心理科学进展, 2019, 27(1): 106-116 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00106

研究前沿

浪漫关系中的关系攻击

王浩1, 俞国良,2

1 北京理工大学心理健康教育与咨询中心, 北京 100081

2 中国人民大学心理研究所, 北京 100872

Relational aggression in romantic relationship

WANG Hao1, YU Guoliang,2

1 Mental Health Education and Counseling Center, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China

2 Institute of Psychology, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China

通讯作者: 俞国良, E-mail: yugllxl@sina.com

收稿日期: 2017-09-2   网络出版日期: 2019-01-15

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金项目资助.  81571337

Received: 2017-09-2   Online: 2019-01-15

摘要

浪漫关系中的关系攻击指通过操纵或损害关系以达到伤害浪漫关系伴侣的行为, 可以分为直接攻击和间接攻击,主动性攻击和反应性攻击等类型.浪漫关系中的关系攻击以浪漫关系为攻击目标, 具有冲突解决策略的性质, 在浪漫关系中往往具有相互性.研究者通常使用问卷法对浪漫关系中的关系攻击进行测量.浪漫关系中的关系攻击能够导致较低的关系质量和心理健康水平, 并会引发身体攻击和亲密伴侣暴力.性别,依恋,浪漫关系中的权力和同伴关系中的关系攻击能够对浪漫关系中的关系攻击产生影响.在未来研究中, 应关注浪漫关系中关系攻击的动机, 澄清关系攻击发起与受害之间的关系, 并加强理论建构与干预研究.

关键词: 关系攻击 ; 浪漫关系 ; 冲突解决策略

Abstract

Relational aggression in romantic relationship refers to behaviors intended to hurt or harm one’s romantic partner through the damage or manipulation of relationships, including direct and indirect aggression, as well as proactive and reactive aggression. Relational aggression in romantic relationship, targeting at the relationship, can be seen as a kind of conflict resolution strategy and is usually reciprocal. Researchers usually use questionnaires to assess relational aggression in romantic relationship. Relational aggression in romantic relationship can decrease relationship quality and mental health level, and induce physical aggression and intimate partner violence. It can be influenced by sex, attachment, power in romantic relationship, and relational aggression in peer relationship. In the future, the researchers should pay attention to the motivation of relational aggression in romantic relationship, clarify the relation between the perpetration and victimization of relational aggression, and strengthen the researches on theorization and targeted intervention.

Keywords: relational aggression ; romantic relationship ; conflict resolution strategy

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本文引用格式

王浩, 俞国良. (2019). 浪漫关系中的关系攻击 . 心理科学进展, 27(1), 106-116

WANG Hao, YU Guoliang. (2019). Relational aggression in romantic relationship. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(1), 106-116

浪漫关系中的攻击能够对关系质量造成负面影响, 并会导致个体产生心理与行为问题(Murray- Close, Holland, & Roisman, 2012).有关浪漫关系中攻击的研究大多关注身体攻击(physical aggression), 也有一些研究对心理攻击(psychological aggression)予以了关注(Coyne et al., 2017).浪漫关系中的关系攻击(relational aggression in romantic relationship)作为心理攻击的一个子类型, 近年来也开始受到研究者的重视.本文将对浪漫关系中关系攻击的概念及内涵,测量方法和相关研究进行梳理与回顾.

1 浪漫关系中关系攻击的概念与内涵

1.1 浪漫关系中关系攻击的概念界定

关系攻击这一概念的提出, 最初是为了对儿童的攻击行为进行研究, 许多关于关系攻击的研究都关注了学校情境中的儿童和青少年早期群体(Wright & Benson, 2010).在学校情境中, 关系攻击通常被定义为通过故意操纵或损害同伴关系以伤害他人的行为(Crick & Grotpeter, 1995).具体的例子包括, 将其他儿童排除在同伴群体之外, 散播关于他们的流言, 或者撤回对他们的友谊等(Grotpeter & Crick, 1996).研究发现, 与身体攻击的频率在儿童早期达到最高峰,儿童中期开始逐渐下降不同, 关系攻击的频率从儿童中期到青少年早期都是逐渐上升的(Blossom, Fite, Frazer, Cooley, & Evans, 2016).从3岁开始, 儿童就开始能够进行关系攻击, 但此时的攻击行为往往较为简单,直接.随着儿童的成熟, 关系攻击也变得更为复杂, 小学儿童会更多地使用间接形式的关系攻击, 这反映了儿童中期语言和认知技能的提高.到了青少年期, 个体对于异性友谊和浪漫关系的兴趣有所提高, 交往群体结构的变化导致青少年对异性的关系攻击增多(Michiels, Grietens, Onghena, & Kuppens, 2008).由于浪漫关系在青少年晚期和成年早期中变得更为重要, 在重要程度上超过家庭关系和同伴关系, 因此, 一些研究者也开始对浪漫关系中的关系攻击予以关注(Woodin, Sukhawathanakul, Caldeira, Homel, & Leadbeater, 2016).

浪漫关系中的关系攻击指通过操纵或损害关系以达到伤害浪漫关系伴侣的行为, 也有研究者称之为“浪漫关系攻击” (romantic relational aggression) (Linder, Crick, & Collins, 2002; Murray- Close et al., 2012).有证据表明, 在成年早期, 浪漫关系中关系攻击发生的频率已经超过了同伴关

系中的关系攻击(Murray-Close, Nelson, Ostrov, Casas, & Crick, 2016).尽管研究发现浪漫关系中的关系攻击会导致个体及关系层面的一系列消极后果(Burk & Seiffge-Krenke, 2015; Ellis, Crooks, & Wolfe, 2009), 并且这种攻击类型在浪漫关系中是非常普遍的(Carroll et al., 2010; Stappenbeck & Fromme, 2014), 但是, 与身体和言语攻击相比, 我们对浪漫关系中关系攻击的了解还较少(Prather, Dahlen, Nicholson, & Bullock- Yowell, 2012).在国内, 一些研究者也对儿童和青少年的关系攻击予以了关注(曹丛 等, 2014; 纪林芹, 潘斌, 郭菲, 陈亮, 张文新, 2017; 孙晓军, 范翠英, 热娜古丽·艾赛, 张笑容, 陈洁, 2012), 但对浪漫关系中关系攻击的关注还很少.有研究者(Goldstein, 2011)认为, 对浪漫关系中关系攻击的研究较少的原因有以下两点.第一, 从关系攻击研究的历史背景来看, 关系攻击的研究最初关注于小学儿童和青少年早期(Crick & Grotpeter, 1995; Grotpeter & Crick, 1996), 而浪漫关系并不存在于这些群体之中.当对于关系攻击的研究逐渐扩展到更大年龄群体的时候, 研究者并没有对浪漫关系中的关系攻击给予及时的关注.第二, 从社会认可的角度看, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击由于并不涉及到身体攻击和心理虐待, 因此并没有引起家庭冲突与攻击领域研究者的广泛注意.

尽管当前对于浪漫关系中关系攻击的研究还相对较少, 但这是一个非常值得关注的领域.研究发现, 关系攻击多发生于具有排他性的关系中(Michiels et al., 2008), 有关系攻击行为的儿童往往将他们的朋友关系和亲子关系描述为具有排他性的(Grotpeter & Crick, 1996).与身体攻击更多地指向群体外成员不同, 关系攻击更多地指向群体内成员(Crick et al., 1999).还有一些研究证实, 嫉妒与关系攻击存在着密切的关联, 在朋友关系中有更高嫉妒水平的个体会使用更多的关系攻击(Culotta & Goldstein, 2008).由于浪漫关系具有高度的排他性和亲密度(Kansky, 2018), 因此, 对浪漫关系中的关系攻击进行探讨更有助于理解关系攻击的本质.

关系攻击多发生于较为亲密的关系中, 如果只是简单地用身体攻击或一般攻击的理论来对关系攻击进行解释, 就显得有些简单化了(Michiels et al., 2008).例如, 使用社会学习理论可以对身体攻击和关系攻击进行解释, 即父母为个体的攻击行为提供了模型, 但这种解释无疑忽视了关系攻击的特殊性.因此, 有研究者从依恋的角度对关系攻击进行解释.研究者认为, 父母的响应性在儿童的关系攻击中发挥着非常关键的作用, 如果儿童的父母不具有响应性, 则这些儿童会使用关系攻击策略来获得注意(Michiels et al., 2008).如果父母经常对儿童使用心理控制, 儿童的归属感就会受到阻碍, 对亲密关系的需求就无法得到满足, 这会导致儿童在与他人的关系上感到不安全, 并更倾向于使用关系攻击作为保护个人地位的有效手段(Soenens, Vansteenkiste, Goossens, Duriez, & Niemiec, 2008).总之, 从依恋的角度看, 个体发起关系攻击的目的是为了补偿自身的不安全感, 通过操纵关系来获得安全的保证(Michiels et al., 2008; Soenens et al., 2008).

1.2 浪漫关系中关系攻击的类型

1.2.1 直接攻击与间接攻击

间接攻击一般指隐性的,迂回的,在他人背后发起的攻击(Archer & Coyne, 2005), 涵盖所有非直接的攻击形式(李董平, 张卫, 李丹黎, 王艳辉, 甄霜菊, 2012).有研究者认为, 关系攻击是一种间接的攻击形式(Czar, 2012; Martin, Miller, Kubricht, Yorgason, & Carroll, 2015), 但实际上, 关系攻击不一定是间接攻击(Coyne, Archer, & Eslea, 2006), 它包含着直接攻击和间接攻击两种形式.直接形式的关系攻击指面对面发生的攻击, 如, 威胁对方要解除关系或者忽视对方以使自己的要求得以实现.间接形式的关系攻击指和第三方秘密发起的攻击, 如, 散播对方的流言或者八卦, 以及一些社会排斥行为(Carroll et al., 2010; Coyne et al., 2017).

