心理科学进展, 2018, 26(8): 1374-1382 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01374

研究前沿

回溯式时距估计的计时机制

杨莲莲, 黄希庭,, 岳童, 刘培朵

西南大学心理学部, 重庆 400715

Timing mechanism of retrospective duration estimation

YANG Lianlian, HUANG Xiting,, YUE Tong, LIU Peiduo

Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China

通讯作者: 黄希庭, E-mail: xthuang@swu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2017-05-9   网络出版日期: 2018-08-15

基金资助: 重庆市人文社会科学重点研究基地项目“未来思考的心理机制及其应用研究”.  14SKB008

Received: 2017-05-9   Online: 2018-08-15

摘要

回溯式时距估计是以记忆为主要成分, 且事后才知要对两个相继事件之间的间隔时间或某一事件持续时间的长短进行估计。可分为近时和远时的回溯式时距估计, 两者的计时机制与记忆有关, 但各有侧重:前者侧重短时或长时记忆, 直接证据来源于即时回忆单一或多个认知任务以估计时间, 间接证据则聚焦于物理、生理、心理因素的影响; 后者侧重自传体记忆, 可从问卷或访谈的测量方式以及主客体特征的影响两个方面来寻找证据。今后需以整合的观点深入探究回溯式时距估计的计时机制, 拓展回溯式时距估计行为测量的研究, 并开展对回溯式时距估计神经生物学基础的探讨。

关键词: 回溯式时距估计 ; 计时机制 ; 自传体记忆 ; 时间距离 ; 时间标记

Abstract

Memory is a vital component of retrospective duration estimation, which is either assessed by the interval between two successive events, or the duration of an event after it has ended. Retrospective duration estimation can be divided into two types: close-range and long-distance. The timing mechanisms of both are related to memory; however, they have distinct foci. The former focuses on short-term memory or long-term memory; here, direct evidence is derived from the immediate recall of a single or multiple cognitive tasks to estimate time, while indirect evidence refers to the influence of physical, physiological, and psychological factors. The latter emphasizes the role of autobiographical memory, as evidenced by the measurement mode of a questionnaire or an interview and the influencing factors of subject-object characteristics. Future research should focus on further extending the timing mechanism of retrospective duration estimation in an integrated manner, expand the research of behavioral measurement, and explore the basis of neurobiology for retrospective duration estimation.

Keywords: retrospective duration estimation ; timing mechanism ; autobiographical memory ; temporal distance ; temporal landmarks

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本文引用格式

杨莲莲, 黄希庭, 岳童, 刘培朵. 回溯式时距估计的计时机制. 心理科学进展[J], 2018, 26(8): 1374-1382 doi:10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01374

YANG Lianlian, HUANG Xiting, YUE Tong, LIU Peiduo. Timing mechanism of retrospective duration estimation. Advances in Psychological Science[J], 2018, 26(8): 1374-1382 doi:10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01374

1 引言

日常生活中, 人们对时间的感知和估计独特且无意识(Janssen, 2017)。例如, 写手每天忙于写作而不关注时间, 事后猛然发现时间已过去很久, 恍然如梦; 再比如, 案发现场目击证人对案件持续时间的精确回忆对案件侦查有着至关重要的作用。这种对过去时间长短的评估现象与回溯式时距估计有关。

目前, 学者对回溯式时距估计的界定大都来自于回溯式计时(retrospective timing, see Zakay & Block, 2004), 即被试在实验前不知道要进行时间长短的估计, 刺激呈现或实验结束后才要求被试对刺激呈现的时距进行估计。有研究指出时距是指两个相继事件之间的间隔时间或某一事件的持续时间的长短(Fraisse, 1984), 且被试在任务中多关注刺激环境的非时间特性, 更多的依赖于记忆重新建构的过程(Brown, 2010)。实际上, 早在1976年之前就有对它的研究, 称为“回忆式时距(remembered duration)”, 与“体验式时距(experienced duration, 即前瞻式时距prospective duration)”相对。基于此, 我们界定回溯式时距估计是指以记忆为主要成分, 且事后才知要对两个相继事件之间的间隔时间或某一事件的持续时间的长短进行估计。

因研究范围及侧重点的不同, 回溯式时距估计与回溯式时间记忆有些许不同。回溯式时间记忆侧重时间的回忆, 包含时点、时距、时序三个方面(黄希庭, 邓麟, 张永红, 2004; 张永红, 黄希庭, 2005; Pathman, Doydum, & Bauer, 2013; Pathman & Ghetti, 2014), 而回溯式时距估计的研究侧重时间, 只针对时距。对回溯式时距估计的研究有助于扩充整个时间估计领域(邹枝玲, 黄希庭, 2007)。这一内隐或自动的时间整合过程(implicit or automatic temporal synthesis)能提高人们知觉事件的能力, 且对改善当前的行为策略有重要意义 (Martin et al., 2014)。

回溯式时距估计可从不同的角度进行分类, 依据回溯到过去的时间距离的长短, 主要可将其分为两类:近时的回溯式时距估计(即立即估计时距)和远时的回溯式时距估计(即延迟估计时距); 依据回溯事件的内容, 可将其分为公众事件和个人事件的回溯式时距估计。因回溯式时距估计的重要成分是记忆, 对时间的估计依赖于记忆的编码、存储和提取过程(Dzaack, TrÖsterer, Pape, & Urbas, 2007)。且由于回溯式时距估计一般采用长时距(Grondin, 2010), 如实验室中的研究多采用9 s或15 s的目标时距; 生态学的研究则大多采用10多分钟甚至达到1小时左右(Bisson, Tobin, & Grondin, 2012; Tobin, Bisson, & Grondin, 2010)。因此, 近时的回溯式时距估计是以短时或长时记忆为主要成分, 远时的回溯式时距估计则以自传体记忆为主要成分。值得注意的是, 记忆与时间并不是孤立存在的:以动态的观点来看, 记忆随时间流逝而变化(Hintzman, 2016); 以静态的观点来看, 时间距离不同, 记忆类型不同, 事件表征方式不同, 则时距估计也不同。

近来, 时距估计的计时性理论模型得到发展(如标量计时模型, 详见姚竹曦, 张亮, 张侃, 2015), 但大多是基于前瞻式时距估计的证据, 回溯式时距估计的研究证据很少(邹枝玲,黄希庭, 2007)。换句话说, 回溯式时距估计计时机制并未得到系统研究。比如, 回溯式时距估计是如何计时的?内在逻辑是什么?神经生物学基础又是怎样的?这都是回溯式时距估计计时机制问题的体现。针对这一问题, 本文将在前人研究基础上, 系统探讨远近时间距离下回溯式时距估计的可能计时机制, 从研究范式和影响因素两个方面梳理证据, 并对未来研究进行展望。

2 近时的回溯式时距估计的计时机制

2.1 理论假设

注意闸门模型(attentional gate mode, AGM)将时间信息(起搏器产生的脉冲)、对时间的注意(即闸门打开程度)、时间记录的开始与结束(开关的打开与闭合状态)以及脉冲累加(累加器的计数作用)等过程串联起来共同表述计时阶段。它认为在回溯式时距估计中只有少数脉冲通过闸门, 且闸门开放较窄(邹枝玲, 黄希庭, 2007)。这表明回溯式时距估计的计时机制可能与前瞻式时距估计的计时阶段相似, 即回溯式时距估计的计时可能是由闸门或开关控制累加器中脉冲的数量实现的。例如, 在回溯式时距估计任务中, 与低注意水平任务相比, 阿兹海默症(Alzheimer disease, AD)患者在高注意水平任务下更低估时距, 这可能是由于高注意水平任务中对时间的注意减少, 累加器中的脉冲数量较少所导致的(El Haj, Omigie, & Moroni, 2014)。然而, 注意闸门模型主要用于解释前瞻式时距估计而非回溯式时距估计(Block & Gruber, 2014), 这可能是由于两者在对时间的注意上有区别, 前者要求注意时间, 后者要求注意事件。值得注意的是, 还有研究认为注意闸门在回溯式判断中不允许脉冲通过(陈有国, 黄希庭, 尹天子, 张锋, 2011), 这与先前的阐述有矛盾, 可见仅用注意闸门理论解释回溯式时距估计的计时机制远远不够。

通常情况下, 回溯式时距估计的计时并非像前瞻式时距估计的专有模型(dedicated models, 指一类具有明确计时阶段的以模块化为核心的理论模型。比如, 起搏器-累加器模型(pacemaker-accumulator model)、注意闸门模型、计时的光谱模型(spectral models of timing, 例如一组振荡器阶段性的交互作用等)、神经结构方面则聚焦于某一特定脑区(例如小脑、基底神经节、辅助运动区、前额等)的计时假说等, 详见Ivry & Schlerf, 2008)那样具有专门的计时阶段, 人们更倾向基于记忆的理论解释, 例如存储容量模型(storage size model)、变化/分割模型(change/segment model)、背景变化模型(context-change model) (Zakay & Block, 2004), 它们认为回溯式时间长短的估计取决于非时间信息加工任务的复杂度、难度、有意义的分割片段或背景变化的数量(张志杰, 黄希庭, 2005a), 这些理论得到一些实证结果的支持(Matthews, 2013)。例如, 近来有研究用词表法定向遗忘范例(list-method directed forgetting paradigm, 具体流程是让被试学习多个词表, 在每个词表学习完后要求被试记住或忘掉先前学习过的词表, 最后随机对其中一个词表进行测试。)和前一个词表范例(list-before-last paradigm, 早期记忆范例, 要求被试学习多个词表, 在每个词表(除第一个词表外)学习完后要求被试提取前一个而非当前的词表内容。)确定回溯式时间估计是内部背景变化的标记, 支持背景变化模型(Sahakyan & Smith, 2014)。基于记忆的这些理论解释可从研究范式和影响因素中寻找证据。

