networks of honesty and dishonesty in children: Evidence from graph theory analysis.

Scientific Reports, 7(1), 12085.

URL     PMID:28935904      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The present study examined how different brain regions interact with each other during spontaneous honest vs. dishonest communication. More specifically, we took a complex network approach based on the graph-theory to analyze neural response data when children are spontaneously engaged in honest or dishonest acts. Fifty-nine right-handed children between 7 and 12 years of age participated in the study. They lied or told the truth out of their own volition. We found that lying decreased both the global and local efficiencies of children's functional neural network. This finding, for the first time, suggests that lying disrupts the efficiency of children's cortical network functioning. Further, it suggests that the graph theory based network analysis is a viable approach to study the neural development of deception.

Evans, A. D. & Lee K. (2013).

Emergence of lying in very young children.

Developmental Psychology, 49(10),1958-1963.

URL     PMID:23294150      [本文引用: 2]

Lying is a pervasive human behavior. Evidence to date suggests that from the age of 42 months onward, children become increasingly capable of telling lies in various social situations. However, there is limited experimental evidence regarding whether very young children will tell lies spontaneously. The present study investigated the emergence of lying in very young children. Sixty-five 2-to 3-year-olds were asked not to peek at a toy when the experimenter was not looking. The majority of children (80%) transgressed and peeked at the toy. When asked whether they had peeked at the toy, most 2-year-old peekers were honest and confessed to their peeking, but with increased age, more peekers denied peeking and thus lied. However, when asked follow-up questions that assessed their ability to maintain their initial lies, most children failed to conceal their lie by pretending to be ignorant of the toy's identity. Additionally, after controlling for age, children's executive functioning skills significantly predicted young children's tendency to lie. These findings suggest that children begin to tell lies at a very young age.

Farah M. J., Hutchinson J. B., Phelps E. A., & Wagner A. D . (2014).

Functional MRI-based lie detection: Scientific and societal challenges.

Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 15(2), 123-131.

URL     PMID:24588019      [本文引用: 5]

Functional MRI (fMRI)-based lie detection has been marketed as a tool for enhancing personnel selection, strengthening national security and protecting personal reputations, and at least three US courts have been asked to admit the results of lie detection scans as evidence during trials. How well does fMRI-based lie detection perform, and how should the courts, and society more generally, respond? Here, we address various questions — some of which are based on a meta-analysis of published studies — concerning the scientific state of the art in fMRI-based lie detection and its legal status, and discuss broader ethical and societal implications. We close with three general policy recommendations.

Ferrari M., & Quaresima V. (2012).

A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application.

Neuroimage, 63(2), 921-935.

URL     PMID:22510258      [本文引用: 1]

78 The paper celebrates the 20th anniversary of functional fNIRS. 78 Events that have shaped the present status of fNIRS are reported. 78 fNIRS methodology has undergone consistent improvements over the years. 78 The application of fNIRS in Medicine and basic research have been increasing. 78 Technological development will augment fNIRS application in adults and infants.

Greene, J.D. &Paxton, J. M . (2009).

Patterns of neural activity associated with honest and dishonest moral decisions.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(30),12506-12511.

URL     PMID:19622733      [本文引用: 2]

What makes people behave honestly when confronted with opportunities for dishonest gain? Research on the interplay between controlled and automatic processes in decision making suggests 2 hypotheses: According to the "Will" hypothesis, honesty results from the active resistance of temptation, comparable to the controlled cognitive processes that enable the delay of reward. According to the "Grace" hypothesis, honesty results from the absence of temptation, consistent with research emphasizing the determination of behavior by the presence or absence of automatic processes. To test these hypotheses, we examined neural activity in individuals confronted with opportunities for dishonest gain. Subjects undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) gained money by accurately predicting the outcomes of computerized coin-flips. In some trials, subjects recorded their predictions in advance. In other trials, subjects were rewarded based on self-reported accuracy, allowing them to gain money dishonestly by lying about the accuracy of their predictions. Many subjects behaved dishonestly, as indicated by improbable levels of "accuracy." Our findings support the Grace hypothesis. Individuals who behaved honestly exhibited no additional control-related activity (or other kind of activity) when choosing to behave honestly, as compared with a control condition in which there was no opportunity for dishonest gain. In contrast, individuals who behaved dishonestly exhibited increased activity in control-related regions of prefrontal cortex, both when choosing to behave dishonestly and on occasions when they refrained from dishonesty. Levels of activity in these regions correlated with the frequency of dishonesty in individuals.