在浪漫关系中, 研究者认为爱的撤回(love withdrawal)和社交破坏(social sabotage)是两种主要的关系攻击类型, 分别代表了浪漫关系中关系攻击的直接形式和间接形式.爱的撤回是一种直接的关系攻击形式, 指浪漫关系中的一方在冲突中撤回情感和支持.社交破坏是一种间接的关系攻击形式, 指浪漫关系中的一方散播另一方的流言或八卦, 或者说服局外人在两人的冲突中偏袒自己(Carroll et al., 2010).浪漫关系中的个体可能同时使用两种亚类型的关系攻击形式, 也可能在起初阶段只使用爱的撤回.如果爱的撤回并没有收到很好的效果, 则会使用社交破坏来伤害对方.因此, 爱的撤回是一种比较普遍的,非极端形式的关系攻击类型, 它只涉及到关系双方, 所造成的伤害也更容易得到消除.而社交破坏代表了关系攻击的极端形式, 意味着浪漫关系中的一方主动地转向关系外的他人以操纵和破坏他人的名誉和当前的关系.由于社交破坏涉及了关系外的其他人, 这就可能导致这种行为对浪漫关系产生持续的影响.在社交破坏的情形下, 浪漫关系的一方已经越过了浪漫关系的范围去讨论个人的信息, 因此, 社交破坏更像是一种背叛(Coyne et al., 2017).Carroll等(2010)对336对夫妻进行的研究证实了爱的撤回和社交破坏是浪漫关系中关系攻击的两个不同维度; 研究结果还发现, 88%的丈夫和96%的妻子会发起爱的撤回, 证明了爱的撤回在浪漫关系中的普遍性.相比之下, 社交破坏的普遍程度较低, 但也有52%的丈夫和64%的妻子会通过社交破坏来攻击对方.

1.2.2 主动性攻击与反应性攻击

除了根据攻击行为是直接的还是间接的将浪漫关系中的关系攻击划分为爱的撤回和社交破坏以外, 研究者认为还应重视攻击行为背后动机的作用(Voulgaridou & Kokkinos, 2015).根据动机和意图上的区别, 攻击行为可以划分为主动性攻击(proactive aggression)和反应性攻击(reactive aggression) (Banny, Tseng, Murray-Close, Pitula, & Crick, 2014; Marsee et al., 2014), 这种分类方式同样适用于浪漫关系中的关系攻击.主动性关系攻击指为了达到某一目的而发起的关系攻击, 也可称为工具性关系攻击(instrumental relational aggression).反应性关系攻击指由激怒而引发的关系攻击, 通常伴随着愤怒等消极情绪, 也可称为冲动性关系攻击(impulsive relational aggression) (Czar, 2012).主动性关系攻击和反应性关系攻击尽管都是关系攻击的亚类型, 但存在着很大区别.主动性关系攻击通常可以用社会学习理论(social learning theory)进行解释, 即在浪漫关系中发起关系攻击是为了获得预期的益处.而反应性关系攻击则用挫折-攻击理论(frustration- aggression theory)进行解释更为恰当, 也就是说, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击是对挫折的敌意性反应(Clifford, 2016).当前的研究更多关注的是主动性关系攻击, 强调了通过关系攻击以达到某一目的, 而忽视了关系攻击所具有的防卫性和报复性反应的功能(Clifford, 2016).

在Clifford (2016)的研究中, 研究者尝试对浪漫关系中的主动性关系攻击和反应性关系攻击进行区分.研究结果发现, 爱的撤回可以分为主动性爱的撤回和反应性爱的撤回, 反应性爱的撤回与遭遇挑衅后的愤怒,神经质,敌意归因偏差和冲动性存在显著正相关, 而主动性爱的撤回与这些变量均不存在显著相关, 这表明与主动性爱的撤回不同, 反应性爱的撤回是由情绪驱动的.但社交破坏并不能被划分为主动性社交破坏和反应性社交破坏, 社交破坏与主动性爱的撤回的相关程度高于它与反应性爱的撤回的相关程度.这一研究结果为将浪漫关系中的关系攻击区分为主动性关系攻击和反应性关系攻击提供了实证支持.

1.3 浪漫关系中关系攻击与心理攻击的区别

浪漫关系中常见的攻击形式包括身体攻击,心理攻击,关系攻击等.其中, 身体攻击的涵义最为容易理解, 即指故意使用武力以伤害对方的攻击行为, 包括温和的身体攻击和严重的身体攻击, 前者如推搡,划伤对方等, 后者如令其窒息,用拳击打,使用武器攻击等(Burk & Seiffge- Krenke, 2015).然而, 浪漫关系中心理攻击和关系攻击之间的界限就较为模糊.心理攻击同样是浪漫关系中的一种常见攻击形式(Jose & O'Leary, 2009), 指不直接指向对方身体的强制性的言语和非言语行为(Murphy & O'Leary, 1989).心理攻击本身就是一个较为宽泛的概念, 缺少一致的操作性定义(Follingstad, 2009).在研究中, 心理攻击往往代表着言语攻击,情感攻击以及不直接侵犯他人身体的其他攻击形式(Wright & Benson, 2010), 包括但不限于人身攻击,破坏伴侣财产,监视伴侣的活动与社交网络,威胁使用身体暴力,摔门,故意拖延等(Tougas, Péloquin, & Mondor, 2016).有研究者曾将心理攻击划分成17个不同的类别(Follingstad, Coyne, & Gambone, 2005), 尽管如此, 对于心理攻击的研究仍无法穷尽心理攻击的所有要素, 因此, 我们甚至无从知晓心理攻击究竟是多因素结构还是单因素结构(Carroll et al., 2010; Coyne et al., 2017).

由于心理攻击所包含的攻击形式非常广泛, 因此研究者认为, 关系攻击可以看成是心理攻击的一个子类型(Coyne et al., 2017).尽管浪漫关系中的心理攻击和关系攻击存在一些重叠, 但两者是存在区别的, 这主要体现在攻击的目标上(Linder et al., 2002).具体而言, 心理攻击指任何能够对他人造成情感伤害的非身体伤害行为, 其攻击目标并不只限定于人际关系, 也可以是认知,情感或行为.举例而言, 心理攻击包含着骂人,摔东西等行为, 但这些行为并没有直接对人际关系造成伤害.而对关系攻击而言, 无论是言语的还是非言语的, 直接的还是间接的, 其攻击目标总是关系本身(Goldstein, 2011; Wright & Benson, 2010).关系攻击是一个独特的攻击类型也已得到实证研究的证明(Crick et al., 1999).

1.4 浪漫关系中关系攻击的内涵

第一, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击是以浪漫关系为攻击目标的攻击行为.攻击行为指意在伤害他人的行为, 可以表现为多种形式(Murray-Close, Ostrov, Nelson, Crick, & Coccaro, 2010).浪漫关系中的关系攻击作为发生于浪漫关系这一特定人际关系中的一种攻击形式, 无疑属于攻击行为的范畴.然而需要指出的是, 浪漫关系中关系攻击的目标是浪漫关系本身, 这是它不同于间接攻击,心理攻击等其它攻击类型的根本所在(Archer & Coyne, 2005; Goldstein, 2011; Wright & Benson, 2010).有研究者认为, 相比于身体攻击, 关系攻击更为直接地涉及个体的核心依恋需要, 如人际关系的需要或归属需要等(Carroll et al., 2010; Oka, Brown, & Miller, 2016), 因此, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击同样可以对浪漫关系造成很大的伤害(Madsen, 2012).例如, 一些研究发现, 在浪漫关系中受到关系攻击能够使个体产生更多的沮丧,愤怒情绪, 更高的焦虑,抑郁,反刍水平和更低的信任水平, 这表明浪漫关系中的关系攻击能够使受害者感到自己不被爱了或者不被对方所接受, 并对关系本身造成负面影响(Goldstein, Chesir- Teran, & McFaul, 2008; Linder et al., 2002).

第二, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击具有冲突解决策略(conflict resolution strategy)的性质.冲突解决策略指应对分歧的人际行为, 可以被划分为建设性风格和非建设性风格两类(Bonache, Ramírez- Santana, & Gonzalez-Mendez, 2016).研究者认为, 与冲突解决策略相一致的是, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击也可能存在着工具性的意图, 即浪漫关系中的一方试图通过关系攻击以应对困难的情境或者促使伴侣改变他们的权力位置或者修复他们的关系(Coyne et al., 2017).因此, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击也具有冲突解决策略的性质, 体现了一种不健康的关系动力(dynamics) (Carroll et al., 2010; Willoughby, Carroll, Busby, & Brown, 2016).在具体研究中, 有研究者就曾使用青少年恋爱关系冲突问卷(Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Questionnaire)对浪漫关系中的关系攻击进行测量, 将浪漫关系中的关系攻击看成是一种非建设性的冲突解决策略(Burk & Seiffge-Krenke, 2015).在这项研究中, 研究者通过分层聚类分析发现, 根据浪漫关系双方的身体攻击和关系攻击状况, 可以将情侣划分为不同类型.相比于无攻击的情侣, 有一方会发起身体或关系攻击的情侣会面对着更为普遍的冲突, 并倾向于采取更不适应的应对策略; 双方都会发起身体或关系攻击的情侣则会面对最为普遍的冲突, 并且在冲突中的反思和情绪调节水平最低(Burk & Seiffge-Krenke, 2015).研究者认为, 在浪漫关系中冲突是非常普遍的(Papp, 2018; Timmons, Arbel, & Margolin, 2017), 但更为重要的是在冲突中使用怎样的冲突解决策略, 建设性的冲突解决策略的使用有助于取得好的关系和个人结果(El-Sheikh, Kelly, Koss, & Rauer, 2015).因此, 从发展的视角看, 个体在成年早期能否习得建设性的冲突解决策略, 以非攻击性的策略应对人际冲突是非常重要的.尽管很多在成年早期建立的浪漫关系最终破裂了, 但是个体在这些关系中习得的交往模式却会对后来长期的关系以及个体在关系中的行为产生影响(Goldstein, 2011).

第三, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击往往具有相互性, 浪漫关系中关系攻击的发起者(perpetrator)有可能同时成为关系攻击的受害者(victim).在同伴关系中, 同伴关系攻击发起与同伴关系攻击受害就都与孤独,抑郁和同伴拒绝存在关联(Crick & Grotpeter, 1995; Grotpeter & Crick, 1996).在浪漫关系中, 攻击往往是相互的, 浪漫关系一方的攻击行为会引发另一方的攻击行为(Murray-Close, 2011).在Menesini, Nocentini, Ortega-Rivera, Sanchez和Ortega (2011)的研究中, 研究者对青少年在浪漫关系中的身体攻击和关系攻击进行了测量, 潜在剖面分析的结果表明, 16.9%的青少年处于相互的身体攻击和关系攻击之中, 35.5%的青少年处于相互的关系攻击之中.也有研究表明, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击发起和关系攻击受害存在着很强的关联, 两者也都与反社会人格和边缘型人格存在联系(Saini & Singh, 2008).在许多研究中, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击发起和关系攻击受害都存在着显著的正相关(Goldstein et al., 2008; Schad, Szwedo, Antonishak, Hare, & Allen, 2008).关系攻击的相互性反映了浪漫关系的高互依性, 随着浪漫关系双方承诺水平的提高, 双方各自的自我概念会发生重叠, 浪漫关系中的个体会认为对方和自己是相似的, 这是浪漫关系通常被描述为互相关心或互相不关心的原因(Lemay, Clark, & Feeney, 2007; Neal & Lemay, in press).