2.2 来自研究范式的直接证据

近时的回溯式时距估计计时机制的直接证据主要体现在实验室的测量中, 聚焦于秒或分、小时、天范围内的时距, 此时短时记忆(秒)或长时记忆(分、小时、天)参与进来, 时距的估计比较准确。此研究范式对任务的时间记忆有很高的要求, 决定了近时回溯式时距估计的计时机制。具体来看, 研究要求被试任务完成后立即估计时距, 更多的依赖于短时记忆。例如, 专门采用“记忆测验”任务, 在两个黑色正方形中间呈现字母/数字/汉字, 实验前要求被试对刺激材料进行回忆或加工深度的判断, 实验结束后才要求被试估计两黑色正方形之间的时间间隔, 此时距大约持续9s或15s (戴冰, 杜金, 张惠, 2013; 张志杰, 黄希庭, 2005a; 张志杰, 2003)。

值得注意的是, 此研究范式下通常一个被试只进行一次实验(Thoenes & Oberfeld, 2017), 为了提高数据收集的效率, 研究者扩充实验任务, 当全部任务结束后才要求被试进行时间的估计, 一般涉及长时记忆。例如, 有研究采用音乐片段或生活中的声音(例如, 噪音、婴儿哭声、脚步声等)这种听觉刺激探究回溯式时距估计(Bisson, Tobin, & Grondin, 2009); 还有研究采用不同视觉认知任务进行探究。比如, 进行一系列命名任务及数字递减任务(Grondin & Plourde, 2007)或从生态学角度探究日常生活中玩电子游戏或读报纸任务的时距估计能力(Bisson et al., 2012)。有时为减少被试对实验目的的猜测, 将它们与其他心理测试混合, 并将不同时距估计任务分批次间隔一段时间测量(El Haj et al., 2017)。这种扩充实验任务的方法在一定程度上可提高数据收集的效率, 但增大了时间任务的回忆负荷, 且易造成任务持续时间的混淆, 不利于时间记忆的提取。

尽管回溯式时距估计不能进行多次实验, 不可扩充过多的实验任务, 但可采用不同的估计方法。例如, 除与前瞻式时距估计相同的方法(如口头估计法、产生法或复制法等)之外, 还可采用线段划分法(用竖直小线段分割整个线段)或时距范围估计法(在线段中标出每个任务持续时间的最小值与最大值), 它们主要针对多项任务实验(Bisson et al., 2009; Grondin & Plourde, 2007), 这在一定程度上可防止任务持续时间的混淆。由于时间的估计方法代表着独特的信息加工过程, 甚至同一估计方法不同的按键方式对时距估计也有影响(Mioni, Stablum, McClintock, & Grondin, 2014; Thoenes & Oberfeld, 2017)。因此, 在解释回溯式时距估计时需要注意估计方法以及按键方式的差异。

总之, 以上回溯式时距估计的研究范式决定了记忆的不同类型(即短时记忆和长时记忆)参与回溯式时距估计的计时过程, 充分说明近时的回溯式时距估计是聚焦于时间记忆的实验室研究。

2.3 来自影响因素的间接证据

近时回溯式时距估计的理论假设为时距估计的计时机制提供了方向, 研究范式直接决定了此计时机制与记忆密不可分, 物理、生理及心理三方面的影响因素则间接地证明了回溯式时距估计的计时机制是基于记忆的, 具体阐述如下。

第一, 物理影响因素是通过作用于记忆进而影响回溯式时距估计的准确性(Block & Gruber, 2014)。比如, 有研究表明熟悉刺激比陌生刺激产生更长的回溯式时距(Block, Hancock, & Zakay, 2010; but see张宇迪, 史慧颖, 2010), 可能说明刺激的熟悉性有利于信息的编码和提取, 从而增强记忆导致时距增长(Block et al., 2010)。再比如, 刺激越复杂, 记忆负荷越大, 时距高估现象越明显(Block et al., 2010), 这充分说明记忆在时距估计中的作用, 支持存储容量模型。另外, 有研究表明频率恒定刺激比变化刺激更易高估时距(Firmino, Bueno, & Bigand, 2009); 但速度的变化似乎不影响回溯式时距估计(Darlow, Dylman, Gheorghiu, & Matthews, 2013), 这可能是由于较小的速度变化导致的(Kashiwakura, & Motoyoshi, 2017; 刘瑞光, 2005)。即当回溯时距时, 物体的背景变化使得记忆变得复杂, 从而产生时距的不准确, 这支持了背景变化模型(Block et al., 2010)。

第二, 年龄和性别的生理因素影响回溯式时距估计, 其内在原因主要聚焦于情景记忆能力。例如, 有研究探讨了年老组与年轻组在不同估计方法上的回溯式时距估计能力, 结果不尽相同。在口头估计时距中, 年老组比年轻组表现出对目标时距的高估(张志杰, 2003), 在复制法中则表现出低估(张志杰, 黄希庭, 2005a); 而戴冰(2013)等研究在估计方法(口头估计和复制法)上没有显著的年龄差异, 且两个年龄组都表现出低估现象。这可能是由于老年人情景记忆的损伤或两个年龄组记忆编码提取的策略不同。性别上的研究较少, Block, Hancock和Zakay (2000)研究回溯式时距估计的性别效应, 结果表明女性往往比男性高估时距, 这可能与情景记忆能力的性别差异有关, 即相较于男性, 女性具有更好的情景记忆能力。这种聚焦于情景记忆的解释间接说明回溯式时距估计的计时机制与记忆紧密相关。

第三, 心理因素的研究更多关注情绪对回溯式时距估计的影响, 这可能是通过记忆机制起作用(Droit-Volet & Meck, 2007; Lake, 2016)。例如, 有研究认为消极情绪导致回溯式时距判断的高估(Block & Gruber, 2014), 长时记忆或工作记忆也易受到情绪的影响(马谐, 陶云, 胡文钦, 2009), 因此可推断情绪(唤醒或效价)对回溯式时距估计的影响也许是通过记忆实现的, 这一机制的解释不同于预期式时距估计, 后者认为情绪的高唤醒导致内部时钟加速进而产生时距的高估现象(Droit-Volet & Berthon, 2017; Yamada & Kawabe, 2011)。总之, 近时的回溯式时距估计的影响因素大多落脚到记忆的解释, 可见记忆在回溯式时距估计中的重要作用, 为基于记忆的计时机制提供了间接证据。

由此可见, 近时的回溯式时距估计的计时机制大多来源于记忆的理论模型, 比如存储容量模型、变化/分割模型和背景变化模型。也就是说, 近时回溯式时距估计的计时机制是以记忆及其背景为基础的, 可见记忆在回溯式时距估计中的重要作用。实验室的研究范式直接决定了短时记忆和长时记忆参与到近时回溯式时距估计的计时机制中, 为验证这些假设的有效性提供基础, 物理、生理与心理因素基于记忆的解释为计时机制提供了间接证据, 这进一步验证回溯式时距估计计时的理论假设。然而, 此研究中的事件或任务一般是经过严格的控制筛选且外部效度较低, 不利于扩展回溯式时距估计的实践意义。

3 远时的回溯式时距估计的计时机制

3.1 计时假设

远时的回溯式时距估计的计时机制可能依据过去事件的时间标记(temporal landmarks)。时间标记是指可确定日期的参照事件, 一般分为公众事件或闪光灯记忆, 第一次经历的个人事件以及日历中的参照点这三种(Birth, 2017)。在进行远时回溯式时距估计时首先要获取时间标记, 获取时间标记的方法一般是询问被试事件大体发生在什么时间(比如两年前), 然后再进一步询问细节以确定事件的持续时间, 最终进行定性或定量评价(Jack, Friedman, Reese, & Zajac, 2016)。具体来说, 要求被试进行自传体记忆时距估计时, 人们会依据过去事件发生的具有特殊意义的时间标记, 确定标志性事件后大致估计其发生的时间, 并推断事件持续多久。这些也可从研究范式和影响因素中得到启发。

3.2 来自研究范式的直接证据

远时回溯式时距估计的研究范式主要聚焦于问卷和访谈的测量形式, 追溯个体久远过去(数周、数月或数年前)的事件, 对事件持续的时间没有特别要求, 这时需要调用自传体记忆中的知识储备, 时距估计相对不准确。这种测量方式充分体现了自传体记忆在时间流逝中的作用。