Hu, X. S., Hong, K. S., &Ge S.S . (2012).

fNIRS-based online deception decoding.

Journal of Neural Engineering, 9(2),026012.

URL     PMID:22337819      [本文引用: 3]

Deception involves complex neural processes in the brain. Different techniques have been used to study and understand brain mechanisms during deception. Moreover, efforts have been made to develop schemes that can detect and differentiate deception and truth-telling. In this paper, a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based online brain deception decoding framework is developed. Deploying dual-wavelength fNIRS, we interrogate 16 locations in the forehead when eight able-bodied adults perform deception and truth-telling scenarios separately. By combining preprocessed oxy-and deoxy-signals, we develop subject-specific classifiers using the support vector machine. Deception and truth-telling states are classified correctly in seven out of eight subjects. A control experiment is also conducted to verify the deception-related hemodynamic response. The average classification accuracy is over 83.44% from these seven subjects. The obtained result suggests that the applicability of fNIRS as a brain imaging technique for online deception detection is very promising.

Izzetoglu K., Yurtsever G., Bozkurt A., Yazici B., Bunce S., Pourrezaei K., & Onaral B . (2003,January).

NIR spectroscopy measurements of cognitive load elicited by GKT and target categorization.

Paper presented at the meeting of 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on(pp. 2093-7121). Big Island, HI, USA.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Near infrared (NIR) is a portable, safe, affordable, non-invasive and negligibly intrusive functional optical imaging modality, which enables the measurement of the metabolic changes associated with cognitive activity. In this paper, we present the experimental procedures and data analysis of the functional near infrared (fNIR) measurements acquired from the forehead during cognitive tasks. The data is collected from subjects engaged in two standardized tasks, namely, the 'target categorization' and the 'guilty knowledge test' (GKT). In the case of target categorization, the aim is to study the changes in the blood oxygenation and volume level while the participants are experiencing decrements in vigilance, increased lapses of attention, cognitive slowing. We measured 25 minutes-long blood oxygenation and volume level changes during target responses in 11 participants performing target categorization. Data analysis results revealed that the level of oxygenation changes in missed targets is higher than the level in captured targets. The blood oxygenation and volume level changes during deceptive and truthful responses were measured in 16 participants performing the GKT and analyzed using statistical data analysis. The results of our data analysis showed that the level of oxygenation changes during 'lie' task is higher than the level during 'truth' task.

Lee T. M., Liu H. L., Chan C. C. H., Ng Y. B., Fox P. T., & Gao J. H . (2005).

Neural correlates of feigned memory impairment.

Neuroimage, 28(2), 305-313.

[本文引用: 2]

Li, F., Zhu H.r, Gao, Q. Xur, G., Li, X. Hur, Z., & He S. (2015).

Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to detect the prefrontal cortical responses to deception under different motivations.

Biomedical Optics Express, 6(9),3503-3514.

URL     PMID:4574675      [本文引用: 4]

In this study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was adopted to investigate the prefrontal cortical responses to deception under different motivations. By using a feigned memory impairment paradigm, 19 healthy adults were asked to deceive under the two different motivations: to obtain rewards and to avoid punishments. Results indicated that when deceiving for obtaining rewards, there was greater neural activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) than the control condition. When deceiving for avoiding punishments, there was greater activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) than the control condition. In addition, deceiving for avoiding punishments led to greater neural activation in the left MFG than when deceiving for obtaining rewards. Furthermore, the results showed a moderate hit rate in detecting deception under either motivation. These results demonstrated that deception with different motivations led to distinct responses in the prefrontal cortex. fNIRS could provide a useful technique for the detection of deception with strategy of feigning memory impairment under different motivations.

Li F., Zhu H., Xu J., Gao Q., Guo H., Wu S., .. He S . (2018).

Lie detection using fNIRS monitoring of inhibition-related brain regions discriminates infrequent but not frequent liars.