2 浪漫关系中关系攻击的测量

最为广泛使用的对浪漫关系中的关系攻击进行测量的工具是从攻击与受害自评量表(Self- measure of Aggression and Victimization)中抽取的两个分量表, 即浪漫关系攻击(romantic relational aggression)分量表和浪漫关系受害(romantic relational victimization)分量表, 分别测查个体对对方的关系攻击以及对方对个体的关系攻击.每个分量表各包含5道题目, 每个题目按照李克特7点量表进行评分.如果被试当前处于浪漫关系之中, 则按当前的关系进行回答; 如果被试当前不处于浪漫关系之中, 则按照最近的一段关系进行回答.浪漫关系攻击的题目如“我会拿分手威胁我的恋人, 以使他/她按我想要的去做”, 浪漫关系受害的题目如“我的恋人会试图让我感到嫉妒来报复我” (Linder et al., 2002).

有研究者在攻击与受害自评量表的基础上发展出了夫妻关系攻击与受害量表(Couples Relational Aggression and Victimization Scale, CRAViS), 分为爱的撤回和社交破坏两个维度, 更适合对夫妻关系中的关系攻击进行测量.爱的撤回维度共包含5道题目, 用以测查个体所知觉到的对方在冲突中撤回情感和支持的程度, 如“当我伤害了爱人的感情时, 他/她会对我沉默相待”.社交破坏维度共包含6道题目, 用以测查个体所知觉到的对方在冲突中使用社交攻击的程度, 如“当我惹爱人生气时, 他/她会试图令我在众人面前感到尴尬或看起来很愚蠢”.和攻击与受害自评量表不同, 这一测量工具只是测量伴侣所发起的关系攻击(Carroll et al., 2010).

以上两个量表被较为普遍地用来测量浪漫关系中的关系攻击.此外, 在对浪漫关系中的关系攻击进行测量时, 还有两点需要特别指出.第一, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击具有冲突解决策略的性质, 因此有研究者使用冲突解决策略量表中的分量表对其进行测量.如, 有研究者使用青少年恋爱关系冲突问卷对青少年浪漫关系中的关系攻击进行测量, 其中关系攻击分量表共包含9个项目, 如“我不和他/她说话”, “我威胁他/她说我要结束关系”等(Burk & Seiffge-Krenke, 2015).第二, 如前所述, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击可以划分为直接攻击和间接攻击, 也可以划分为主动性攻击和反应性攻击.在当前针对浪漫关系中关系攻击的测量工具中, 夫妻关系攻击与受害量表已能够对直接关系攻击和间接关系攻击进行区分, 但尚未有量表能够对浪漫关系中主动性关系攻击和反应性关系攻击进行区分.唯一的例外是Clifford (2016)编制了浪漫关系攻击动机量表(Romantic Relational Aggression Motivation Scale, RRAM), 将爱的撤回维度进一步分为了主动性和反应性两个分量表.然而这一量表暂未得到广泛使用, 其信效度仍需要更多研究的检验.

3 浪漫关系中关系攻击的后果

浪漫关系中的冲突解决策略反映了个体在冲突中会对对方做出怎样的反应(Bonache et al., 2016).以往研究发现, 浪漫关系中非建设性的冲突解决策略能够对关系层面的浪漫关系质量和个体层面的心理健康产生消极影响(Ellison, Kouros, Papp, & Cummings, 2016; Schrodt, Witt, & Shimkowski, 2014), 并与浪漫关系中的伴侣暴力存在密切关联(Bonache et al., 2016).浪漫关系中的关系攻击具有冲突解决策略的性质, 在对关系攻击的后果进行分析时同样可以运用相似的思路, 探讨浪漫关系中的关系攻击会对关系质量和心理健康产生怎样的影响, 以及是否能够预测身体攻击和亲密伴侣暴力的发生.

3.1 关系质量

关系攻击的研究最早起源于儿童早期, 对于儿童来说, 在同伴群体中发起关系攻击和遭受关系攻击都会导致同伴拒绝(纪林芹 等, 2017; Crick & Grotpeter, 1995; Tseng, Banny, Kawabata, Crick, & Gau, 2013).对于大学生来说, 发起同伴关系攻击也与同伴拒绝存在关联(Werner & Crick, 1999).在浪漫关系中, Linder等(2002)的研究表明, 浪漫关系中关系攻击发起与受害都与关系质量存在着密切联系.在浪漫关系中更多发起关系攻击的个体在关系中有更低的信任水平和更高的沮丧,嫉妒和过度依赖水平.关系攻击受害除了与这些变量存在关联外, 还与自恃存在正相关, 与亲密寻求存在负相关.回归分析发现, 关系攻击受害和关系攻击发起都能够对关系质量的变异进行解释.Carroll等(2010)的研究表明, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击与低水平的关系质量和高水平的关系不稳定性存在关联.Coyne等(2017)的纵向研究表明, 男性的爱的撤回能够预测男性和女性所知觉的关系质量的降低, 女性的爱的撤回能够预测男性所知觉的关系质量的降低, 但并不能对女性所知觉的关系质量产生预测作用.女性的社交破坏对双方所知觉的关系质量均无影响, 男性的社交破坏能够预测女性所知觉的关系质量的降低.

3.2 心理健康

在浪漫关系中的关系攻击与心理健康的关系上, 首先, 浪漫关系中关系攻击受害会影响个体的心理健康.例如, Ellis等(2009)的研究表明, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击受害能够对青少年的抑郁和焦虑产生预测作用, 但这一预测作用只存在于女性身上.其次, 在浪漫关系中发起关系攻击也与个体的心理健康存在负向关联.例如, Bagner, Storch和Preston (2007)针对大学生的研究发现, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击发起与孤独,抑郁症状,酒精与药物使用存在正向关联, 对女生来说, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击发起还与社交焦虑存在关联.也有一些研究者同时考察了浪漫关系中关系攻击发起和受害与心理健康的关系.Schad等(2008)的研究发现, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击发起与关系攻击受害都与抑郁症状和酒精使用存在关联.Goldstein等(2008)的研究发现, 发起关系攻击和遭受关系攻击的个体都会报告更高水平的抑郁和焦虑症状.在两者对心理健康的预测程度上, 有研究者认为, 浪漫关系中关系攻击受害与抑郁的关联要强于关系攻击发起与抑郁的关联(Cramer, 2015).另外, 在心理健康之外, 有研究表明, 无论男性还是女性, 遭受社交破坏都会导致个体身体健康水平的下降, 男性发起爱的撤回还会导致自身身体健康水平的降低(Martin et al., 2015).

3.3 身体攻击与亲密伴侣暴力

以往研究表明, 亲密伴侣暴力(intimate partner violence, IPV)与浪漫关系中的非身体攻击存在密切联系.浪漫关系中的关系攻击作为一种非身体的,恶意的,蓄意的攻击形式, 由于能够使对方感到不被爱或不被需要, 直接对关系质量产生影响, 因而也是身体攻击和亲密伴侣暴力的重要预测因素(Wright & Benson, 2010).Wright和Benson (2010)的研究发现, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击与家庭暴力和受害都存在关联, 无论对男性还是女性来说, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击都能够对家庭暴力的发起产生预测作用, 也能够对家庭暴力的受害产生预测作用.Oka, Sandberg, Bradford和Brown (2014)的研究考察了浪漫关系中的关系攻击对身体攻击的影响, 结果表明, 浪漫关系中男性的关系攻击能够对男性和女性的身体攻击产生预测作用, 女性的关系攻击只能够对男性的身体攻击产生预测作用.

4 浪漫关系中关系攻击的影响因素

4.1 性别

在浪漫关系中, 人们一般认为男性是攻击的发起者, 女性是攻击的受害者, 然而最近的研究也开始强调了女性攻击者的作用(Murray-Close, 2011).研究表明, 关系攻击对于女性来说更为突出, 与男性相比, 女性更多地运用关系攻击并更多地受到关系攻击的困扰, 认为关系攻击会对关系造成更大的影响, 并会花更多的时间思考和讨论它(Mathieson, Klimes-Dougan, & Crick, 2014; Salmivalli & Kaukiainen, 2004).在儿童同伴关系中, 女孩更容易对其他女孩发起关系攻击, 而男孩更容易对其他男孩发起身体攻击(Crick & Grotpeter, 1995; Grotpeter & Crick, 1996).在浪漫关系中, Linder等(2002)的研究发现, 男性和女性报告了相同的关系攻击发起水平, 但男性报告了更高水平的关系攻击受害.Goldstein等(2008)的研究发现, 女性报告了更高的关系攻击发起水平, 男性报告了更高的关系攻击受害水平.Goldstein (2011)的研究结果同样表明, 女性在浪漫关系中会较男性表现出更多的关系攻击行为.然而, 有些研究并没有发现女性在浪漫关系中表现出更多的关系攻击行为.例如, Czar, Dahlen, Bullock和Nicholson (2011)以及Bagner等(2007)的研究发现, 男性和女性报告了相同的关系攻击水平.也有一项印度的研究表明, 男性较女性报告了更高的关系攻击水平, 研究者认为这可能与文化差异有关(Saini & Singh, 2008).

4.2 依恋

当个体在关系中感到不安全时, 他们的关系就更有可能出现问题(Goldstein et al., 2008).当不安全依恋的个体知觉到关系受到威胁, 为了维持在关系中的安全感, 他们就可能产生功能失调型愤怒, 并进而转换成对伴侣的攻击(Mayseless, 1991).Péloquin, Lafontaine和Brassard (2011)认为, 依恋焦虑的个体希望和伴侣保持彻底的亲密.然而, 由于他们对自我价值有着过度关注, 因而他们会对于被抛弃有一种慢性的恐惧.因此, 他们更有可能对伴侣使用心理攻击以告知对方自己在关系中的亲密需要没有得到满足.依恋回避的个体公开表达愤怒的可能性较低, 但他们为了与伴侣保持距离和回避亲密同样会对伴侣进行心理攻击.关系攻击作为心理攻击的一种子类型, 其与依恋的关联也与心理攻击与依恋的关联模式相一致.Oka等(2014)的研究发现, 对于男性和女性来说, 不安全依恋能够显著预测他们在浪漫关系中的关系攻击.Oka等(2016)的研究发现, 报告自己在关系中有更高不安全依恋水平的个体也会报告受到了更多的来自伴侣的关系攻击.这些研究表明, 不安全依恋与浪漫关系中关系攻击的发起与受害均存在密切联系.正如Goldstein等(2008)和Seiffge-Krenke和Burk (2015) 的研究发现, 不安全依恋的两个维度, 依恋焦虑和依恋回避都与关系攻击的发起与受害存在显著相关.