具体来说, 这些研究一般要求被试回忆先前发生的新闻事件或自身经历过的日常生活事件的持续时间, 事件来源于过去几周、几个月或几年不等, 持续时间也从天到月不等(黄希庭等, 2004; 张永红, 黄希庭, 2005)。这种回溯到时间久远的时距估计(即自传体记忆时距估计)往往与自传体记忆的心理时间旅行(mental time travel)高度相关(El Haj, Moroni, Samson, Fasotti, & Allain, 2013), 这可能是因为两者都依赖情景记忆。来自AD患者的研究阐述了时距估计、心理时间旅行以及情景记忆三者之间的双向调节, 认为时间紊乱可能诱发心理时间旅行能力的降低, 从而导致AD患者情景记忆能力的损伤。反之, AD患者情景记忆损伤可能导致主观时间投射或时间信息提取能力的丧失(El Haj & Kapogiannis, 2016)。除此之外, 远时回溯式时距估计与心理时间旅行在研究范式上有联系:相同点在于两者都关注时间长短, 远时回溯式时距估计中, 公众事件的回溯式时距估计要求事件的持续时间超过一天, 个人事件的回溯式时距估计则无此要求, 而心理时间旅行关于过去时段的研究一般是提供时间距离(过去一个月或过去一年), 然后要求被试回忆此时段内发生的事情, 必须要有具体的时间、地点和情节, 且规定持续时间在几分钟到几个小时之间但不可超过一天, 通常不关注事件具体持续多久(Szpunar & Schacter, 2013; Weiler, Suchan, & Daum, 2010); 差别在于它们关注时距的位置不同:心理时间旅行聚焦于从现在回溯到过去的某个事件之间的时距信息, 类似于一种空时距(blank duration, 只有起止刺激, 以间隔方式呈现的时间; 见毕翠华, 黄希庭, 2011), 而远时回溯式时距估计更关注过去某个事件发生的时间长度, 并不特指以现在作为起点, 类似于一种实时距(full duration, 刺激延续一段时间, 以持续方式呈现的时间; 见毕翠华, 黄希庭, 2011)。

总之, 无论关注哪段时间, 远时回溯式时距估计与心理时间旅行都有对时间长短的估计, 需要调动被试的个人经历(即时间标记), 完成回溯式时距估计任务。

3.3 来自影响因素的间接证据

不经意间对久远事件的时间估计往往涉及自传体记忆的心理时间。影响远时回溯式时距估计的因素与时间距离及事件发生的时间点有关(龚先昊, 王大华, 付艳, 2013), 通常受到客体和主体特征的影响。具体来说, 客体特征的影响主要体现在事件的重要性、可获得性与熟悉性上(张永红, 黄希庭, 2005; 尧国靖, 张锋, 2013)。因自我与自传体记忆提取有着密不可分的关系, 所以主体的影响聚焦于自我的作用(Freton et al., 2014)。比如, 自我卷入程度和对事件的关注度、主体自身所具有的推论知识的储备(一般知识、原型知识)等都影响时距估计的准确性。一般来说, 事件本身获得性越高, 丰富程度越高, 主体的知识储备越多, 自我卷入程度越高, 时距估计就越准确。主客体特征通过作用于时间标记从而影响回溯式时距估计, 这一点充分体现远时的回溯式时距估计是基于记忆的一种时距表征。

由此看来, 远时的回溯式时距估计聚焦久远的自传体记忆时距估计, 与心理时间旅行中不同的时间距离研究密切相关(Coughlin, Lyons, & Ghetti, 2014), 启动重大事件, 特别是与个人休戚相关事件的时间标记。其研究范式和影响因素证据表明远时的回溯式时距估计的计时机制主要强调时间标记的作用, 即确定事件开始与结束的大致时间点, 或者根据个人经验即个体自身具有的推论知识(例, 依据平时打球的时长推断在球场上发生重大事件的时间长短), 进而推断事件的持续时间。此研究范式有较高的外部效度, 具有一定的实践意义。

4 总结与展望

顾名思义, 回溯式时距估计指向过去时间。本文尝试性的以回溯到过去的时间长短为依据系统阐述回溯式时距估计的计时机制, 这为构建回溯式时距估计的理论提供了可供参考的框架。值得说明的是, 远近时间的回溯式时距估计的计时机制既有联系又有区别。两者都关注记忆的作用, 侧重点不同。比如, 近时的回溯式时距估计侧重记忆的内在细节, 严格实验室的研究结果有助于促进回溯式时距估计的理论构建; 远时的回溯式时距估计更关注自身所经历的重要时间标记, 重大事件时距估计的准确性对个人的成长与发展具有促进作用。更进一步, 如果将时间距离的远近看作是动态连续的过程, 那么随着时间的流逝, 记忆的衰减强度或许可充当回溯式时距估计的计时器(Staddon, 2005), 这为计时的固有模型(intrinsic models, 指一类否定时间感知的专有计时器存在的理论模型, 这些模型认为感觉和认知加工过程可充当计时器。比如, 时间流逝过程中记忆衰减的强度、特定任务中认知或情绪的努力程度、感觉通道的特定模式加工(即以视觉形式呈现的时距则依赖于视觉区域的神经元的动力, 以听觉形式呈现的同样时距则依赖于听觉区域的相似操作)、状态依存网络模型(state-dependent network model, 即由短期突触可塑性(short-term synaptic plasticity)产生的感觉加工的神经动力学基础see Buonomano & Maass, 2009)等都可充当计时器。详见Ivry & Schlerf, 2008)提供有力的证据(Wittmann, 2013)。从这个角度出发, 回溯式时距估计的计时机制将构成一个基于记忆的整体。然而, 目前来讲, 回溯式时距估计的计时机制还比较粗糙, 这也许与有限的研究范式和影响因素的证据有关, 未来可在以下三个方面开展研究。

第一, 需以整合的观点深入探究回溯式时距估计的计时机制。回溯式时距估计的计时机制以不同时间距离为分割线, 从研究范式和影响因素两方面寻找证据, 认为远近时间的回溯式时距估计的计时本质上都是基于记忆的时间估计, 并且是从“现在”时间点回溯到过去某个时间点的动态连续的过程。因此, 未来需以整合的观点多角度地探究回溯式时距估计。比如, 从加工过程来看, 在回溯式时距估计背景环境中, 主体注意到事件显著性(salience, see Matthews & Meck, 2016), 受当前情绪的影响, 主动调动记忆储存的时距信息, 做出时距估计的判断。从与前瞻式时距估计的对比来看, 回溯式时距估计与潜意识、无意注意的关系以及时间的自动与非自动加工本质等都值得探究(Vallesi, Arbula, & Bernardis, 2014)。从回溯式时间记忆的角度出发, 未来需进行生态性较高的现场实验(Grondin & Plourde, 2007), 探究与人们生活密切相关的时间记忆, 聚焦时距、时序、时点三者的关系研究将具有更大的现实意义。

第二, 需拓展回溯式时距估计行为测量的研究。目前, 尽管近时的回溯式时距估计能力的测量可同时采用不同的方法(例如, 口头估计法、复制法或线段划分等, see Grondin & Plourde, 2007; 张志杰, 黄希庭, 2005a), 但其收集数据的效率不高, 通常一个被试只能进行一次, 而不能重复多次(张志杰, 黄希庭, 2005b)。尽管可扩充任务个数, 但多个任务之间很可能会相互干扰, 任务的性质也不尽相同, 这样数据的变异性就会增大(Wearden, 2016)。因此, 未来需拓展研究范式提高数据收集效率, 增大样本量减少数据的变异性。另外, 对已有测量的认识也说明未来需增加回溯式时距估计人口统计学(如人格或职业类型、经济水平、动机水平等, see Gable & Poole, 2012)的比较研究, 可探讨记忆类型(如自传体记忆或情景记忆)在回溯式时距估计中的作用, 也可探讨负荷(认知负荷或身体负荷)对回溯式时距估计的影响(Block, Hancock, & Zakay, 2016)。采集电生理测量指标(如皮肤电、呼吸、心率等, see Fung, Crone, Bode, & Murawski, 2017), 可增进回溯式时间记忆领域的发展(黄希庭等, 2004)。