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12, 71.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to test whether monitoring inhibition-related brain regions is a feasible method for detecting both infrequent liars and frequent liars. Thirty-two participants were divided into two groups: the deceptive group (liars) and the non-deceptive group (ND group, innocents). All the participants were required to undergo a simulated interrogation by a computer. The participants from the deceptive group were instructed to tell a mix of lies and truths and those of the ND group were instructed always to tell the truth. Based on the number of deceptions, the participants of the deceptive group were further divided into a infrequently deceptive group (IFD group, infrequent liars) and a frequently deceptive group (FD group, frequent liars). The infrequent liars exhibited greater neural activities than the frequent liars and the innocents in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) when performing the deception detection tasks. While performing deception detection tasks, infrequent liars showed significantly greater neural activation in the left MFG than the baseline, but frequent liars and innocents did not exhibit this pattern of neural activation in any area of inhibition-related brain regions. The results of individual analysis showed an acceptable accuracy of detecting infrequent liars, but an unacceptable accuracy of detecting frequent liars. These results suggest that using fNIRS monitoring of inhibition-related brain regions is feasible for detecting infrequent liars, for whom deception may be more effortful and therefore more physiologically marked, but not frequent liars.

Lin X., Sai L ., & Yuan, Z.

[本文引用: 3]

(in press).

Detecting concealed information with fused electroencephalography and functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

Neuroscience.

[本文引用: 3]

Lisofsky N., Kazzer P., Heekeren H. R., & Prehn K . (2014).

Investigating socio-cognitive processes in deception: A quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

Neuropsychologia, 61, 113-122.

URL     PMID:24929201      [本文引用: 9]

61Deception is defined as a social interactive phenomenon.61Research to date, however, has mainly focused on executive control during deception.61We investigated the influence of the experimental protocol on the neural correlates.61Activity in social and moral cognition areas reflected deception in social interaction.

Noguchi Y., & Oizumi R. (2018).

Electric stimulation of the right temporo-parietal junction induces a task-specific effect in deceptive behaviors.

Neuroscience Research, 128, 33-39.

URL     PMID:28728912      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract How the brain generates a lie is an important and unsolved issue in neuroscience. Previous studies indicated that mentalizing, the ability to understand and manipulate the mental states of others, plays a critical role in successful deception. Accordingly, recent neuroimaging studies reported deception-related activity in the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ), a brain region closely related to the mentalizing ability. Detailed functions of rTPJ in deception, however, remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated a causal relationship between rTPJ and deception using transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Subjects received anodal tDCS to their rTPJ or V1 (control) and then performed three tasks in which they aimed to deceive another participant to get monetary rewards. In one of the three tasks, we found a significant decrease in a rate of successful deception when rTPJ was stimulated, indicating that neural enhancement of rTPJ caused poorer (not better) deceptive performances. Our results suggest that, in some tasks involving selfish (money-motivated) lying, neural processing in rTPJ does not contribute to successful deception through the metalizing ability. Rather, it would be related to the self-monitoring of morally-unacceptable behaviors (lying). The neural enhancement of rTPJ therefore increased the psychological resistance to lying, resulting in poorer deceptive performances. Copyright 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

Mameli F., Scarpazza C., Tomasini E., Ferrucci R., Ruggiero F., Sartori G., & Priori A . (2017).

The guilty brain: The utility of neuroimaging and neurostimulation studies in forensic field.

Reviews in the Neurosciences, 28(2), 161-172.

URL     PMID:28030362      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Several studies have aimed to address the natural inability of humankind to detect deception and accurately discriminate lying from truth in the legal context. To date, it has been well established that telling a lie is a complex mental activity. During deception, many functions of higher cognition are involved: the decision to lie, withholding the truth, fabricating the lie, monitoring whether the receiver believes the lie, and, if necessary, adjusting the fabricated story and maintaining a consistent lie. In the previous 15 years, increasing interest in the neuroscience of deception has resulted in new possibilities to investigate and interfere with the ability to lie directly from the brain. Cognitive psychology, as well as neuroimaging and neurostimulation studies, are increasing the possibility that neuroscience will be useful for lie detection. This paper discusses the scientific validity of the literature on neuroimaging and neurostimulation regarding lie detection to understand whether scientific findings in this field have a role in the forensic setting. We considered how lie detection technology may contribute to addressing the detection of deception in the courtroom and discussed the conditions and limits in which these techniques reliably distinguish whether an individual is lying.