4.3 浪漫关系中的权力

浪漫关系中的权力能够对个体的认知,情绪情感和行为产生影响(王浩, 俞国良, 2017), 在权力不平衡的浪漫关系中会发生更多的相互攻击(Viejo, Monks, Sánchez, & Ortega-Ruiz, 2016).研究者认为, 在浪漫关系中权力较低者往往希望通过胁迫的方式增加自己在浪漫关系中的权力.关系攻击作为一种胁迫手段, 应与个体在浪漫关系中权力较小存在关联, 这可能也是女性更多使用关系攻击的原因.然而, 研究结果表明, 无论男性还是女性, 在浪漫关系中的权力越大, 则越有可能使用关系攻击(Madsen, 2012).Oka等(2016)的研究同样表明, 个体在浪漫关系中的权力越小, 就越有可能受到来自对方的关系攻击.这些研究结果与浪漫关系中的低权力者会更多地使用胁迫手段的研究结果相矛盾.研究者认为, 这可能是因为在最初阶段, 浪漫关系中的低权力者会将关系攻击作为提高权力的手段, 但他们在获得权力之后会依然使用关系攻击以维持自己在浪漫关系中的权力(Madsen, 2012).

4.4 同伴关系中的关系攻击

研究者认为, 朋友关系是社交和人际技能的训练场, 青少年在朋友关系和恋爱关系中往往会拥有相似的体验.如果个体能够在同伴关系中掌握适当的社交技能, 就能为他们获得成功的浪漫关系做好准备.相反, 有同性同伴互动不良历史的儿童可能会将这些适应不良的模式运用到浪漫关系之中(Ellis et al., 2009).Woodin等(2016)的研究表明, 青少年早期的同伴关系攻击和身体攻击能够对成年早期浪漫关系中的关系攻击产生预测作用, 其原因就是青少年会将在同伴关系中的失调行为倾向带入新的浪漫关系情境之中.Leadbeater, Sukhawathanakul, Holfeld和Temple (2017)的研究同样证实了同伴关系中的关系攻击对浪漫关系中关系攻击的预测作用, 他们认为, 与在同伴关系中一样, 个体会在浪漫关系中工具性地使用关系攻击以维持自己的地位或主导,控制他们的伴侣; 也可能是因为, 在同伴关系中的关系攻击体验能够提高个体对在浪漫关系中使用关系攻击的容忍度.总之, 理解从青少年期到成年早期关系攻击的发展对于防止攻击模式的恶化和固化, 以及避免产生消极的关系和心理健康结果非常重要(Woodin et al., 2016).

4.5 小结

上文分别讨论了性别,依恋,浪漫关系中的权力,同伴关系中的关系攻击对浪漫关系中关系攻击的影响, 我们可以从冲突解决策略的角度对这些影响过程进行理解.首先, 如前文所述, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击具有冲突解决策略的性质.与安全依恋个体能够恰当地处理自己的积极和消极情绪不同, 不安全依恋的个体更倾向于在冲突中使用非建设性的冲突解决策略(Bonache, Gonzalez- Mendez, & Krahé, 2017).其次, 关系攻击作为一种冲突解决策略具有一定的稳定性(Woodin et al., 2016), 个体会将在同伴关系中习得的处理冲突的模式带入到浪漫关系之中, 因此, 同伴关系中的关系攻击能够对浪漫关系中的关系攻击产生预测作用.由于女性在同伴关系中会更多地使用关系攻击(Crick & Grotpeter, 1995; Grotpeter & Crick, 1996), 因而她们在浪漫关系中发起关系攻击的可能性也更大.第三, 现有研究发现, 浪漫关系中的权力与关系攻击存在显著正相关, 这可能是因为, 浪漫关系中的一方通过关系攻击使自己获得了更大的权力, 获得权力后的个体会继续使用这种冲突解决策略以维持自己在浪漫关系中的权力(Madsen, 2012).然而, 有研究者认为, 浪漫关系中的高权力者能够根据情境需要灵活地选择目标与策略(Righetti et al., 2015), 因此, 情境因素是否能够对浪漫关系中的权力和关系攻击之间的关系产生影响, 仍然需要更多实证研究的检验.

5 研究展望

5.1 关注浪漫关系中关系攻击的动机

有研究者认为, 冲突并不是能够很好解释浪漫关系结果的一个变量, 因此, 应将关注的重点转移到其他变量.对浪漫关系中攻击行为的关注能够直接反映浪漫关系伴侣之间的行为交换, 体现了伴侣在应对冲突时的相互作用模式(Carroll et al., 2010).然而, 需要认识到的是, 在不同动机的驱使下, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击所带来的后果可能会截然不同.研究者认为, 浪漫关系中关系攻击的背后可能存在两种动机.第一, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击可能反映了在被冒犯的情况下, 浪漫关系中的一方向对方表达失望的间接企图.第二, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击可能是浪漫关系中的一方要求对方按自己的要求去做的操纵性手段(Meng, 2013).这实际上也正是对主动性关系攻击和反应性关系攻击进行区分的原因.在未来的研究中, 应对浪漫关系中关系攻击背后的动机予以更多关注.

5.2 澄清关系攻击发起与关系攻击受害之间的关系

研究表明, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击发起和关系攻击受害之间往往存在着显著相关(Goldstein et al., 2008; Schad et al., 2008), 并且关系攻击发起与受害也都与一系列的消极后果存在关联(Goldstein et al., 2008; Linder et al., 2002).然而, 浪漫关系中关系攻击发起与关系攻击受害存在关联的机制是什么仍没有得到充分解释.在之前的很多研究中, 研究者往往只对关系攻击发起和关系攻击受害其中之一进行考察, 而对两者关系缺少深入探讨, 这也就无法明确究竟是关系攻击发起还是关系攻击受害更能够对心理健康,关系质量等变量产生影响(Cramer, 2015).在一项对青少年同伴关系攻击的研究中, Prinstein, Boergers和Vernberg (2001)发现, 关系攻击发起往往与外化问题存在关联, 关系攻击受害往往与内化问题存在关联.在今后对浪漫关系中关系攻击的研究中, 也应对关系攻击发起与关系攻击受害之间的关系进行更为深入的探讨.

5.3 加强浪漫关系中关系攻击的理论建构与干预研究

当前对于浪漫关系中关系攻击的研究多浮于表面, 尽管较多的研究考察了浪漫关系中关系攻击的相关变量, 但并没有围绕浪漫关系中的关系攻击进行更深层次的理论建构.例如, 浪漫关系中的关系攻击与依恋存在关联(Oka et al., 2014), 那么, 这是否表明浪漫关系中的关系攻击是个体处理浪漫关系中不安全感的一种方式?与此同时, 在浪漫关系中的高权力也会导致高关系攻击(Madsen, 2012), 这是否又反映了浪漫关系中高权力者对对方的影响与控制?对这些问题进行回答都需要我们对浪漫关系中关系攻击的本质进行更为深入的理论思考.另外, 据笔者所知, 当前并没有针对浪漫关系中关系攻击进行的干预研究.浪漫关系中的关系攻击与个体早期的同伴关系攻击存在关联(Leadbeater et al., 2017; Woodin et al., 2016), 并且会在浪漫关系中保持相对稳定, 浪漫关系双方会拥有使用关系攻击的较为稳定的模式(Coyne et al., 2017).如何通过有效干预, 打破浪漫关系中关系攻击的稳定模式, 提高浪漫关系质量同样成为了心理学理论与实践工作者需要深入研究的一个问题.

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The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 169(1), 21-33.

URL     PMID:18476475      [本文引用: 1]

The authors examined how relational aggression, physical aggression, and proactive prosocial behavior were associated with jealousy and social anxiety in a diverse sample of 60 middle school students. After the authors controlled for gender and race, jealousy predicted relational aggression and proactive prosocial behavior, but it did not predict physical aggression. Additionally, social anxiety predicted proactive prosocial behavior. Adolescents who were more jealous in their peer relationships also tended to engage in relational aggression and proactive prosocial behavior, and adolescents who were more socially anxious also tended to be proactively prosocial. The authors discuss the implications of these findings and suggest directions for future research.

Czar, K. A . ( 2012).

Regional differences in relational aggression: The role of culture (Unpublished doctorial dissertation). The University of Southern Mississippi

Hattiesburg.

[本文引用: 2]

Czar K. A., Dahlen E. R., Bullock E. E., & Nicholson B. C . ( 2011).

Psychopathic personality traits in relational aggression among young adults

Aggressive Behavior, 37(2), 207-214.

URL     PMID:21120908      Magsci    

Psychopathy is a robust predictor of overt physical aggression that may also be relevant to relational aggression (RA). This study was conducted to investigate the utility of psychopathic personality traits in the prediction of RA in a sample of 291 college students. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that both primary and secondary psychopathic traits explained additional variance in general/peer and romantic RA beyond physical aggressiveness. Consistent with previous research, no gender differences were found on either form of RA, challenging the popular stereotype of RA as a female behavior. Moreover, psychopathic traits were not differentially predictive of RA by gender or level of physical aggressiveness. Implications of these findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 37:207–214, 2011. 08 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

El-Sheikh M., Kelly R. J., Koss K. J., & Rauer A. J . ( 2015).

Longitudinal relations between constructive and destructive conflict and couples’ sleep

Journal of Family Psychology, 29(3), 349-359.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

We examined longitudinal relations between interpartner constructive (negotiation) and destructive (psychological and physical aggression) conflict strategies and couples' over 1 year. Toward explicating processes of effects, we assessed the intervening role of internalizing symptoms in associations between conflict tactics and couples' . Participants were 135 cohabiting couples (M age = 37 years for women and 39 years for men). The sample included a large representation of couples exposed to economic adversity. Further, 68% were European American and the remainder were primarily African American. At Time 1 (T1), couples reported on their conflict and their mental health (, anxiety). At T1 and Time 2, was examined objectively with actigraphs for 7 nights. Three parameters were derived: efficiency, minutes, and latency. Actor-partner interdependence models indicated that husbands' use of constructive conflict forecasted increases in their own efficiency as well as their own and their wives' duration over time. Actor and partner effects emerged, and husbands' and wives' use of destructive conflict strategies generally predicted worsening of some parameters over time. Several mediation and intervening effects were observed for destructive conflict strategies. Some of these relations reveal that destructive conflict is associated with internalizing symptoms, which in turn are associated with some parameters longitudinally. These findings build on a small, albeit growing, literature linking with marital functioning, and illustrate that consideration of relationship processes including constructive conflict holds promise for gaining a better understanding of factors that influence the of men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record.