第三, 需开展对回溯式时距估计神经生物学基础的探讨。已有研究表明记忆在回溯式时距估计中的作用主要聚焦于前额叶、左内侧颞叶及海马区域。例如, 早期研究认为前额叶参与情景记忆的编码和提取过程(张志杰, 2002)。近来, MacDonald, Fortin, Sakata和Meck (2014)认为海马和纹状体的交互作用支持回溯式时距估计; 同年, MacDonald (2014)认为海马在编码回溯式时间记忆中有着重要作用。然而, 回溯式时距估计神经机制的直接研究很少(Bisson et al., 2009), 这可能有两方面的原因:其一, 是由于回溯式时距估计的单试次与神经机制探究方法所需的多试次叠加相悖, 研究方法的不匹配使回溯式时距估计的神经机制研究受阻; 其二, 回溯式时距估计因与记忆密不可分, 两者激活的脑区并不能很好的得以区分, 这对探究回溯式时距估计的神经机制具有很大的挑战。但有研究尝试性地用经颅磁刺激技术(Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, TMS)抑制右侧额下回探究自传体记忆时间估计, 并未达到统计学意义(韩志勇, 2012)。这也许与脑区定位不精准有关, 正如先前所阐述的, 回溯式时距估计与海马、内侧颞叶有很大关系, TMS探测不到, 因此效果不明显。基于此, 未来可尝试性地采用三种途径探究回溯式时距估计的神经机制。一种是探究颞叶及额叶区域受损患者在回溯式时距估计的表现。例如, Noulhiane, Pouthas, Hasboun, Baulac和Samson (2007)比较颞叶受损病人与正常被试回溯式时距估计能力, 认为左内侧颞叶损伤的个体表现出回溯式时距估计的缺陷。近来, 有研究探讨柯萨可夫综合征患者(Korsakoff’ syndrome, 前额受损且表现出顺行性遗忘)的回溯式时距估计能力, 发现与正常健康组相比, 柯萨可夫征患者表现出时距的低估现象(El Haj et al., 2017)。未来可收集具有特定遗忘倾向的患者(比如, 逆行性遗忘症患者)在回溯式时距估计任务的表现, 这对了解颞叶、额叶等与记忆相关的脑区在回溯式时距估计中的作用至关重要。第二种可探究健康被试在回溯式时距估计任务中的脑区激活。这就需要在满足回溯式时距估计界定的基础上拓展研究试次或寻求用于测量单试次时距估计神经机制的方法, 在此基础上还能扩展回溯式时距估计影响因素的脑机制研究。例如, 依据消极情绪唤醒引发的外显时距高估现象定位在右侧额下回(Pfeuty, Dilharreguy, Gerlier, & Allard, 2015), 且回溯式时距估计可能具有左半球偏侧化(Wiener, Turkeltaub, & Coslett, 2010), 可推测情绪影响回溯式时距估计的具体脑区也许会在左侧额下回、海马或内侧颞叶(MacDonald, 2014; MacDonald et al., 2014), 这还需要进一步验证。第三种可聚焦于神经元或基因水平的探讨, 这对探究回溯式时距估计的深层表征起关键作用。例如, 已有动物研究发现, 海马“时间细胞”的集合可能表征着逐渐变化的时间背景信号, 提供刺激间的时距信息(Eichenbaum, 2013; Naya & Suzuki, 2011), 这也许是海马CA1区的功能(Howard et al., 2014; MacDonald, Lepage, Eden, & Eichenbaum, 2011)。还有研究指出儿茶酚-O-甲基转移酶基因(the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene, COMT)多态性使前额释放大量多巴胺, 记忆变异性减少, 长时距估计更准确(Balci, Wiener, Çavdaroglu, & Coslett, 2013; Nicholas, 2015; Wiener, Lohoff, & Coslett, 2011)。未来需进一步深化或开展特定神经元或基因水平(例如, 基因与基因的交互作用以及基因与环境的交互作用分析等)的研究, 这将在神经生物学水平上为回溯式时距估计理论模型的构建提供可能。总之, 无论采用哪种途径, 回溯式时距估计神经机制的探讨将填补认知神经科学领域中回溯式时距估计的空缺, 也为时距估计神经振荡模型的建构(例如纹状体拍频模型striatal-beat frequency model (SBF), 兴奋抑制振荡模型excitatory-inhibitory oscillation model (EIO), see Gu, van Rijn, & Meck, 2015)提供证据。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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心理科学进展, 17( 1), 29-36.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

情绪极易影响时距知觉,致使主观时距偏离客观时距。新近研究者们结合日趋成熟的标量计时模型及神经学相关依据,并通过采用标准化情绪诱发材料的实验研究,较为系统地解释了情绪的生理唤醒和注意唤醒两种成分各自对内部计时机制造成的干扰效应。研究发现,两种效应中前者会加长主观时距而后者会使其缩短,且分别有不同的发生特点。该文在介绍国内外关于时距知觉中的情绪效应的新近研究基础上,提出应从探索两种效应的分离方法、考虑记忆效应因素以及增加实验自变量的数目和取值水平三个方面来开展进一步的研究。

尧国靖, 张锋 . ( 2013).

自尊水平、事件效价与时距对过去事件时距估计的影响

心理发展与教育, 29( 1), 18-22.

[本文引用: 1]

姚竹曦, 张亮, 张侃 . ( 2015).

标量计时模型的影响因素及发展

心理科学进展, 23( 5), 784-792.

[本文引用: 1]

张永红, 黄希庭 . ( 2005).

公众时间回溯式记忆的特点

心理科学, 28( 4), 775-779.

[本文引用: 3]

张宇迪, 史慧颖 . ( 2010).

任务熟悉度对回溯式时距估计的影响

心理科学, 33( 4), 896-899.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

以64名大学生为被试,使用对汉字进行知觉判断的任务,探讨熟悉度、时距估计方法、性别和加工深度对回溯式时距估计的影响。结果发现:(1)熟悉度对回溯式时距估计没有影响。(2)相对于结构加工任务,被试更加倾向于低估意义加工任务的时距。(3)在结构加工任务中,复制法的时距估计误差绝对值小于口头估计法。(4)男性在结构加工任务中的时距估计误差小于女性。研究表明熟悉度对时距估计的影响可能并非普遍现象。

张志杰 . ( 2002). 时距估计年老相关差异的实验研究 (博士学位论文). 西南师范大学, 重庆.

[本文引用: 1]

张志杰 . ( 2003).

回溯式时距估计年龄差异的实验研究

心理科学, 26( 4), 587-589.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

采用回溯式时距估计的实验范式,以9s为目标时距,采用加工深度 作业,考察时距估计的年龄差异.结果表明年老组比年轻组显著高估目标时距,而加工深度作业并没有影响时距估计作业.回溯式时距估计的年龄差异可能与年老被 试较慢的加工速度或更快的遗忘率有关,其原因可能在于年老被试加工资源的减少.

张志杰, 黄希庭 . ( 2005

a). 回溯式时距估计的年龄差异

心理科学, 28( 5), 1039-1042.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

采用回溯式实验范式探讨时距估计的年龄差异.以9s为目标时距,通过操纵目标时距内呈现刺激 的数量(4或7个数字或字母)(实验一)和分割的数量(1或4个分割数)(实验二),比较两个年龄组估计时距的差异.实验结果表明存在显著的年龄差异.存 储容量对年老被试时距估计的影响可以在于较慢的加工速度,而分割数量的影响可能与年老被试对情节记忆信息的编码和提取的失败有关,其根本原因可能在于年老 被试在加工刺激时无法抑制与任务无关的信息,从而导致比年轻组编码更多的背景信息或者无法提取背景信息,产生不同实验条件下结果的差异.

张志杰, 黄希庭 . ( 2005

b). 时距认知的年龄差异

西南大学学报: 社会科学版, 31( 6), 1-5.

[本文引用: 1]

邹枝玲, 黄希庭 . ( 2007).

注意在短时距估计中的作用

心理科学, 30( 3), 624-628.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

注意一直是时间知觉研究的一个重要问题.本文综述了研究已经取得 一些较为一致的结果:在双任务程序中对时间任务的注意越多,时距估计越准确;在单一任务中对目标刺激的时间属性注意越多,对该刺激的持续时距估计越准确; 在时间导向任务中,个体可以有效地、主动把注意导向未来的某段时距,那么将对出现在那个时刻的刺激做出更好的反应.最后,讨论了现有研究中存在的、以及今 后研究中需要着重考虑的问题.

Balci F., Wiener M., Çavdaroglu B., & Coslett H. B . ( 2013).

Epistasis effects of dopamine genes on interval timing and reward magnitude in humans

Neuropsychologia, 51( 2), 293-308.

URL     PMID:22903038      [本文引用: 1]

78 We investigated the effect of reward on timing behavior using the peak procedure. 78 We also investigated its interaction with COMT, DRD2, and DAT gene polymorphisms. 78 Results show earlier timed response initiations when expecting larger rewards. 78 This effect was specific to certain COMT–DRD2 polymorphism combinations. 78 There was no effect of DAT gene polymorphisms.

Birth K. K. ( 2017).

Past times: The temporal structuring of history and memory

In Time blind (pp. 71-91). Springer International Publishing.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Over recent decades, the study of the telling of history has emphasized the relationship of narrative structure and history. Inspired by the work of Hayden White (1975), this literature demonstrates t

Bisson N., Tobin S., & Grondin S . ( 2009).

Remembering the duration of joyful and sad musical excerpts: Assessment with three estimation methods

NeuroQuantology, 7( 1), 46-57.

[本文引用: 3]

Bisson N., Tobin S., & Grondin S . ( 2012).

Prospective and retrospective time estimates of children: A comparison based on ecological tasks

PLoS One, 7( 3), e33049.

URL     PMID:22412982      [本文引用: 2]

Children's time estimation literature lacks of studies comparing prospective and retrospective time estimates of long lasting ecological tasks, i.e. tasks reflecting children's daily activities. In the present study, children were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively how much time they played a video game or read a magazine. Regardless of the task, the results revealed that prospective time estimates were longer than the retrospective ones. Also, time estimates of the video game task were longer, less accurate and more variable than those of the reading task. The results are discussed in the light of the current literature about time estimation of long lasting ecological tasks.

Block, R. A., & Gruber, R. P . ( 2014).

Time perception, attention, and memory: A selective review

Acta Psychologica, 149, 129-133.