Maréchal M. A., Cohn A., Ugazio G., & Ruff C. C . (2017).

Increasing honesty in humans with noninvasive brain stimulation.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(17), 4360-4364.

URL     PMID:28396395      [本文引用: 1]

Honesty plays a key role in social and economic interactions and is crucial for societal functioning. However, breaches of honesty are pervasive and cause significant societal and economic problems that can affect entire nations. Despite its importance, remarkably little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms supporting honest behavior. We demonstrate that honesty can be increased in humans with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Participants (n = 145) completed a die-rolling task where they could misreport their outcomes to increase their earnings, thereby pitting honest behavior against personal financial gain. Cheating was substantial in a control condition but decreased dramatically when neural excitability was enhanced with tDCS. This increase in honesty could not be explained by changes in material self-interest or moral beliefs and was dissociated from participants impulsivity, willingness to take risks, and mood. A follow-up experiment (n = 156) showed that tDCS only reduced cheating when dishonest behavior benefited the participants themselves rather than another person, suggesting that the stimulated neural process specifically resolves conflicts between honesty and material self-interest. Our results demonstrate that honesty can be strengthened by noninvasive interventions and concur with theories proposing that the human brain has evolved mechanisms dedicated to control complex social behaviors.

Masip J., Garrido E., & Herrero C . (2004).

Defining deception.

Anales de Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 20(1), 147-172.

[本文引用: 1]

Moriguchi Y., & Hiraki K. (2013).

Prefrontal cortex and executive function in young children: A review of NIRS studies.

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 867.

URL     PMID:3865781      [本文引用: 2]

Executive function refers to the higher-order cognitive control process for the attainment of a specific goal. There are several subcomponents of executive function, such as inhibition, cognitive shifting, and working memory. Extensive neuroimaging research in adults has revealed that the lateral prefrontal cortex plays an important role in executive function. Developmental studies have reported behavioral evidence showing that executive function changes significantly during preschool years. However, the neural mechanism of executive function in young children is still unclear. This article reviews recent near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) research that examined the relationship between the development of executive function and the lateral prefrontal cortex. Specifically, this review focuses on cognitive shifting, inhibitory control, and working memory in young children. Research has consistently shown significant prefrontal activation during tasks in typically developed children, but this activation may be abnormal in children with developmental disorders. Finally, methodological issues and future directions are discussed.

Nghia H.L., Khoa, T. Q. D., Tan, T. X., Thien, D. D., Trinh, N. N.P. & VanToi , V. (2013).

Investigating physiology of untruth in cerebral cortex by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).

Paper presented at the meeting of 4th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam(pp. 1-3). Berlin, Heidelberg.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT Physiological measurement has been deeply investigated in microenvironment. The physiology on molecular or biochemical levels is examined to diagnose disease in early state. With new brain imaging techniques such as multi - channel near - infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), the functions of the cognitive brain activities can be determined. In this study, the relationship between specific physiology of brain cortex and psychology of untruth is assessed through measurements of the changes in concentration deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHb) and oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2)by multi - channel NIRS. Moreover, we found the complex combination at prefrontal cortex (Cz ) is related to physiology of truth and untruth.

Niioka K., Uga M., Nagata T., Tokuda T., Dan I ., & Ochi, K.

[本文引用: 6]

(in press).

Cerebral hemodynamic response during concealment of information about a mock crime: Application of a general linear model with an adaptive hemodynamic response function

.Japanese Psychological Research.

[本文引用: 6]

Pornpattananangkul N., Zhen S., & Yu R . (2018).

Common and distinct neural correlates of self-serving and prosocial dishonesty.

Human Brain Mapping. 39(7), 3086-3103.

URL     PMID:29582512      [本文引用: 1]

The prefrontal cortex is believed to be responsible for execution of deceptive behavior and its involvement is associated with greater cognitive efforts. It is also generally assumed that deception is associated with the inhibition of default honest actions. However, the precise neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. The present study was aimed to use... [Show full abstract]

Sai L. ., Zhou, X., Ding, X. P., Fu G.r, & Sang B. (2014).

Detecting concealed information using functional near- infrared spectroscopy.

Brain Topography, 27(5),652-662.