Ellis W. E., Crooks C. V., & Wolfe D. A . ( 2009).

Relational aggression in peer and dating relationships: Links to psychological and behavioral adjustment

Social Development, 18(2), 253-269.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

We examined the contribution of relational aggression in adolescents' peer and dating relationships to their psychological and behavioral adjustment. In the Fall and again four months later, 1279 (646 female) grade 9 students reported on relational aggression perpetration and victimization in their romantic and peer relationships, depression/anxiety symptoms (psychological adjustment) and delinquency (behavioral adjustment). Using hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for Time 1 adjustment/behavior, peer relational aggression perpetration predicted depression/anxiety. Dating relational victimization also predicted depression/anxiety, but only for girls. Furthermore, girls who were perpetrators of relational aggression in both peer and dating contexts were most likely to show increases in delinquent behavior. We conclude that dating and peer relationships are not redundant, but make independent and additive contributions to adolescent adjustment. Girls, in particular, may be at greatest risk for poor outcomes when they have relationally aggressive relationships. Results also highlight the need for greater awareness of the complexity and significance of adolescent dating relationships.

Ellison J. K., Kouros C. D., Papp L. M., & Cummings E. M . ( 2016).

Interplay between marital attributions and conflict behavior in predicting depressive symptoms

Journal of Family Psychology, 30(2), 286-295.

URL     PMID:4767684     

ABSTRACT Marital attributions-that is, causal inferences and explanations spouses make about their partners' behavior-have been implicated as predictors of relationship functioning. Extending previous work, we examined marital attributions as a moderator of the link between marital conflict and depressive symptoms 1 year later. Participants were 284 couples who reported on marital attributions and depressive symptoms. Couples also engaged in a videotaped marital conflict interaction, which was later coded for specific conflict behaviors. The results showed that husbands' and wives' marital attributions about their partner moderated relations between marital conflict behavior and later depressive symptoms, controlling for global marital sentiments. For husbands, positive behavior and affect during marital conflict predicted a decrease in depressive symptoms, but only for husbands' who made low levels of responsibility and causal attributions about their wives. Wives' causal attributions about their partner also moderated relations between positive behavior and affect during marital conflict and husbands' later depressive symptoms. Reflecting an unexpected finding, negative behavior and affect during marital conflict predicted increases in wives' depressive symptoms, but only for wives who made low levels of responsibility attributions about their partner. The findings suggest that, for husbands, low levels of negative marital attributions for spouses may be protective, strengthening the positive effect of constructive conflict behaviors for their mental health, whereas for wives low levels of responsibility attributions about their spouse may be a risk factor, exacerbating the negative effect of negative marital conflict behaviors on their later depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record

Follingstad, D. R . ( 2009).

The impact of psychological aggression on women's mental health and behavior: The status of the field

Trauma Violence Abuse, 10(3), 271-289.

URL     PMID:19460760      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Potential effects of psychological aggression have been investigated in terms of mental health disorders/symptoms, physical manifestations, personality traits, increases in physical and psychological aggression, and relationship changes and cessation. Probably because of methodological difficulties inherent in assessing this complex phenomenon, even the most commonly assessed outcome variables have produced contradictory results, with the exception of leaving or desiring to leave the psychologically abusive relationship. Some of the significant findings require more corroboration due to the small number of studies addressing them. The relative role of physical abuse in relation to psychological abuse has yet to be disentangled. Mediator/moderator variables are likely extremely important for explaining why particular consequences do not consistently result from psychological aggression. Although the hypothesized consequences/outcomes seem appropriate for further study, the most significant contribution may lie in intensive investigation of long-term, enduring psychological abuse that produces major personality and affective shifts in the recipient.

Follingstad D. R., Coyne S., & Gambone L . ( 2005).

A representative measure of psychological aggression and its severity

Violence and Victims, 20(1), 25-38.

URL     PMID:16047933     

Surveys of psychological aggression have been plagued by a variety of conceptual and measurement problems. A new measure was devised to more systematically cover a full range of psychologically aggressive actions; to include items for each dimension/category at a milder, moderate, and severe level; to be applicable to dating as well as marital relationships; and to utilize items that were broader in nature to capture all instances of particular types of psychological aggression. Three hundred and eighty-three college students rated the 51 items as to their degree of "psychological abusiveness." The 17 categories were rated as mostly distinct from each other; almost every category had statistically distinct mild, moderate and severe items; the overall scale yielded basically normal psychometric properties; and the total score, as well as the scores for the mild, moderate, and severe items, all had very high internal consistency. Ratings of these items appear to be distinct from social desirability as well as from a number of attitudinal response sets, and only sex of the participant was significantly, although weakly, correlated with overall ratings of the psychological aggression items. This measure may provide for more systematic investigation into the concept of psychological aggression.

Goldstein, S. E . ( 2011).

Relational aggression in young adults' friendships and romantic relationships

Personal Relationships, 18(4), 645-656.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

This study examines young adults' experiences with relational aggression among friends and romantic partners. Results suggest that relational aggression occurs more frequently among romantic partners than among friends. A gender difference in relational aggression emerged in the romantic context (females were more aggressive), but no gender difference was found in the friendship context. Relationship exclusivity and normative beliefs about relational aggression predicted aggressive behavior across contexts, while rumination predicted relational aggression in the romantic context but not in the friendship context. Implications of these findings, as well as directions for future research, are discussed.

Goldstein S. E., Chesir-Teran D., & McFaul A . ( 2008).

Profiles and correlates of relational aggression in young adults' romantic relationships

Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(3), 251-265.

URL     Magsci     [本文引用: 5]

The present study examines prevalence and correlates of experiencing and perpetrating relational aggression in the context of young adults romantic relationships. We assess correlates of relational aggression in four domains of risk: (1) Social-cognitive, (2) Relationship, (3) Trait/dispositional, and (4) Mental health. Results indicate that modest involvement in relational aggression is relatively common. Females reported higher levels of perpetration whereas males reported higher levels of victimization. Relational aggression and victimization were related to each domain of risk for both men and women, although different patterns of findings emerged for each domain. For example, individuals who reported perpetrating relational aggression in their romantic relationships believed that aggression was most acceptable (social-cognitive risk) whereas individuals who reported experiencing relational aggression (as victims) were more likely to indicate that their self worth is contingent on relationships and that romantic relationships are very important to them (dispositional risk). Respondents who reported either perpetrating or experiencing relational aggression had higher levels of exclusivity in their relationships and were more likely to describe their relationships in anxious attachment terms (relationship risk). They also reported higher levels of depressive and anxious symptoms (mental health risk). Implications of these results for theory and prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.

Grotpeter, J. K., &Crick N.R . ( 1996).

Relational aggression, overt aggression, and friendship

Child Development, 67(5), 2328-2338.

[本文引用: 6]

Jose, A., &O'Leary K.D . ( 2009).

Prevalence of partner aggression in representative and clinic samples

In K. D. O'Leary & E. M. Woodin (Eds.), Psychological and physical aggression in couples: Causes and interventions( pp. 15-35). Washington: American Psychological Association.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

react-text: 524 The role of partner schema in memory for laboratory-presented stimuli was examined to evaluate the existence of memory bias associated with partner sentiment. Highly dissatisfied (n = 30) or satisfied (n = 35) dating individuals rated, recalled, and estimated the frequency of positive and negative partner trait-relevant words. Word applicability ratings were consistent with relationship schema... /react-text react-text: 525 /react-text [Show full abstract]

Kansky, J. ( 2018).

What's love got to do with it? Romantic relationships and well-being

In E. Diener, S. Oishi, & L. Tay (Eds.), Handbook of well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers.

[本文引用: 1]

Leadbeater B. J., Sukhawathanakul P., Holfeld B., & Temple J. R . ( 2017).

The effects of continuities in parent and peer aggression on relational intimate partner violence in the transition to young adulthood

Prevention Science, 18(3), 350-360.

URL     PMID:28120160      [本文引用: 1]

Past research suggests that exposure to parent psychological control and peer relational aggression and victimization experienced during adolescence is associated with relational intimate partner violence (IPV) in young adults (ages 22 to 29). However, the effects of continuities in these concerns across young adulthood have not been assessed. Relational IPV is characterized by behaviors intended to damage partner's emotional well-being and security in a romantic relationship (e.g., threatening to break up, purposefully ignoring, or causing jealousy). Six waves of data were collected biennially across 10years from 662 participants (342 females) who were 12 to 18years old in 2003. The 334 youth who were in a current romantic relationship at the sixth wave (T6, 10years later) are the focus of this research. Tests of hypothesized structural equation models indicated that adolescent experiences of psychological control with fathers (but not mothers) predicted relational IPV at T6, but this association was no longer significant after accounting for continuity in father psychological control in young adulthood. Adolescent experiences of relational aggression and victimization with peers also predicted relational IPV at T6. This association remained significant for males, only, after continuity in experiences of relational aggression and victimization with peers in young adulthood was included in the model. Implications for the prevention of relational IPV in adolescence and young adults are discussed.

Lemay E. P., Jr., Clark M. S., & Feeney B. C . ( 2007).

Projection of responsiveness to needs and construction of satisfying communcal relationships

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(5), 834-853.

URL     PMID:17484608      [本文引用: 1]

This research tested a social projection model of perceived partner responsiveness to needs. According to this model, people project their own care and supportiveness for a partner onto their perceptions of their partner's caring and supportiveness. In 2 dyadic marriage studies, participants' self-reported responsiveness to the needs of a spouse predicted perceptions of the spouse's responsiveness to the self more strongly than did the spouse's self-reported responsiveness. These projected perceptions of responsiveness, in turn, appeared to promote perceivers' relationship satisfaction. These effects were independent of individual differences in attachment, self-esteem, , and communal orientation. A daily-diary component suggested that people projected their own chronic responsiveness as well as their daily enacted support onto perceptions of the specific benefits received from their spouses. A 3rd study found that experimentally manipulated feelings of difficulty in recalling examples of own support provision reduced perceptions of partner responsiveness. Results suggest that projection of own responsiveness is an important determinant of perceived social support and is a means by which caring perceivers maintain satisfying and subjectively communal relationships.