URL     PMID:24365036      [本文引用: 3]

Abstract This article provides a selective review of time perception research, mainly focusing on the authors' research. Aspects of psychological time include simultaneity, successiveness, temporal order, and duration judgments. In contrast to findings at interstimulus intervals or durations less than 3.0-5.0 s, there is little evidence for an "across-senses" effect of perceptual modality (visual vs. auditory) at longer intervals or durations. In addition, the flow of time (events) is a pervasive perceptual illusion, and we review evidence on that. Some temporal information is encoded All rights reserved. relatively automatically into memory: People can judge time-related attributes such as recency, frequency, temporal order, and duration of events. Duration judgments in prospective and retrospective paradigms reveal differences between them, as well as variables that moderate the processes involved. An attentional-gate model is needed to account for prospective judgments, and a contextual-change model is needed to account for retrospective judgments. Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Block R. A., Hancock P. A., & Zakay D . ( 2000).

Sex differences in duration judgments: A meta-analytic review

Memory and Cognition, 28( 8), 1333-1346.

URL     PMID:11219961      [本文引用: 1]

We quantitatively reviewed human sex differences in the magnitude and variability of duration judgments. Data from 4,794 females and 4,688 males yielded 87 effect size estimates of magnitude and 28 of variability. The overall sex difference in duration judgment magnitude was small but statistically significant. It was moderated by whether study participants knew in advance (prospective paradigm) or only later (retrospective paradigm) that they would be required to judge duration. Although prospective judgments showed no overall sex effect, some levels of moderator variables showed a small but statistically significant effect. Retrospective judgments showed a larger subjective-to-objective duration ratio for females than for males, and several variables moderated this effect. Females’ judgments also showed more intersubject variability than did males’ judgments. Relative to males, females sustain attention to time more in the prospective paradigm and have better episodic memory in the retrospective paradigm.

Block R. A., Hancock P. A., & Zakay D . ( 2010).

How cognitive load affects duration judgments: A meta-analytic review

Acta Psychologica, 134( 3), 330-343.

URL     PMID:20403583      [本文引用: 4]

A meta-analysis of 117 experiments evaluated the effects of cognitive load on duration judgments. Cognitive load refers to information-processing (attentional or working-memory) demands. Six types of cognitive load were analyzed to resolve ongoing controversies and to test current duration judgment theories. Duration judgments depend on whether or not participants are informed in advance that they are needed: prospective paradigm (informed) versus retrospective paradigm (not informed). With higher cognitive load, the prospective duration judgment ratio (subjective duration to objective duration) decreases but the retrospective ratio increases. Thus, the duration judgment ratio differs depending on the paradigm and the specific type of cognitive load. As assessed by the coefficient of variation, relative variability of prospective, but not retrospective, judgments increases with cognitive load. The prospective findings support models emphasizing attentional resources, especially executive control. The retrospective findings support models emphasizing memory changes. Alternative theories do not fit with the meta-analytic findings and are rejected.

Block R. A., Hancock P. A., & Zakay D . ( 2016).

Physical load affects duration judgments: A meta-analytic review

Acta Psychologica, 165, 43-47.

URL     PMID:26922615      [本文引用: 1]

This article reports a meta-analytic review of seven extant experiments, w i th 235 participants, concerning effects of physical workload on duration judgments. It also provides a qualitative assessment of related studies that, for specific reasons, were not includable in the quantitative meta-analysis. All analyzed experiments used the prospective duration-judgment paradigm and the production method, in which participants knew in advance that duration estimation was required. A large overall effect size reveals that increasing physical workload results in longer prospective duration productions. Physical workload effects are comparable to those of cognitive load. Implications for applied research, theory, and applications are discussed.

Brown S. W. ( 2010).

Timing, resources, and interference: Attentional modulation of time perception

In A. C. Nobre & J. T. Coull (Eds.), Attention and time (pp. 107-121). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT This chapter describes a research that investigated the attentional modulation of time perception. It explains that this research involved various techniques for modifying attention to time including manipulations of temporal awareness and variations in the nature of the distractor tasks. All of the different approaches produced a consistent set of findings which indicate that interval timing requires attentional resources and that time judgement performance is influenced strongly by the allocation of those resources.

Buonomano, D. V., & Maass, W. ( 2009).

State-dependent computations: Spatiotemporal processing in cortical networks

Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10( 2), 113-125.

URL    

Coughlin C., Lyons K. E., & Ghetti S . ( 2014).

Remembering the past to envision the future in middle childhood: Developmental linkages between prospection and episodic memory

Cognitive Development, 30, 96-110.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Darlow H. M., Dylman A. S., Gheorghiu A. I., & Matthews W. J . ( 2013).

Do changes in the pace of events affect one-off judgments of duration?

PLoS One, 8( 3), e59847.

URL     PMID:23555804      [本文引用: 1]

Five experiments examined whether changes in the pace of external events influence people’s judgments of duration. In Experiments 1a–1c, participants heard pieces of music whose tempo accelerated, decelerated, or remained constant. In Experiment 2, participants completed a visuo-motor task in which the rate of stimulus presentation accelerated, decelerated, or remained constant. In Experiment 3, participants completed a reading task in which facts appeared on-screen at accelerating, decelerating, or constant rates. In all experiments, the physical duration of the to-be-judged interval was the same across conditions. We found no significant effects of temporal structure on duration judgments in any of the experiments, either when participants knew that a time estimate would be required (prospective judgments) or when they did not (retrospective judgments). These results provide a starting point for the investigation of how temporal structure affects one-off judgments of duration like those typically made in natural settings.

Droit-Volet, S., & Berthon, M . ( 2017).

Emotion and implicit timing: The arousal effect

Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 176.

URL     PMID:28983261      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract BACKGROUND: Violence is a major concern and is prevalent across several mental disorders. The use of substances has been associated with an exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms as well as with violence. Compared to other substances such as alcohol and cocaine, existing literature on the cannabis-violence relationship has been more limited, with most studies being conducted in the general population, and has shown controversial results. Evidence has suggested a stronger relationship when examining the effects of the persistency of cannabis use on future violent behaviors. Though, while cannabis use is highly prevalent amid psychiatric patients, far less literature on the subject has been conducted in this population. Hence, the present prospective study aims to investigate the persistency of cannabis use in psychiatric patients. METHOD: The sample comprised of 1,136 recently discharged psychiatric patients provided by the MacArthur Risk Assessment Study. A multi-wave (five-assessment) follow-up design was employed to allow temporal sequencing between substance use and violent behaviors. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to examine the effect of persistency of cannabis use on violence, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Potential bidirectional association was also investigated using the same statistical approach. RESULTS: Our results suggest a unidirectional association between cannabis use and violence. GEE model revealed that the continuity of cannabis use across more than one time wave was associated with increased risks of future violent behavior. Patients who reported having used cannabis at each follow-up periods were 2.44 times more likely to display violent behaviors (OR090009=0900092.44, 95% CI: 1.06-5.63, p 090009<0900090.05). CONCLUSION: These findings are particularly relevant as they suggest that the longer individuals report having used cannabis after a psychiatric discharge, the more likely they are of being violent in the following time waves. These results add to our understanding of the negative consequences of chronic cannabis use amid psychiatric patients.

Droit-Volet, S., & Meck, W. H . ( 2007).

How emotions colour our perception of time

Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11( 12), 504-513.

URL     PMID:18023604      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Our sense of time is altered by our emotions to such an extent that time seems to fly when we are having fun and drags when we are bored. Recent studies using standardized emotional material provide a unique opportunity for understanding the neurocognitive mechanisms that underlie the effects of emotion on timing and time perception in the milliseconds-to-hours range. We outline how these new findings can be explained within the framework of internal-clock models and describe how emotional arousal and valence interact to produce both increases and decreases in attentional time sharing and clock speed. The study of time and emotion is at a crossroads, and we outline possible examples for future directions.

Dzaack J., Trösterer S., Pape N., & Urbas L . ( 2007).

A computational model of retrospective time estimation

Cognitive Systems Research, 8( 3), 208-215.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Retrospective time estimation is an important aspect of dynamic systems and needs to be integrated in cognitive architectures. This article gives an overview of theoretical accounts of retrospective and prospective time estimation. Assumptions based on an experiment investigating retrospective time estimation conducted in our research group are presented. Integrating both we introduce a retrospective timer-module for ACT-R 6.0 and the corresponding estimation algorithm. The successful validation of the module is shown and further implications are discussed.

Eichenbaum, H . ( 2013).

Memory on time

Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17( 2), 81-88.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

El Haj, M., & Kapogiannis, D . ( 2016).

Time distortions in Alzheimer’s disease: A systematic review and theoretical integration

NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease, 2, 16016.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

El Haj M., Moroni C., Samson S., Fasotti L., & Allain P . ( 2013).

Prospective and retrospective time perception are related to mental time travel: Evidence from Alzheimer’s disease

Brain and Cognition, 83( 1), 45-51.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

El Haj M., Nandrino J. L., Kessels R. P. C., Matton C., Bacquet J. E., Urso L., & Antoine P . ( 2017).

Retrospective time perception in Korsakoff’s syndrome

The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 29, 319-325.