URL     PMID:24514911     

The present study focused on the potential application of fNIRS in the detection of concealed information. Participants either committed a mock crime or not and then were presented with a randomized series of probes (crime-related information) and irrelevants (crime-irrelevant information) in a standard concealed information test (CIT). Participants in the guilty group were instructed to conceal crime-related information they obtained from the mock crime, thus making deceptive response to the probes. Meanwhile, their brain activity to probes and irrelevants was recorded by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). At the group level, we found that probe items were associated with longer reaction times and greater activity in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor cortex than irrelevant items in the guilty group, but not in the innocent group. These findings provided evidence on neural correlates of recognition during a CIT. Finally, on the basis of the activity in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor cortex, the correct classification of guilty versus innocent participants was approximately 75 % and the combination of fNIRS and reaction time measures yielded a better classification rate of 83.3 %. These findings illustrate the feasibility and promise of using fNIRS to detect concealed information.

Scholkmann F. ., Holper, L., Wolf, U., & Wolf M. (2013).

A new methodical approach in neuroscience: Assessing inter-personal brain coupling using functional near- infrared imaging (fNIRI) hyperscanning.

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 813.

URL     PMID:3841755      [本文引用: 1]

Since the first demonstration of how to simultaneously measure brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on two subjects about 10 years ago, a new paradigm in neuroscience is emerging: measuring brain activity from two or more people simultaneously, termed “hyperscanning”. The hyperscanning approach has the potential to reveal inter-personal brain mechanisms underlying interaction-mediated brain-to-brain coupling. These mechanisms are engaged during real social interactions, and cannot be captured using single-subject recordings. In particular, functional near-infrared imaging (fNIRI) hyperscanning is a promising new method, offering a cost-effective, easy to apply and reliable technology to measure inter-personal interactions in a natural context. In this short review we report on fNIRI hyperscanning studies published so far and summarize opportunities and challenges for future studies.

Scholkmann F. ., Kleiser, S., Metz, A. J., Zimmermann R.r, Pavia, J. M., Wolf, U., & Wolf, M . (2014).

A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology.

Neuroimage, 85, 6-27.

URL     PMID:23684868     

61Comprehensive review on continuous wave functional near infrared imaging61Overview of currently available commercial near infrared imaging instrumentation61Review of technical aspects such as light sources, detectors and sensor arrangements61Review of methodological aspects, algorithms, and data analysis and its tool boxes

Sip K. E., Lynge M., Wallentin M., McGregor W. B., Frith C. D., & Roepstorff A . (2010).

The production and detection of deception in an interactive game.

Neuropsychologia, 48(12), 3619-3626.

URL     PMID:20727906      [本文引用: 7]

This experiment tests how people produce and detect deception while playing a computerized version of the dice game, Meyer. Deception is an integral part of this game, and the participants played it as in real life, without constraints on whether or when to attempt to deceive their opponent, and whether or when to accuse them of deception. We stress that deception is a complex act that cannot be exclusively associated with telling a falsehood, and that it is facilitated by hierarchical decision-making and risk evaluation. In comparison with a non-competitive control condition, both claiming truthfully and claiming falsely were associated with activity in fronto-polar cortex (BA10). However, relative to true claims, false claims were associated with greater activity in the premotor and parietal cortices. We speculate that the activity in BA10 is associated with the development of high-level executive strategies involved in both types of claim, while the premotor and parietal activity is associated with the need to select which particular claim to make.

Sip K.E., Roepstorff A.r, McGregor, W., &Frith C.D, . (2008).

Detecting deception: The scope and limits.

Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(2) 48-53.

URL     PMID:18178516     

With the increasing interest in the neuroimaging of deception and its commercial application, there is a need to pay more attention to methodology. The weakness of studying deception in an experimental setting has been discussed intensively for over half a century. However, even though much effort has been put into their development, paradigms are still inadequate. The problems that bedevilled the old technology have not been eliminated by the new. Advances will only be possible if experiments are designed that take account of the intentions of the subject and the context in which these occur.

Spence S. A., Hunter M. D., Farrow T. F., Green R. D., Leung D. H., Hughes C. J., & Ganesan V . (2004).

A cognitive neurobiological account of deception: Evidence from functional neuroimaging.

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 359(1451), 1755.