Linder J. R., Crick N. R., & Collins W. A . ( 2002).

Relational aggression and victimization in young adults' romantic relationships: Associations with perceptions of parent, peer, and romantic relationship quality

Social Development, 11(1), 69-86.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Abstract This study had three goals: (a) To investigate gender differences in relational aggression and victimization within young adults' romantic relationships, (b) to investigate associations between romantic relational aggression and victimization and perceptions of romantic relationship quality, and (c) to explore parent and peer predictors of romantic relational aggression and victimization. College students (70 females and 34 males) completed self-reports of romantic relational aggression and victimization, and parent, peer, and romantic relationship quality. Men and women reported equal levels of romantic relational aggression, and men reported higher levels of victimization than women. Aggression and victimization were positively correlated with negative romantic relationship qualities and negatively correlated with positive relationship qualities. Regression analyses indicated that both romantic relational victimization and romantic relational aggression explained variance in romantic relationship quality. There were several significant associations between parent and peer relationship quality and romantic relational aggression and victimization, which suggest that poor relationships with parents and peers may play a role in the development and maintenance of these behaviors.

Madsen, C. A . ( 2012).

The impact of marital power on relational aggression (Unpublished doctorial dissertation). Kansas State University

Manhattan.

[本文引用: 5]

Marsee M. A., Frick P. J., Barry C. T., Kimonis E. R., Centifanti L. C. M., & Aucoin K. J . ( 2014).

Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples

Development and Psychopathology, 26(3), 705-720.

URL     PMID:25047293      Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n= 307), voluntary residential (n= 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n= 659) adolescents (ages 11–19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous–unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous–unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster.

Martin M. P., Miller R. B., Kubricht B., Yorgason J. B., & Carroll J. S . ( 2015).

Relational aggression and self-reported spousal health: A longitudinal analysis

Contemporary Family Therapy, 37(4), 386-395.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Previous research indicates that overt marital conflict is a risk factor for poor spousal health. However, there are no studies, to date, that examine the impact of covert conflict on spousal health.

Mathieson L. C., Klimes-Dougan B., & Crick N. R . ( 2014).

Dwelling on it may make it worse: The links between relational victimization, relational aggression, rumination, and depressive symptoms in adolescents

Development and Psychopathology, 26(3), 735-747.

URL     PMID:25047295      Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Although there is considerable evidence that relational victimization is associated with depressive symptoms in youth, our understanding about the mechanisms by which victimization and depressive symptoms are linked is limited. The current study explored ruminating about victimization experiences as a potential mechanism that might contribute to an understanding of the association between relational victimization and depressive symptoms. We also tested the specificity of the proposed models by controlling for and testing parallel models of a highly related behavior: relational aggression. A sample of 499 adolescents from sixth through eighth grades participated. Teacher reports were used to assess relational victimization and relational aggression. Self-reports were used to assess depressive symptoms and rumination. The results showed that rumination partially mediated the association between relational victimization and depressive symptoms. No moderation effect was found. In contrast, rumination moderated the association between relational aggression and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational aggression was associated with depressive symptoms for those adolescents who were also ruminators. Thus, ruminating about victimization experiences appears to be an important mechanism that functions differently for relational aggression and relational victimization in conferring risk for depressive symptoms. The findings offer important practical implications for those working with adolescents and also lay the groundwork for future research.

Mayseless, O. ( 1991).

Adult attachment patterns and courtship violence

Family Relations, 40(1), 21-28.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This article explores the possible relationships between adult attachment and violence among intimates. An attempt is made to understand the apparent contradiction between intimacy and violence by the heuristic use of adults' attachment patterns. Two insecure attachment patterns are described (Avoidant and Anxious/ambivalent). Each of them is related to specific manifestations of courtship violence in a specific dyadic interaction. These concepts contribute to an understanding of courtship violence as an exaggerated form of a behavior (anger and protest) which in the right time and place is functional in the regulation of intimacy. The descriptions of the specific patterns may aid in tailoring interventions to suit the different underlying problems of individuals involved in courtship violence.

Menesini E., Nocentini A., Ortega-Rivera F. J., Sanchez V., & Ortega R . ( 2011).

Reciprocal involvement in adolescent dating aggression: An Italian-Spanish study

European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8(4), 437-451.

URL     Magsci    

This study aimed to: (1) analyse the association of different patterns of reciprocal involvement in dating aggression (reciprocal psychological and physical aggression; reciprocal psychological aggression; non-aggressive individuals) with different qualities of romantic relationship; and (2) compare results in two European countries, Italy and Spain. Participants were 304 adolescents (141 Italy, 163 Spain) with a current dating relationship. Results in both countries showed that adolescents involved in reciprocal psychological and physical aggression are more likely to have higher levels of couple conflict and power imbalance as compared to the reciprocal psychological aggressive group and to the non-aggressive individuals. Besides, adolescents involved in reciprocal psychological aggression are more likely to have lower levels of support as compared to the non-aggressive individuals. Discussion is focused on different patterns of reciprocal involvement differentiated in relation to level of aggression, conflict and power imbalance.

Meng, K. N . ( 2013).

Couple implicit rules for facilitating disclosure and relationship quality with romantic relational aggression as a mediator (Unpublished doctorial dissertation). Brigham Young University

Provo.

[本文引用: 1]

Michiels D., Grietens H., Onghena P., & Kuppens S . ( 2008).

Parent-child interactions and relational aggression in peer relationships

Developmental Review, 28(4), 522-540.

Magsci     [本文引用: 5]

<h2 class="secHeading" id="section_abstract">Abstract</h2><p id="">The major aim of this review is to propose new ways of thinking about the role of parents in the development and course of children&rsquo;s relationally aggressive behavior. An important theoretical framework from which to start thinking about linkages between parenting and relational aggression is provided by attachment theory. Attachment theory proposes that early family experiences are an important basis for the development of later peer relationships. Recent studies are only beginning to suggest possible linkages between children&rsquo;s parental attachment and relational aggression. One possible reason for the scant research is that theoreticians studying these constructs have not yet developed a conceptual framework combining the two, but rather have focused on different characteristics of different interpersonal contexts. Based on the premise that both relational aggression and attachment are relational constructs and given the already established correlations between insecure attachment and physical aggression, this paper will attempt to devise a heuristic model that may serve as an aid to discover links between parent&ndash;child interactions, attachment, and relational aggression. Finally, implications for future studies of relational aggression are discussed.</p>

Murphy, C. M., &O'Leary K.D . ( 1989).

Psychological aggression predicts physical aggression in early marriage

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(5), 579-582.

URL     PMID:2794178      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Psychological aggression by self and partner, physical aggression by the partner, and marital dissatisfaction were examined as longitudinal predictors of first instances of physical aggression during marriage. Subjects who were not physically aggressive at a premarital assessment were selected from a sample of 393 engaged couples. Couples participated in three subsequent assessments over the first 30 months of marriage. As hypothesized, individuals' own psychological aggression predicted their initial incidents of physical aggression in marriage. Psychological aggression by their partners also predicted initial incidents of physical aggression. Prior physical aggression by their partners was inconsistently associated with first instances of physical aggression. Contrary to our hypothesis, previous levels of marital dissatisfaction did not predict initial incidents of physical aggression. These findings were consistent across sexes. The results underscore the progression from psychological to physical abuse and have clear implications for understanding the development and prevention of interspousal aggression.

Murray-Close, D. ( 2011).

Autonomic reactivity and romantic relational aggression among female emerging adults: Moderating roles of social and cognitive risk

International Journal of Psychophysiology, 80(1), 28-35.

URL     PMID:21251934      Magsci     [本文引用: 2]

http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167876011000080

Murray-Close D., Holland A. S., & Roisman G. I . ( 2012).

Autonomic arousal and relational aggression in heterosexual dating couples

Personal Relationships, 19(2), 203-218.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

This study investigated the association between romantic relational aggression and autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal in the context of heterosexual dating couples (N = 115 couples). Results indicated that romantic relational aggression was associated with low resting sympathetic arousal, high resting parasympathetic arousal, and exaggerated fight or flight responses to a conflict discussion (sympathetic activation and parasympathetic withdrawal). However, ANS activity was more strongly associated with romantic relational aggression in the context of low-quality romantic relationships, and sympathetic activity was more strongly associated with aggression among females, whereas parasympathetic activity was more strongly associated with aggression among males. Results indicate that psychophysiological functioning may serve as a risk factor for the perpetration of relational aggression against romantic partners.

Murray-Close D., Nelson D. A., Ostrov J. M., Casas J. F., & Crick N. R . ( 2016).

Relational aggression: A developmental psychopathology perspective

In D. Cicchetti (Ed.), Developmental psychopathology: Risk, resilience, and intervention( pp. 660-722). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract In the past two decades, there has been significant interest among developmental psychopathologists in the study of relational forms of aggression, including gossip, social exclusion, and rumor spreading. This chapter reviews recent advances in research regarding the development of relational aggression in males and females. We focus on conceptual challenges in defining relational aggression, normative and atypical developmental trajectories, and theoretical and empirical work regarding gender differences in such conduct. We also examine potential mechanisms involved in the development of relational aggression, including biobehavioral, cognitive-emotional, and social risk factors. Next, we discuss both positive and negative developmental outcomes associated with involvement in relational aggression. Implications for both cross-cultural research and interventions are discussed. Finally, developmental psychopathology perspectives and directions for future research are highlighted. Keywords: development; relational aggression; gender; interventions; psychopathology; theory; hostile attribution bias; culture

Murray-Close D., Ostrov J. M., Nelson D. A., Crick N. R., & Coccaro E. F . ( 2010).

Proactive, reactive, and romantic relational aggression in adulthood: Measurement, predictive validity, gender differences, and association with Intermittent Explosive Disorder

Journal of Psychiatric Research, 44(6), 393-404.

URL     PMID:19822329      Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

The psychometric properties of a recently introduced adult self-report of relational aggression are presented. Specifically, the predictive utility of proactive and reactive peer-directed relational aggression, as well as romantic relational aggression, are explored in a large ( N = 1387) study of adults. The measure had adequate reliability and validity and the subscales demonstrated unique predictive abilities for a number of dependent variables. In particular, reactive but not proactive relational aggression was uniquely associated with history of abuse, hostile attribution biases, and feelings of distress regarding relational provocation situations. Reactive relational aggression was also more strongly related to anger and hostility than proactive aggression. In addition, relational aggression in the context of romantic relationships was uniquely related to anger, hostility, impulsivity, history of abuse, hostile attribution biases, and emotional sensitivity to relational provocations, even when controlling for peer-directed relational aggression. Gender differences in overall levels of relational aggression were not observed; however, males were most likely to engage in peer-directed proactive and reactive relational aggression whereas females were most likely to engage in romantic relational aggression. In a second study ( N = 150), relational aggression was higher in a sample of adults with Intermittent Explosive Disorder than in a sample of healthy controls or psychiatric controls. The findings highlight the importance of assessing subtypes of relational aggression in adult samples. Ways in which this measure may extend research in psychology and psychiatry are discussed.