URL     PMID:28412877      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract The authors investigated retrospective timing in participants with Korsakoff's syndrome. Patients were assessed on four retrospective tasks on which they were instructed to read three-digit numbers aloud (15 seconds), fill connected squares (30 seconds), decide whether words were abstract or concrete (45 seconds), or read aloud a text about mushroom picking (60 seconds). Participants were not aware of the task's timing until the end of the tasks, when they were asked to estimate the elapsed time. Results revealed an underestimation of the elapsed time in Korsakoff participants, suggesting that time is perceived to pass quickly for these participants.

El Haj M., Omigie D., & Moroni C . ( 2014).

Time reproduction during high and low attentional tasks in Alzheimer’s disease “A watched kettle never boils”

Brain and Cognition, 88, 1-5.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Firmino é. A., Bueno J. L. O., & Bigand E . ( 2009).

Travelling through pitch space speeds up musical time

Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 26( 3), 205-209.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

SEVERAL MODELS OF TIME ESTIMATION HAVE BEEN developed in psychology; a few have been applied to music. In the present study, we assess the influence of the distances travelled through pitch space on retrospective time estimation. Participants listened to an isochronous chord sequence of 20-s duration. They were unexpectedly asked to reproduce the time interval of the sequence. The harmonic structure of the stimulus was manipulated so that the sequence either remained in the same key (CC) or travelled through a closely related key (CFC) or distant key (CGbC). Estimated times were shortened when the sequence modulated to a very distant key. This finding is discussed in light of Lerdahl's Tonal Pitch Space Theory (2001), Firmino and Bueno's Expected Development Fraction Model (in press), and models of time estimation.

Fraisse, P . ( 1984).

Perception and estimation of time

Annual Review of Psychology, 35( 1), 1-37.

URL     PMID:6367623      [本文引用: 1]

Annu Rev Psychol. 1984;35:1-36. Review

Freton M., Lemogne C., Bergouignan L., Delaveau P., Lehéricy S., & Fossati P . ( 2014).

The eye of the self: Precuneus volume and visual perspective during autobiographical memory retrieval

Brain Structure and Function, 219( 3), 959-968.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Fung B. J., Crone D. L., Bode S., & Murawski C . ( 2017).

Cardiac signals are independently associated with temporal discounting and time perception

Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 11, 1.

URL     PMID:5258759      [本文引用: 1]

Cardiac signals reflect the function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and have previously been associated with a range of self-regulatory behaviors such as emotion regulation and memory recall. It is unknown whether cardiac signals may also be associated with self-regulation in the temporal domain, in particular impulsivity. We assessed both decision impulsivity (temporal discounting, TD) and time perception impulsivity (duration reproduction, DR) in 120 participants while they underwent electrocardiography in order to test whether cardiac signals were related to these two aspects of impulsivity. We found that over the entire period of task performance, individuals with higher heart rates had a tendency toward lower discount rates, supporting previous research that has associated sympathetic responses with decreased impulsivity. We also found that low-frequency components of heart rate variability (HRV) were associated with a less accurate perception of time, suggesting that time perception may be modulated by ANS function. Overall, these findings constitute preliminary evidence that autonomic function plays an important role in both decision impulsivity and time perception.

Gable, P. A., & Poole, B. D . ( 2012).

Time flies when you’re having approach-motivated fun: Effects of motivational intensity on time perception

Psychological Science, 23, 879-886.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Grondin, S . ( 2010).

Timing and time perception: A review of recent behavioral and neuroscience findings and theoretical directions

Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 72( 3), 561-582.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Grondin, S., & Plourde, M . ( 2007).

Judging multi-minute intervals retrospectively

The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60( 9), 1303-1312.

URL     PMID:17676560      [本文引用: 4]

A total of 50 participants were asked to perform five different cognitive tasks lasting 120, 210, 300, 390 and 480 s, respectively. After completing the series of tasks, they were asked to estimate retrospectively the duration of each one. Psychophysical analyses linking psychological time to physical time revealed that the value of the power law exponent was about .47, but was .79 when the estimate of the total duration of the session was taken into account--a value lower than unity, indicating that shorter durations have been overestimated, and longer durations underestimated. The Weber fraction, or the ratio of variability to time, ranged from .59 (at 120 s) to .21 (at 480 s). Overall, the study shows that it is possible to make certain changes in the traditional retrospective timing method and thus adapt it for further investigations of the mechanisms involved in memory for the duration of past events.

Gu B. M., van Rijn H., & Meck W. H . ( 2015).

Oscillatory multiplexing of neural population codes for interval timing and working memory

Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 48, 160-185.

URL     PMID:25454354      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Interval timing and working memory are critical components of cognition that are supported by neural oscillations in prefrontal-striatal-hippocampal circuits. In this review, the properties of interval timing and working memory are explored in terms of behavioral, anatomical, pharmacological, and neurophysiological findings. We then describe the various neurobiological theories that have been developed to explain these cognitive processes - largely independent of each other. Following this, a coupled excitatory - inhibitory oscillation (EIO) model of temporal processing is proposed to address the shared oscillatory properties of interval timing and working memory. Using this integrative approach, we describe a hybrid model explaining how interval timing and working memory can originate from the same oscillatory processes, but differ in terms of which dimension of the neural oscillation is utilized for the extraction of item, temporal order, and duration information. This extension of the striatal beat-frequency (SBF) model of interval timing (Matell and Meck, 2000, 2004) is based on prefrontal-striatal-hippocampal circuit dynamics and has direct relevance to the pathophysiological distortions observed in time perception and working memory in a variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions. Copyright 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hintzman, D. L . ( 2016).

Is memory organized by temporal contiguity?

Memory and Cognition, 44( 3), 365-375.

URL     PMID:26597850      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The hypotheses that memories are ordered according to time and that contiguity is central to learning have recently reemerged in the human memory literature. This article reviews some of the key empirical findings behind this revival and some of the evidence against it, and finds the evidence for temporal organization unconvincing. A central problem is that, as many memory experiments are done, they have a prospective, as well as a retrospective, component. That is, if subjects can anticipate how they will be tested, they encode the to-be-remembered material in a way that they believe will facilitate performance on the anticipated test. Experiments that avoid this confounding factor have shown little or no evidence of organization by contiguity.

Howard M. W., MacDonald C. J., Tiganj Z., Shankar K. H., Du Q., Hasselmo M. E., & Eichenbaum H . ( 2014).

A unified mathematical framework for coding time, space, and sequences in the hippocampal region

Journal of Neuroscience, 34( 13), 4692-4707.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Ivry, R. B., & Schlerf, J. E . ( 2008).

Dedicated and intrinsic models of time perception

Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12( 7), 273-280.

URL     PMID:18539519      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Two general frameworks have been articulated to describe how the passage of time is perceived. One emphasizes that the judgment of the duration of a stimulus depends on the operation of dedicated neural mechanisms specialized for representing the temporal relationships between events. Alternatively, the representation of duration could be ubiquitous, arising from the intrinsic dynamics of nondedicated neural mechanisms. In such models, duration might be encoded directly through the amount of activation of sensory processes or as spatial patterns of activity in a network of neurons. Although intrinsic models are neurally plausible, we highlight several issues that must be addressed before we dispense with models of duration perception that are based on dedicated processes.

Jack F., Friedman W., Reese E., & Zajac R . ( 2016).

Age-related differences in memory for time, temporal reconstruction, and the availability and use of temporal landmarks

Cognitive Development, 37, 53-66.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Janssen, S. M. J . ( 2017).

Autobiographical memory and the subjective experience of time

Timing and Time Perception, 5( 1), 99-122.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Many people believe that life appears to speed up as they become older. However, age differences are only found studies in which participants compare recent with remote time passage. They are not found in studies in which younger participants impressions of recent time passage are compared to older participants impressions of recent time passage. Approaching the phenomenon as a memory issue allows for the discrepancy between these findings. In this study, two memory accounts for the phenomenon were examined. Whereas the results of the first experiment did not support the account that attributes the phenomenon to the difficulty with which events are retrieved from different lifetime periods, the results of the second experiment supported the account that attributes the phenomenon to the perceived time pressure in different lifetime periods. People are able to recall many recent instances in which they were very busy, had to rush, and did not have time to complete things, but these mundane and everyday events are often forgotten from more remote lifetime periods. People who have the impression that they are currently experiencing more time pressure than they were experiencing in the past will have the feeling that time has recently passed more quickly for them than time had in the past.

Kashiwakura, S., & Motoyoshi, I . ( 2017).

Relative time compression for slow-motion stimuli through rapid recalibration

Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1195.

URL     PMID:5511836      [本文引用: 1]

A number of psychophysical studies have shown that moving stimuli appear to last longer than static stimuli. Here, we report that the perceived duration for slow moving stimuli can be shorter than for static stimuli under specific circumstances. Observers were tested using natural movies presented at various speeds (0.0x = static, 0.25x = slow, or 1.9x = fast, relative to original speed) and indicated whether test duration was perceived as longer or shorter than comparison movies presented at their original speed. While fast movies were perceived as longer than slow and static movies (in accordance with previous studies), we found that slow movies were perceived as shorter (i.e., time compressed) compared to static images. Similar results were obtained for artificial stimuli consisting of drifting gratings. However, time compression for slow stimuli disappeared if comparison stimuli were replaced by a white static disk that removed repetitive exposures to moving stimuli. Results suggest that duration estimation is modulated by contextual effects induced by the specific diet or distribution of prior visual stimuli to which observers are exposed. A simple model, which includes a rapid recalibration of human time estimation via adaptation to preceding stimuli, succeeds in reproducing our experimental data.