URL     PMID:15590616      [本文引用: 1]

An organism may use misinformation, knowingly (through deception) or unknowingly (as in the case of camouflage), to gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhibits a developmental trajectory, which may be regarded as 'normal' in the majority and deficient among a minority with certain neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). In the human adult, deception and lying exhibit features consistent with their use of 'higher' or 'executive' brain systems. Accurate detection of deception in humans may be of particular importance in forensic practice, while an understanding of its cognitive neurobiology may have implications for models of 'theory of mind' and social cognition, and societal notions of responsibility, guilt and mitigation. In recent years, functional neuroimaging techniques (especially functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to study deception. Though few in number, and using very different experimental protocols, studies published in the peer-reviewed literature exhibit certain consistencies. Attempted deception is associated with activation of executive brain regions (particularly prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices), while truthful responding has not been shown to be associated with any areas of increased activation (relative to deception). Hence, truthful responding may comprise a relative 'baseline' in human cognition and communication. The subject who lies may necessarily engage 'higher' brain centres, consistent with a purpose or intention (to deceive). While the principle of executive control during deception remains plausible, its precise anatomy awaits elucidation.

Tang H., Mai X., Wang S., Zhu C., Krueger F., & Liu C . (2015).

Interpersonal brain synchronization in the right temporo-parietal junction during face-to-face economic exchange.

Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(1), 23-32.

URL     PMID:26211014      [本文引用: 7]

Abstract In daily life, interpersonal interactions are influenced by uncertainty about other people's intentions. Face-to-face (FF) interaction reduces such uncertainty by providing external visible cues such as facial expression or body gestures and facilitates shared intentionality to promote belief of cooperative decisions and actual cooperative behaviors in interaction. However, so far little is known about interpersonal brain synchronization between two people engaged in naturally occurring FF interactions. In this study, we combined an adapted ultimatum game with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning to investigate how FF interaction impacts interpersonal brain synchronization during economic exchange. Pairs of strangers interacted repeatedly either FF or face-blocked (FB), while their activation was simultaneously measured in the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) and the control region, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC). Behaviorally, FF interactions increased shared intentionality between strangers, leading more positive belief of cooperative decisions and more actual gains in the game. FNIRS results indicated increased interpersonal brain synchronizations during FF interactions in rTPJ (but not in rDLPFC) with greater shared intentionality between partners. These results highlighted the importance of rTPJ in collaborative social interactions during FF economic exchange and warrant future research that combines FF interactions with fNIRS hyperscanning to study social brain disorders such as autism. The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Tian F., Dobbs R., Carmen A. D., Kozel F. A., & Liu H . (2008,March).

Can functional near-infrared spectroscopic (fNIRS) imaging detect deception?.

Paper presented at the meeting of Optical Society of America. St. Petersburg, Florida United, States.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

We report two studies on the capability of fNIRS brain imaging to detect deception. We demonstrate that fNIRS has potential to be a new approach to detect deception that has important applications for homeland society.

Tian F., Sharma V., Kozel F. A., & Liu H . (2009).

Functional near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate hemodynamic responses to deception in the prefrontal cortex.

Brain Research, 1303, 120-130.

URL     PMID:19782657      [本文引用: 2]

Deception involves complex neural processes and correlates in the brain. Functional brain imaging techniques have been used to study and understand brain mechanisms during deception. In this study, we utilized functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate hemodynamic responses to deception in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at the individual level. The protocol involved a mock theft scenario that was previously used in a functional MRI (fMRI) study of detecting deception. Subjects (N=11) were instructed to steal a ring or a watch and then conceal the item that they stole. Participants then responded to visually presented questions regarding which item they took. While the subjects were answering the questions, their PFC activity was measured using fNIRS. The brain activity associated with deceptive responses demonstrated significant changes in hemoglobin concentrations with respect to the baseline, while the response of truth telling was not statistically different from baseline. The regions of greater activation induced by deception identified by fNIRS were approximately consistent with those reported by the previous fMRI study using a similar protocol. This study demonstrates that fNIRS is a promising new technique to understand hemodynamic and neural correlates of deception and thus to detect deception with the added advantages of being compact, technically easier to implement, and inexpensive compared to functional MRI.

Trinh N. N. P., Khoa T. Q. D., & Van Toi V . (2013, May).