Neal A. M ., & Lemay, E. P., Jr.

[本文引用: 1]

(in press). The wandering eye perceives more threats: Projection of attraction to alternative partners predicts anger and negative behavior in romantic relationships.Journal of Social and Personal Relationships.

[本文引用: 1]

Oka M., Brown C. C., & Miller R. B . ( 2016).

Attachment and relational aggression: Power as a mediating variable

The American Journal of Family Therapy, 44(1), 24-35.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Evidence illustrates that insecure romantic attachment predicts higher levels of relational aggression. However, no research has attempted to explain that relationship with mediating variables, such as relationship power, which is associated with attachment and partner violence. Data for this study included 457 couples from Wave 2 of the Flourishing Families Study. Actor Partner Interdependence results indicated that insecure attachment was significantly predictive of relational aggression actor effects. There was also a significant partner effect between male insecure attachment and female relational aggression, and power was a significant mediator between attachment and relational aggression for males and females.

Oka M., Sandberg J. G., Bradford A. B., & Brown A . ( 2014).

Insecure attachment behavior and partner violence: Incorporating couple perceptions of insecure attachment and relational aggression

Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 40(4), 412-429.

URL     PMID:24893884      Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Intimate partner violence and insecure attachment are therapeutically relevant concepts when working with couples. The link between attachment and intimate partner violence has been examined in the literature, but an area of aggression that often goes unexamined is relational aggression, or using third parties as a means of being aggressive toward a partner. We asked how participants' attachment behaviors were related to their own and partners' relational and physical aggression. We used structural equation modeling to estimate actor-partner interdependence among these relationships in 644 heterosexual couples. Results indicated significant partner paths from attachment to relational aggression, as well as significant actor paths between relational aggression and physical aggression. Implications were discussed. Data for this study were collected from the RELATE assessment. 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

Papp, L. M . ( 2018).

Topics of marital conflict in the everyday lives of empty nest couples and their implications for conflict resolution

Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy, 17(1), 7-24.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract To improve our understanding of marriage experiences during midlife, diary reports of naturalistic marital conflict were collected from 55 couples who were parents of grown children who had left the home. Communication, chores, and habits were the most frequent sources of disagreements reported by husbands and wives. Hierarchical linear models tested the unique associations between multiple conflict topics and interaction characteristics (length, recurrence, initiator, and importance) and constructive, angry, and depressive resolution strategies. Husbands and wives similarly rated money and habits as recurrent topics and conflicts concerning money and children as holding relatively high levels of current and long-term importance to the relationship. Compared with other topics, husbands and wives consistently perceived conflicts concerning habits and communication as being handled in relatively angry ways (e.g., defensiveness) and marital conflicts about children as eliciting greater depressive conflict (e.g., withdrawal, sadness). Husbands also viewed conflicts concerning relatives and commitment as being handled in relatively depressive ways. The findings explicate substantive sources of midlife marital disagreements and offer future research and clinical directions.

Péloquin K., Lafontaine M.-F., & Brassard A . ( 2011).

A dyadic approach to the study of romantic attachment, dyadic empathy, and psychological partner aggression

Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 28(7), 915-942.

Magsci    

This study examined the intrapersonal, dyadic, and mediational relationships underlying romantic attachment (Experiences in Close Relationships), dyadic empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index for Couples), and psychological partner aggression (Revised Conflict Tactics Scales) in 193 community-based couples. In women, attachment insecurity predicted lower dyadic empathy and greater psychological aggression. In men, attachment insecurity predicted lower perspective taking, higher empathic concern, and greater psychological aggression. Partner effects were found for men, with their attachment predicting their female partner's dyadic empathy and psychological aggression. In women, low perspective taking mediated the relationship between: (1) their anxiety over abandonment and their psychological aggression; and (2) their avoidance of intimacy and their psychological aggression. Findings are consistent with the attachment theory and clinical implications are discussed.

Prather E., Dahlen E. R., Nicholson B. C., & Bullock-Yowell E . ( 2012).

Relational aggression in college students' dating relationships

Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 21(7), 705-720.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study focused on romantic relational aggression, a variable that appears to predict intimate partner violence but remains understudied in the college population. College student participants (N65=65260) between the ages of 18 and 25 who reported that they had been in a romantic relationship during the past year completed measures of romantic relational aggression, sex role attitudes, acceptance of couple violence, and trait anger. Although respondent gender and sex role attitudes predicted romantic relational aggression as expected, gender did not moderate the relationship between sex role attitudes and relational aggression. Acceptance of violence predicted the perpetration of romantic relational aggression above and beyond the effects of trait anger and sex role attitudes. Trait anger also predicted romantic relational aggression.

Prinstein M. J., Boergers J., & Vernberg E. M . ( 2001).

Overt and relational aggression in adolescents: Social- psychological adjustment of aggressors and victims

Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30(4), 479-491.

URL     PMID:11708236     

Examined the relative and combined associations among relational and overt forms of aggression and victimization and adolescents' concurrent depression symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, and externalizing behavior. An ethnically diverse sample of 566 adolescents (55% girls) in Grades 9 to 12 participated. Results replicated prior work on relational aggression and victimization as distinct forms of peer behavior that are uniquely associated with concurrent social-psychological adjustment. Victimization was associated most closely with internalizing symptoms, and peer aggression was related to symptoms of disruptive behavior disorder. Findings also supported the hypothesis that victims of multiple forms of aggression are at greater risk for adjustment difficulties than victims of one or no form of aggression. Social support from close friends appeared to buffer the effects of victimization on adjustment.

Righetti F., Luchies L. B., van Gils S., Slotter E. B., Witcher B., & Kumashiro M . ( 2015).

The prosocial versus proself power holder: How power influences sacrifice in romantic relationships

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(6), 779-790.

URL     PMID:25810413      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Romantic partners often have to sacrifice their interests to benefit their partner or to maintain the relationship. In the present work, we investigated whether relative power within the relationship plays an important role in determining the extent to which partners are likely to sacrifice. Drawing from both classic theories and recent research on power, we tested two competing predictions on the relationship between power and sacrifice in romantic relationships. We tested whether (a) power is negatively related to sacrifice and (b) power is positively related to sacrifice. Furthermore, we also explored whether the association between power and sacrifice is moderated by commitment and inclusion of the other in the self. To test our hypotheses, we used different methodologies, including questionnaires, diary studies, and videotaped interactions. Results across the five studies (N = 1,088) consistently supported the hypothesis that power is negatively related to tendencies to sacrifice in close relationships. 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

Saini, S., & Singh J. ( 2008).

Gender differences in relational aggression and psychosocial problems in romantic relationships among youths

Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 34(2), 279-286.

[本文引用: 2]

Salmivalli, C., & Kaukiainen A. ( 2004).

"Female aggression" revisited: Variable- and person-centered approaches to studying gender differences in different types of aggression

Aggressive Behavior, 30(2), 158-163.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

We looked for evidence supporting the hypothesis that girls are more indirectly aggressive than boys by 1) comparing the average scores of girls and boys on the Direct Indirect Aggression Scales [Bj?rkqvist et al., 1992b], and 2) by comparing the distributions of boys and girls in five cluster groups representing different aggression profiles, or combinations of values in physical, verbal, and indirect aggression. The subjects were 526 children in three separate age groups: 10, 12, and 14 years. While boys were, on average, both directly and indirectly more aggressive than girls, the cluster analysis revealed a group of highly aggressive adolescents whose use of aggression was predominantly indirect. The members of this cluster group (n=36) were all girls. Aggr. Behav. 30:158-163, 2004. ? 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Schad M. M., Szwedo D. E., Antonishak J., Hare A., & Allen J. P . ( 2008).

The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships: Predictions from peer pressure and links to psychosocial functioning

Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(3), 346-358.

URL     PMID:2409192      Magsci     [本文引用: 2]

The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at age 15 and from adolescents and their romantic partners at age 18. Teens&#8217; relational aggression and romantic partners&#8217; victimization were predicted from levels of best friends&#8217; pressuring behaviors toward teens in an observed interaction as well as from best friends&#8217; ratings of how much pressure teens experienced from their peer group. Romantic partner relational aggression and teen victimization were predicted by pressure from teens&#8217; peer group only. Adolescents&#8217; romantic relational aggression and victimization were also associated with elevated levels of depressive symptoms and increased alcohol use. Results are discussed in terms of the connection of relational aggression in romantic relationships to the broader task of establishing autonomy with peers in psychosocial development.

Schrodt P., Witt P. L., & Shimkowski J. R . ( 2014).

A meta-analytical review of the demand/withdraw pattern of interaction and its associations with individual, relational, and communicative outcomes

Communication Monographs, 81(1), 28-58.

URL     Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

This meta-analysis reviews the findings of 74 studies (N = 14,255) examining the associations between the demand/withdraw pattern of interaction and individual, relational, and communicative outcomes. When both the individual behaviors of demanding and withdrawing and the pattern of demand/withdraw are considered collectively, the cumulative evidence indicates a moderate, meaningful relationship between demand/withdraw and overall outcomes (r=.360). Similar overall effect sizes were observed for wife demand/husband withdraw (r=.380) and husband demand/wife withdraw (r=.392), although the overall effect size for demand/withdraw patterns in studies that included distressed/clinical participants (r=.413) was greater in magnitude than that obtained for studies that included nondistressed participants (r=.345). On average, higher correlations were observed for relational (r=.423) and communicative outcomes (r=.418) than for demographic (r=.239) and well-being outcomes (r=.249).

Seiffge-Krenke, I., &Burk W.J . ( 2015).

The dark side of romantic relationships: Aggression in adolescent couples and links to attachment

Mental Health & Prevention, 3(4), 135-142.

URL    

This study focuses on romantic relationships from the perspective of both partners. This dyadic approach was chosen to account for the fact that both partners may differently contribute to the escalation of aggression. In a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads, differences between female and male partners壮 reports of aggression (relational and physical) and measures of attachment security and jealousy were assessed. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads with mutually aggressive or one-sided aggressive dyad. Of note were dyads with aggressive females and self-silencing males. The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning with a lack of secure, trusting relationship qualities and high jealousy. The discussion focuses on the formative character of aggression in these early romantic relations, and the gender-specific functions of aggression in one-sided aggressive dyads.