Lake, J. I . ( 2016).

Recent advances in understanding emotion- driven temporal distortions

Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 8, 214-219.

URL     PMID:27104212      [本文引用: 1]

Emotions are powerful drivers of distortions in time perception. Recent work continues to support arousal and attentional mechanisms of emotion-driven temporal distortions. A possible memory-related mechanism and various modulatory factors, such as age, gender, and psychopathology, have also been implicated in such distortions. Beyond the rich behavioral literature on this topic, neurobiological substrates associated with emotion-driven temporal distortions have begun to be identified and represent an important next step for research within this domain. The study of emotion-driven temporal distortions holds great promise for advancing our understanding of this perceptual phenomenon and how it may play a functional role in mediating changes in cognition, behavior, and emotion.

MacDonald, C. J . ( 2014).

Prospective and retrospective duration memory in the hippocampus: Is time in the foreground or background?

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Science, 369( 1637), 20120463.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

MacDonald C. J., Fortin N. J., Sakata S., & Meck W. H . ( 2014).

Retrospective and prospective views on the role of the hippocampus in interval timing and memory for elapsed time

Timing and Time Perception, 2( 1), 51-61.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

MacDonald C. J., Lepage K. Q., Eden U. T., & Eichenbaum H . ( 2011).

Hippocampal “time cells” bridge the gap in memory for discontiguous events

Neuron, 71( 4), 737-749.

URL     PMID:21867888      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The hippocampus is critical to remembering the flow of events in distinct experiences and, in doing so, bridges temporal gaps between discontiguous events. Here, we report a robust hippocampal representation of sequence memories, highlighted by "time cells" that encode successive moments during an empty temporal gap between the key events, while also encoding location and ongoing behavior. Furthermore, just as most place cells "remap" when a salient spatial cue is altered, most time cells form qualitatively different representations ("retime") when the main temporal parameter is altered. Hippocampal neurons also differentially encode the key events and disambiguate different event sequences to compose unique, temporally organized representations of specific experiences. These findings suggest that hippocampal neural ensembles segment temporally organized memories much the same as they represent locations of important events in spatially defined environments. Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Martin B., Wittmann M., Franck N., Cermolacce M., Berna F., & Giersch A . ( 2014).

Temporal structure of consciousness and minimal self in schizophrenia

Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1175.

URL     PMID:4212287      [本文引用: 1]

The concept of the minimal self refers to the consciousness of oneself as an immediate subject of experience. According to recent studies, disturbances of the minimal self may be a core feature of schizophrenia. They are emphasized in classical psychiatry literature and in phenomenological work. Impaired minimal self experience may be defined as a distortion of one’s first-person experiential perspective as, for example, an ‘altered presence’ during which the sense of the experienced self (‘mineness’) is subtly affected, or ‘altered sense of demarcation’, i.e. a difficulty discriminating the self from the non-self. Little is known, however, about the cognitive basis of these disturbances. In fact, recent work indicates that disorders of the self are not correlated with cognitive impairments commonly found in schizophrenia such as working-memory and attention disorders. In addition, a major difficulty with exploring the minimal self experimentally lies in its definition as being non self-reflexive, and distinct from the verbalized, explicit awareness of an ‘I’. In this paper we shall discuss the possibility that disturbances of the minimal self observed in patients with schizophrenia are related to alterations in time processing. We shall review the literature on schizophrenia and time processing that lends support to this possibility. In particular we shall discuss the involvement of temporal integration windows on different time scales (implicit time processing) as well as duration perception disturbances (explicit time processing) in disorders of the minimal self. We argue that a better understanding of the relationship between time and the minimal self as well of issues of embodiment require research that looks more specifically at implicit time processing. Some methodological issues will be discussed.

Matthews, W. J . ( 2013).

How does sequence structure affect the judgment of time? Exploring a weighted sum of segments model

Cognitive Psychology, 66( 3), 259-282.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Matthews, W. J., & Meck, W. H . ( 2016).

Temporal cognition: Connecting subjective time to perception, attention, and memory

Psychological Bulletin, 142( 8), 865-907.

URL     PMID:27196725      [本文引用: 1]

Time is a universal psychological dimension, but time perception has often been studied and discussed in relative isolation. Increasingly, researchers are searching for unifying principles and integrated models that link time perception to other domains. In this review, we survey the links between temporal cognition and other psychological processes. Specifically, we describe how subjective duration is affected by non-temporal stimulus properties (perception), the allocation of processing resources (attention), and past experience with the stimulus (memory). We show that many of these connections instantiate a 'processing principle', according to which perceived time is positively related to perceptual vividity and the ease of information-extraction from the stimulus. This empirical generalization generates testable predictions and provides a starting-point for the development of integrated theoretical frameworks. Our intention is that, by outlining some of the links between temporal cognition and other domains, researchers in the field of timing and time perception will be encouraged to situate their work within broader theoretical frameworks, whilst researchers from other fields will be inspired to apply their insights, techniques, and theorizing to improve our understanding of the representation and judgment of time

Mioni G., Stablum F., McClintock S. M., & Grondin S . ( 2014).

Different methods for reproducing time, different results

Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 76( 3), 675-681.

URL     PMID:24470257      [本文引用: 1]

One of the most widely used tasks for investigating psychological time, time reproduction, requires from participants the reproduction of the duration of a previously presented stimulus. Although prior studies have investigated the effects of different cognitive processes on time reproduction performance, no studies have looked into the effects of different reproduction methods on these performances. In the present study, participants were randomly assigned to one of three reproduction methods, which included (a) just pressing at the end of the interval, (b) pressing to start and stop the interval, and (c) maintaining continuous pressing during the interval. The study revealed that the three reproduction methods were not equivalent, with the method involving keypresses to start and stop the reproduction showing the highest accuracy, and the method of continuous press generating less variability.

Naya, Y., & Suzuki, W. A . ( 2011).

Integrating what and when across the primate medial temporal lobe

Science, 333( 6043), 773-776.

URL     PMID:21817056      [本文引用: 1]

Episodic or for the detailed events in our lives is critically dependent on structures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL). A fundamental component of episodic is for the temporal order of items within an episode. To understand the contribution of individual MTL structures to temporal-order , we recorded single-unit activity and local field potential from three MTL areas (hippocampus and entorhinal and perirhinal cortex) and visual area TE as performed a temporal-order task. Hippocampus provided incremental timing signals from one item presentation to the next, whereas perirhinal cortex signaled the conjunction of items and their relative temporal order. Thus, perirhinal cortex appeared to integrate timing information from hippocampus with item information from visual sensory area TE.

Nicholas, B . ( 2015).

How could circadian clock genes influence short duration timing?

In Time distortions in mind( pp. 356-381). Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic Pub.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Noulhiane M., Pouthas V., Hasboun D., Baulac M., & Samson S . ( 2007).

Role of the medial temporal lobe in time estimation in the range of minutes

Neuroreport, 18( 10), 1035-1038.

URL     PMID:17558291      [本文引用: 1]

This study examined the role of medial temporal lobe structures in verbal estimation and production of time intervals. Left medial temporal lobe lesions produced deficits in both tasks, whereas right medial temporal lobe lesions only disturbed time production. Although both tasks require adequate use of chronometric units, they seem to be subserved by distinct cognitive processing and to depend on different neural substrates. Verbal estimation of intervals in retrospect seems to depend mainly on contextual memory, and production of intervals depends more specifically on the mental load devoted to time. These findings, documenting for the first time the role of each temporal lobe in duration estimation within the range of minutes, are discussed in light of memory-based and attentional models of time.

Pathman T., Doydum A., & Bauer P. J . ( 2013).

Bringing order to life events: Memory for the temporal order of autobiographical events over an extended period in school-aged children and adults

Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 115( 2), 309-325.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Pathman, T., & Ghetti, S . ( 2014).

The eyes know time: A novel paradigm to reveal the development of temporal memory

Child Development, 85( 2), 792-807.

URL     PMID:23962160      [本文引用: 1]

Temporal memory in 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and young adults (N = 78) was examined introducing a novel eye-movement paradigm. Participants learned object sequences and were tested under three conditions: temporal order, temporal context, and recognition. Age-related improvements in accuracy were found across conditions; accuracy in the temporal conditions was correlated with conventional time knowledge. Eye movements tracked the veridicality of temporal order memory in adults and 10-year-olds seconds before providing memory judgments, suggesting that these movements reflect implicit access to temporal information. Seven-year-olds overall did not show this eye-movement effect, but those who did were more accurate than those who did not. Results suggest that eye movements capture aspects of temporal memory development that precede overt decision processes ith implications for hippocampal development.

Pfeuty M., Dilharreguy B., Gerlier L., & Allard M . ( 2015).

fMRI identifies the right inferior frontal cortex as the brain region where time interval processing is altered by negative emotional arousal

Human Brain Mapping, 36( 3), 981-995.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Sahakyan, L., & Smith, J. R . ( 2014).

“A long time ago, in a context far, far away”: Retrospective time estimates and internal context change

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40( 1), 86-93.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Staddon, J. E. R . ( 2005).