Investigating the deceptive task in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Paper presented at the meeting of the 29th Southern Biomedical Engineering Conference (SBEC)(pp. 95-96)

. Miami, FL, USA.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Truthful and deceptive responses are socially and legally important behavior. In a recent year, brain imaging measurement applied to find deception response. However, with these brain imaging techniques, the cognitive brain activities can be determined with stressful for participants. In this study, the pattern of brain activity is characterized with multi - channel near - infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the region of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex which is related to response of lying. The sample consisted of two undergraduate students. The subject had to perform specific truthful and deceptive responses tasks by choosing cards. We need to examine the location of detecting deceptive response which chosen randomly by the participant. The method of detection deception was calculated by the area under the curve in the change in concentration oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO(2)) during specific time of performance in task. In this study, the study found that the right group of channels was indicated deceptive task as maximum area value under the curve in the concentration change of HbO(2).

Vega R., Hernandez-Reynoso A. G., Linn E. K., Fuentes-Aguilar R. Q., Sanchez-Ante G., Santos-Garcia A., & Garcia-Gonzalez A . (2016).

Hemodynamic pattern recognition during deception process using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering, 36(1), 22-31.

URL     PMID:4791457      [本文引用: 3]

Deception is considered a psychological process by which one individual deliberately attempts to convince another person to accept as true what the liar knows to be false. This paper presents the use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy for deception detection. This technique measures hemodynamic variations in the cortical regions induced by neural activations. The experimental setup involved a mock theft paradigm with ten subjects, where the subjects responded to a set of questions, with each of their answers belonging to one of three categories: Induced Lies, Induced Truths, and Non-Induced responses. The relative changes of the hemodynamic activity in the subject prefrontal cortex were recorded during the experiment. From this data, the changes in blood volume were derived and represented as false color topograms. Finally, a human evaluator used these topograms as a guide to classify each answer into one of the three categories. His performance was compared with that of a support vector machine (SVM) classifier in terms of accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. The human evaluator achieved an accuracy of 84.33 % in a tri-class problem and 92 % in a bi-class problem (induced vs. non-induced responses). In comparison, the SVM classifier correctly classified 95.63 % of the answers in a tri-class problem using cross-validation for the selection of the best features. These results suggest a tradeoff between accuracy and computational burden. In other words, it is possible for an interviewer to classify each response by only looking at the topogram of the hemodynamic activity, but at the cost of reduced prediction accuracy.

Volz K. G., Vogeley K., Tittgemeyer M., von Cramon D. Y., & Sutter M . (2015).

The neural basis of deception in strategic interactions.

Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 9, 27.

URL     PMID:25729358      [本文引用: 2]

Communication based on informational asymmetries abounds in politics, business, and almost any other form of social interaction. Informational asymmetries may create incentives for the better-informed party to exploit her advantage by misrepresenting information. Using a game-theoretic setting, we investigate the neural basis of deception in human interaction. Unlike in most previous fMRI research on deception, the participants decide themselves whether to lie or not. We find activation within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ), the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the (pre)cuneus (CUN), and the anterior frontal gyrus (aFG) when contrasting lying with truth telling. Notably, our design also allows for an investigation of the neural foundations of sophisticated deception through telling the truth-when the sender does not expect the receiver to believe her (true) message. Sophisticated deception triggers activation within the same network as plain lies, i.e., we find activity within the rTPJ, the CUN, and aFG. We take this result to show that brain activation can reveal the sender's veridical intention to deceive others, irrespective of whether in fact the sender utters the factual truth or not.

Weisel O., & Shalvi S. (2015).

The collaborative roots of corruption.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(34), 10651-10656.

URL     PMID:26261341      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Cooperation is essential for completing tasks that individuals cannot accomplish alone. Whereas the benefits of cooperation are clear, little is known about its possible negative aspects. Introducing a novel sequential dyadic die-rolling paradigm, we show that collaborative settings provide fertile ground for the emergence of corruption. In the main experimental treatment the outcomes of the two players are perfectly aligned. Player A privately rolls a die, reports the result to player B, who then privately rolls and reports the result as well. Both players are paid the value of the reports if, and only if, they are identical (e.g., if both report 6, each earns 6). Because rolls are truly private, players can inflate their profit by misreporting the actual outcomes. Indeed, the proportion of reported doubles was 489% higher than the expected proportion assuming honesty, 48% higher than when individuals rolled and reported alone, and 96% higher than when lies only benefited the other player. Breaking the alignment in payoffs between player A and player B reduced the extent of brazen lying. Despite player B's central role in determining whether a double was reported, modifying the incentive structure of either player A or player B had nearly identical effects on the frequency of reported doubles. Our results highlight the role of collaboration-particularly on equal terms-in shaping corruption. These findings fit a functional perspective on morality. When facing opposing moral sentiments-to be honest vs. to join forces in collaboration-people often opt for engaging in corrupt collaboration.