Soenens B., Vansteenkiste M., Goossens L., Duriez B., & Niemiec C. P . ( 2008).

The intervening role of relational aggression between psychological control and friendship quality

Social Development, 17(3), 661-681.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

This study investigated the associations among psychologically controlling parenting, relational aggression, friendship quality, and loneliness during adolescence. A model was proposed in which relational aggression plays an intervening role in the relations between both parental psychological control and friendship outcomes. In a sample comprised of middle adolescents and their parents, process analyses revealed that psychological control (indexed by parent and adolescent reports) positively predicted adolescents' self-reported relational aggression that, in turn, negatively predicted friendship quality and positively predicted loneliness. The model held for both mothers and fathers and was not moderated by adolescent gender. The discussion focuses on possible mechanisms explaining the relations among psychological control, relational aggression, and friendship outcomes.

Stappenbeck, C. A., & Fromme K. ( 2014).

The effects of alcohol, emotion regulation, and emotional arousal on the dating aggression intentions of men and women

Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 28(1), 10-19.

URL     PMID:23586449      Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Verbal and physical dating aggression is prevalent among college-aged men and women, especially a pattern of mutual aggression in which both partners engage in aggression. Alcohol intoxication and anger arousal have been implicated in the occurrence of aggression, and the ability to regulate one's emotions may interact with both alcohol intoxication and emotional arousal to predict dating aggression. The current study is the first known experimental investigation to examine the effects of alcohol intoxication, alcohol expectancies, emotion regulation, and emotional arousal on dating aggression. Participants were randomized to receive alcohol (n = 48), placebo (n = 48), or no alcohol (n = 48). Intoxicated men and women expressed more verbal and physical aggression intentions than those in the no-alcohol condition, and individuals in the placebo condition did not significantly differ from those in the alcohol and no-alcohol conditions. These results suggest that the pharmacological effects of alcohol were important to the occurrence of dating aggression, whereas the effects of expectancy are less clear. Among those less able to engage in cognitive reappraisal, individuals who consumed or believed they consumed alcohol expressed more verbal and physical aggression intentions than those who received no alcohol. Those with higher arousal who were better able to suppress their emotions expressed fewer verbal and physical aggression intentions than those with lower arousal. In addition to reducing alcohol consumption, interventions for dating aggression might incorporate emotion regulation skills, with a focus on understanding the circumstances in which cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression are relatively more effective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

Timmons A. C., Arbel R., & Margolin G . ( 2017).

Daily patterns of stress and conflict in couples: Associations with marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression

Journal of Family Psychology, 31(1), 93-104.

URL     PMID:27504754      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract For many married individuals, the ups and downs of daily life are connected such that stressors impacting one person also impact the other person. For example, stress experienced by one individual may "spill over" to negatively impact marital functioning. This study used both partners' daily diary data to examine same-day and cross-day links between stress and marital conflict and tested several factors that make couples vulnerable to spillover. Assessment of 25 wide-ranging sources of daily stress included both paid and unpaid work, health issues, financial concerns, and having to make difficult decisions. Results showed that both husbands' and wives' experiences of total daily stress were associated with greater same-day marital conflict and that conflict was greater on days both spouses experienced high levels of stress. Evidence of cross-day spillover was found only in those couples with high concurrent marital aggression and in couples where wives reported high family-of-origin aggression. These results highlight both the common, anticipated nature of same-day spillover and the potentially problematic aspects of more prolonged patterns representing failure to recover from stressors that occurred the previous day. The discussion focuses on how reactivity in one life domain puts that individual at risk for generating stress in another life domain and how current marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression are associated with difficulty recovering from stressful events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

Tougas C., Péloquin K., & Mondor J . ( 2016).

Romantic attachment and perception of partner support to explain psychological aggression perpetrated in couples seeking couples therapy

Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice, 5(4), 197-211.

[本文引用: 1]

Tseng W.-L., Banny A. M., Kawabata Y., Crick N. R., & Gau S. S.-F . ( 2013).

A cross-lagged structural equation model of relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status in a Chinese culture

Aggressive Behavior, 39(4), 301-315.

URL     PMID:23606625      Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations among relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status (i.e., acceptance, rejection, and perceived popularity) across three time points, six months apart, in a Taiwanese sample. Participants were 198 fifth grade students (94 girls and 104 boys; Mean age65=6510.35 years) from Taipei, Taiwan. Study variables were assessed using peer nomination procedure. Results from the cross-lagged structural equation models demonstrated that there were longitudinal associations between relational aggression and each of the peer status constructs while only one longitudinal association was found for physical aggression such that physical aggression positively predicted subsequent peer rejection. The longitudinal associations did not vary with gender. Results also showed high stabilities of relational aggression, physical aggression, and the three peer status constructs over 1 year as well as high concurrent association between relational and physical aggression. In addition, relational aggression and physical aggression were concurrently related to less acceptance, more rejection, and less perceived popularity, especially at the outset of the study. Findings of this study demonstrated both similarities and differences in relation to previous literature in primarily Western cultures. This study also highlights the bidirectional and complex nature of the association between aggression and peer status, which appears to depend on the form of aggression and on the particular indicator of peer status under study. Aggr. Behav. 39:301–315, 2013. 08 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Viejo C., Monks C. P., Sánchez V., & Ortega-Ruiz R . ( 2016).

Physical dating violence in Spain and the United Kingdom and the importance of relationship quality

Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31(8), 1453-1475.

URL     PMID:25604968      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Mixed-gender friendships, romantic relationships, and sexual behaviors increase during adolescence as a normal part of development. However, some studies have revealed potential risks to these types of social relationships. Different authors have indicated that dating violence among adolescents is an issue for concern. To date, there has been little research on this topic cross-nationally. This study examined and compared the prevalence and characteristics of physical dating violence among young people aged between 15 and 18 years in England and Spain (N = 200 in Spain, N = 199 in England), and how being involved (or not) in this violence relates to romantic relationship quality. Results indicated that approximately 23% of young people reported victimization and 30% reported perpetrating physical dating violence. In both countries, most of those involved in physical dating violence reported involvement in reciprocal violence (displaying both aggression and victimization). Those young people involved in dating violence reported higher levels on scales assessing negative aspects of relationship quality compared with those not involved, but there were no significant differences in positive aspects of relationship quality. Furthermore, different patterns appeared relating to the severity of violence and country. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for theory and practice. The Author(s) 2015.

Voulgaridou, I., &Kokkinos C.M . ( 2015).

Relational aggression in adolescents: A review of theoretical and empirical research

Aggression and Violent Behavior, 23, 87-97.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The need for an integrated approach to studying relationally aggressive behavior is evident, considering the growing though scattered and fragmentary research documenting the predictors and outcomes of this behavior. In the current paper a comprehensive review of the extant literature concerning relationally aggressive behavior of adolescents is presented, taking into account the conclusive evidence supporting the prevalence of relational aggression during this developmental stage. It opens with a conceptual clarification of the term and discussion of the theoretical approaches to the study of this aggressive form of behavior. It focuses on the main findings of the relevant theory and empirical research providing insight into both individual and contextual antecedents as well as the correlates of relationally aggressive behavior. Assessment methods for identifying relational aggression in children and adolescents are described, with an emphasis on measurement techniques most sustainable for capturing this sometimes-intangible construct. The article concludes with a discussion of proposed best practices for effectively preventing and responding to incidents of relational aggression within the context of social and emotional learning, positive behavioral or family-based interventions. Recommendations for future investigations with reference to the current theoretical conceptualizations and empirical findings on relational aggression are advanced.

Werner, N. E., &Crick N.R . ( 1999).

Relational aggression and social-psychological adjustment in a college sample

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108(4), 615-623.

URL     PMID:10609426      [本文引用: 1]

Although the understanding of has been significantly advanced through the study of relational , past research has been limited by its predominant focus on children. This study examines the associations between relational and social-psychological adjustment in a sample of young adults. A peer-nomination instrument was constructed to assess relational , and self-reports of adjustment were obtained from 225 college students (45% male; mean age = 19.5). Regression analyses showed that relational provided unique information, after controlling for age and gender, about peer rejection, prosocial , features, and features. Interactions with gender further showed that, for women, relational was linked with bulimic symptoms. The importance of relational for understanding adjustment problems during young adulthood are discussed.

Willoughby B. J., Carroll J. S., Busby D. M., & Brown C. C . ( 2016).

Differences in pornography use among couples: Associations with satisfaction, stability, and relationship processes

Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(1), 145-158.

URL     PMID:26228990      [本文引用: 1]

The present study utilized a sample of 1755 adult couples in heterosexual romantic relationships to examine how different patterns of pornography use between romantic partners may be associated with...

Woodin E. M., Sukhawathanakul P., Caldeira V., Homel J., & Leadbeater B . ( 2016).

Pathways to romantic relational aggression through adolescent peer aggression and heavy episodic drinking

Aggressive Behavior, 42(6), 563-576.

URL     PMID:26990794      [本文引用: 4]

Abstract Adolescent peer aggression is a well-established correlate of romantic relational aggression; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Heavy episodic drinking (or “binge” alcohol use) was examined as both a prior and concurrent mediator of this link in a sample of 282 12–18 year old interviewed four times over 6 years. Path analyses indicated that early peer relational and physical aggression each uniquely predicted later romantic relational aggression. Concurrent heavy episodic drinking fully mediated this effect for peer physical aggression only. These findings highlight two important mechanisms by which peer aggression may increase the risk of later romantic relational aggression: a direct pathway from peer relational aggression to romantic relational aggression and an indirect pathway through peer physical aggression and concurrent heavy episodic drinking. Prevention programs targeting romantic relational aggression in adolescence and young adulthood may benefit from interventions that target multiple domains of risky behavior, including the heavy concurrent use of alcohol. Aggr. Behav. 42:563–576, 2016. 08 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Wright E.M., &Benson M.L . ( 2010).

Relational aggression, intimate partner violence, and gender: An exploratory analysis

Victims and Offenders, 5(4), 283-302.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

This study explores the effects of romantic relational aggression on intimate partner violence. The concept of relational aggression denotes a type of nonphysical aggression that is specific to relationships and that has only recently been recognized in the psychological literature. Using responses to the Conflict Tactics Scale from adults participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, romantic relational aggression is examined with regard to male and female intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization. Results indicate that romantic relational aggression is a predictor of partner violence perpetration and victimization among both males and females.

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