Interval timing: Memory, not a clock

Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9( 7), 312-314.

URL     PMID:15953755     

Abstract Anticipation of periodic events signalled by a time marker, or interval timing, has been explained by a separate pacemaker-counter clock. However, recent research has added support to an older idea: that memory strength can act as a clock. The way that memory strength decreases with time can be inferred from the properties of habituation, and the underlying process also provides a unified explanation for proportional timing, the Weber-law property and several other properties of interval timing.

Szpunar, K. K., & Schacter, D. L . ( 2013).

Get real: Effects of repeated simulation and emotion on the perceived plausibility of future experiences

Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142( 2), 323-327.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Thoenes, S., & Oberfeld, D . ( 2017).

Meta-analysis of time perception and temporal processing in schizophrenia: Differential effects on precision and accuracy

Clinical Psychology Review, 54, 44-64.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Tobin S., Bisson N., & Grondin S . ( 2010).

An ecological approach to prospective and retrospective timing of long durations: A study involving gamers

PLoS One, 5( 2), e9271.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Vallesi A., Arbula S., & Bernardis P . ( 2014).

Functional dissociations in temporal preparation: Evidence from dual-task performance

Cognition, 130( 2), 141-151.

URL     PMID:24291265      [本文引用: 1]

Implicit preparation over time is a complex cognitive capacity important to optimize behavioral responses to a target occurring after a temporal interval, the so-called foreperiod (FP). If the FP occurs randomly and with the same a priori probability, shorter response times are usually observed with longer FPs than with shorter ones (FP effect). Moreover, responses are slower when the preceding FP was longer than the current one (sequential effects). It is still a matter of debate how different processes influence these temporal preparation phenomena. The present study used a dual-task procedure to understand how different processes, along the automatic-controlled continuum, may contribute to these temporal preparation phenomena. Dual-task demands were manipulated in two experiments using a subtraction task during the FP. This secondary task was administered in blocks (Experiment 1) or was embedded together with a baseline single-task in the same experimental session (Experiment 2). The results consistently showed that the size of the FP effect, but not that of sequential effects, is sensitive to dual-task manipulations. This functional dissociation unveils the multi-faceted nature of implicit temporal preparation: while the FP effect is due to a controlled, resource-consuming preparatory mechanism, a more automatic mechanism underlies sequential effects.

Wearden, J. H . ( 2016).

Retrospective timing and passage of time judgements

In J. H. Wearden (Ed.), The psychology of time perception ( pp. 117-141). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract In this chapter I discuss so-called retrospective timing (what Ivry & Hazeltine, 1992, neatly label as “timing without a timer”) and passage of time judgements—judgements of how fast or slowly time seems to pass in some situations, as opposed to judgements of event duration.

Weiler J. A., Suchan B., & Daum I . ( 2010).

Foreseeing the future: Occurrence probability of imagined future events modulates hippocampal activation

Hippocampus, 20( 6), 685-690.

[本文引用: 1]

Wiener M., Lohoff F. W., & Coslett H. B . ( 2011).

Double dissociation of dopamine genes and timing in humans

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23( 10), 2811-2821.

URL     PMID:21261454      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract A number of lines of evidence implicate dopamine in timing [Rammsayer, T. H. Neuropharmacological approaches to human timing. In S. Grondin (Ed.), Psychology of time (pp. 295-320). Bingley, UK: Emerald, 2008; Meck, W. H. Neuropharmacology of timing and time perception. Brain Research, Cognitive Brain Research, 3, 227-242, 1996]. Two human genetic polymorphisms are known to modulate dopaminergic activity. DRD2/ANKK1-Taq1a is a D(2) receptor polymorphism associated with decreased D(2) density in the striatum [J nsson, E. G., Nothen, M. M., Grunhage, F., Farde, L., Nakashima, Y., Propping, P., et al. Polymorphisms in the dopamine D(2) receptor gene and their relationships to striatal dopamine receptor density of healthy volunteers. Molecular Psychiatry, 4, 290-296, 1999]; COMT Val158Met is a functional polymorphism associated with increased activity of the COMT enzyme such that catabolism of synaptic dopamine is greater in pFC [Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Kohn, P. D., Kolachana, B., Kippenhan, S., McInerney-Leo, A., Nussbaum, R., et al. Midbrain dopamine and prefrontal function in humans: Interaction and modulation by COMT genotype. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 594-596, 2005]. To investigate the role of dopamine in timing, we genotyped 65 individuals for DRD2/ANKK1-Taq1a, COMT Val158Met, and a third polymorphism, BDNF Val66Met, a functional polymorphism affecting the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor [Egan, M. F., Kojima, M., Callicott, J. H., Goldberg, T. E., Kolachana, B. S., Bertolino, A., et al. The BDNF val66met polymorphism affects activity-dependent secretion of BDNF and human memory and hippocampal function. Cell, 112, 257-269, 2003]. Subjects were tested on a temporal discrimination task with sub- and supra-second intervals (500- and 2000-msec standards) as well as a spontaneous motor tempo task. We found a double dissociation for temporal discrimination: the DRD2/ANKK1-Taq1a polymorphism (A1+ allele) was associated with significantly greater variability for the 500-msec duration only, whereas the COMT Val158Met polymorphism (Val/Val homozygotes) was associated with significantly greater variability for the 2000-msec duration only. No differences were detected for the BDNF Vall66Met variant. Additionally, the DRD2/ANKK1-Taq1a polymorphism was associated with a significantly slower preferred motor tempo. These data provide a potential biological basis for the distinctions between sub- and supra-second timing and suggest that BG are integral for the former whereas pFC is implicated in the latter.

Wiener M., Turkeltaub P. E., & Coslett H. B . ( 2010).

Implicit timing activates the left inferior parietal cortex

Neuropsychologia, 48( 13), 3967-3971.

URL     PMID:20863842      [本文引用: 1]

Coull and Nobre (2008) suggested that tasks that employ temporal cues might be divided on the basis of whether these cues are explicitly or implicitly processed. Furthermore, they suggested that implicit timing preferentially engages the left cerebral hemisphere. We tested this hypothesis by conducting a quantitative meta-analysis of eleven neuroimaging studies of implicit timing using the activation-likelihood estimation (ALE) algorithm (Turkeltaub, Eden, Jones, & Zeffiro, 2002). Our analysis revealed a single but robust cluster of activation-likelihood in the left inferior parietal cortex (supramarginal gyrus). This result is in accord with the hypothesis that the left hemisphere subserves implicit timing mechanisms. Furthermore, in conjunction with a previously reported meta-analysis of explicit timing tasks, our data support the claim that implicit and explicit timing are supported by at least partially distinct neural structures.

Wittmann, M . ( 2013).

The inner sense of time: How the brain creates a representation of duration

Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14( 3), 217-223.

URL     PMID:23403747      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract A large number of competing models exist for how the brain creates a representation of time. However, several human and animal studies point to 'climbing neural activation' as a potential neural mechanism for the representation of duration. Neurophysiological recordings in animals have revealed how climbing neural activation that peaks at the end of a timed interval underlies the processing of duration, and, in humans, climbing neural activity in the insular cortex, which is associated with feeling states of the body and emotions, may be related to the cumulative representation of time.

Yamada, Y., & Kawabe, T . ( 2011).

Emotion colors time perception unconsciously

Consciousness and Cognition, 20( 4), 1835-1841.

URL     PMID:21764331      [本文引用: 1]

Emotion modulates our time perception. So far, the relationship between emotion and time perception has been examined with visible emotional stimuli. The present study investigated whether invisible emotional stimuli affected time perception. Using continuous flash suppression, which is a kind of dynamic interocular masking, supra-threshold emotional pictures were masked or unmasked depending on whether the retinal position of continuous flashes on one eye was consistent with that of the pictures on the other eye. Observers were asked to reproduce the perceived duration of a frame stimulus that was concurrently presented with a masked or unmasked emotional picture. As a result, negative emotional stimuli elongated the perceived duration of the frame stimulus in comparison with positive and neutral emotional stimuli, regardless of the visibility of emotional pictures. These results suggest that negative emotion unconsciously accelerates an internal clock, altering time perception.

Zakay, D., & Block, R. A . ( 2004).

Prospective and retrospective duration judgments: An executive-control perspective

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 64( 3), 319-328.

URL     PMID:15283475      [本文引用: 2]

Most theorists propose that when a person is aware that a duration judgment must be made (prospective paradigm), experienced duration depends on attention to temporal information, which competes with attention to nontemporal information. When a person is not aware that a duration judgment must be made until later (retrospective paradigm), remembered duration depends on incidental memory for temporal information. In the present article we describe two experiments in which durations involved with high-level, executive-control functions were judged either prospectively or retrospectively. In one experiment, the executive function involved resolving syntactic ambiguity in reading. In another experiment, it involved controlling the switching between tasks. In both experiments, there was a unique cost to the operation of control high-level, executive functions which was manifested by prospective reproductions shortening a finding that supports an attentional model of prospective timing. In addition, activation of executive functions produced contextual changes that were encoded in memory and resulted in longer retrospective reproductions, a finding that supports a contextual-change model of retrospective timing. Thus, different cognitive processes underlie prospective and retrospective timing. Recent findings obtained by some brain researchers also support these conclusions.

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