Yin L., Reuter M., & Weber B . (2016).

Let the man choose what to do: Neural correlates of spontaneous lying and truth-telling.

Brain and Cognition, 102, 13-25.

URL     PMID:26685089      [本文引用: 3]

Many previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on deception used a paradigm of nstructed lies, which is different than other, more spontaneous forms of lying behavior. The present study aimed to investigate the neural processes underlying spontaneous and instructed lying and truth-telling, and to investigate the different mechanisms involved. This study used a modifiedsic bogambling game with real payoffs in order to induce lying. In the spontaneous sessions, the participants themselves decided whether or not to lie, whereas in the instructed sessions they were explicitly told to respond either honestly or dishonestly. In the spontaneous lying (vs. truth-telling) condition, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC) showed significantly higher activity, whereas the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL) were more strongly activated when participants spontaneously told the truth (vs. lied). Our results suggest that the extra cognitive control required for suppressing the self-interest motives in spontaneous truth-telling is associated with higher activity in the fronto-parietal network, while the process of negative emotion in spontaneous lying induced greater involvement of the sACC. Although similar to spontaneous deception, instructed deception engenders greater involvement of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left supplementary motor area (SMA), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), IPL and superior frontal gyrus (SFG) compared to baseline, instructed decisions did not elicit similar activation patterns in the regions of sACC, DLPFC, VLPFC and IPL which were sensitive to either spontaneous truth-telling or lying.

Zhang J., Lin X., Fu G., Sai L., Chen H., Yang J., .. Yuan Z . (2016).

Mapping the small-world properties of brain networks in deception with functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

Scientific Reports, 6, 25297.

URL     PMID:4850450      [本文引用: 3]

Deception is not a rare occurrence among human behaviors; however, the present brain mapping techniques are insufficient to reveal the neural mechanism of deception under spontaneous or controlled conditions. Interestingly, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has emerged as a highly promising neuroimaging technique that enables continuous and noninvasive monitoring of changes in blood oxygenation and blood volume in the human brain. In this study, fNIRS was used in combination with complex network theory to extract the attribute features of the functional brain networks underling deception in subjects exhibiting spontaneous or controlled behaviors. Our findings revealed that the small-world networks of the subjects engaged in spontaneous behaviors exhibited greater clustering coefficients, shorter average path lengths, greater average node degrees, and stronger randomness compared with those of subjects engaged in control behaviors. Consequently, we suggest that small-world network topology is capable of distinguishing well between spontaneous and controlled deceptions.

Zhang M., Liu T., Pelowski M., & Yu D . (2017).

Gender difference in spontaneous deception: A hyperscanning study using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

Scientific Reports, 7(1), 7508.

URL     PMID:5548786      [本文引用: 7]

Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that the neural basis of deception involves a network of regions including the medial frontal cortex (MFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), etc. However, to test the actual activity of the brain in the act of deceptive practice itself, existing studies have mainly adopted paradigms of passive deception, where participants are told to lie in certain conditions, and have focused on intra-brain mechanisms in single participants. In order to examine the neural substrates underlying more natural, spontaneous deception in real social interactions, the present study employed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning technique to simultaneously measure pairs of participants' fronto-temporal activations in a two-person gambling card-game. We demonstrated higher TPJ activation in deceptive compared to honest acts. Analysis of participants' inter-brain correlation further revealed that the STS is uniquely involved in deception but not in honesty, especially in females. These results suggest that the STS may play a critical role in spontaneous deception due to mentalizing requirements relating to modulating opponents' thoughts. To our knowledge, this study was the first to investigate such inter-brain correlates of deception in real face-to-face interactions, and thus is hoped to provide a new path for future complex social behavior research.

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