The effects of light on social cognition and social behavior
收稿日期: 2017-09-21 网络出版日期: 2018-06-10
Received: 2017-09-21 Online: 2018-06-10
作为光照的非视觉功效之一, 光照对社会心理和行为影响的研究相对较少但是方兴未艾。光照对亲社会行为和反社会行为具有不同影响, 目前提出的加工机制涉及情绪、相依型自我建构、匿名感、道德自我和具身认知。未来研究需要从光照维度和模式、自然光的实验室研究、心理加工机制、神经生化机制、群体差异、调节变量、重复性研究和本土化研究等方面做努力。
作为光照的非视觉功效之一, 光照对社会心理和行为影响的研究相对较少但是方兴未艾。光照对亲社会行为和反社会行为具有不同影响, 目前提出的加工机制涉及情绪、相依型自我建构、匿名感、道德自我和具身认知。未来研究需要从光照维度和模式、自然光的实验室研究、心理加工机制、神经生化机制、群体差异、调节变量、重复性研究和本土化研究等方面做努力。
The effects of light on social cognition and social behavior as a specific form of non-image forming (NIF) function are less investigated than any other NIF functions, which is a promising field. Natural light and artificial light exert different influences on prosocial and antisocial behaviors. At present, the underlying psychological mechanisms mainly focus on mood, self construal, sense of anonymity, moral salience and embodied cognition. Future studies should put emphasis on dynamic lighting, laboratory studies of natural light, replications of previous studies and investigations of possible psychological and neuro-endocrine mechanism.
The effects of light on social cognition and social behavior as a specific form of non-image forming (NIF) function are less investigated than any other NIF functions, which is a promising field. Natural light and artificial light exert different influences on prosocial and antisocial behaviors. At present, the underlying psychological mechanisms mainly focus on mood, self construal, sense of anonymity, moral salience and embodied cognition. Future studies should put emphasis on dynamic lighting, laboratory studies of natural light, replications of previous studies and investigations of possible psychological and neuro-endocrine mechanism.
陈庆伟, 汝涛涛, 周菊燕, 李静华, 熊晓, 李笑然, 周国富.
CHEN Qingwei, RU Taotao, ZHOU Juyan, LI Jinghua, XIONG Xiao, LI Xiaoran, ZHOU Guofu.
光照在地球的整个生物进化过程中发挥着举足轻重的作用, 它不仅对我们看清周围环境中物体的大小、颜色和形状等信息提供了基本的视知觉基础, 即光照的图像视觉功能, 同时, 它还会通过人类视网膜上第三类新型感光细胞——内在光敏性神经节细胞(intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell, ipRGC)——对有机体的诸多生理和心理功能产生影响(Daneault, Dumont, Massé, Vandewalle, & Carrier, 2016; LeGates, Fernandez, & Hattar, 2014; Vandewalle, Maquet, & Dijk, 2009)。前者被称为光照的视觉功效(Image forming function), 后者则被称为光照的非视觉功效(Non-image forming function) (朱莹莹, 汝涛涛, 周国富, 2015)。
以往关于光照的非视觉功效研究主要集中在昼夜节律(Berson, Dunn, & Takao, 2002; LeGates et al., 2014)、激素分泌(Fonken & Nelson, 2014; Lall et al., 2010)、体温调节(te Kulve, Schellen, Schlangen, & van Marken Lichtenbelt, 2016)、睡眠(LeGates et al., 2014)、警觉性(Cajochen, 2007)、认知(Vandewalle et al., 2009)和情绪加工及其内在的神经活动特点(Bedrosian & Nelson, 2017; Oldham & Ciraulo, 2014)等方面, 各领域的专家学者针对这些方面开展了大量研究工作并取得了丰硕成果, 为我们深入了解光的非视觉效应提供了有益借鉴。然而以上这些方面的研究更多聚焦于个体层面, 而人作为一种社会性动物, 更多时候需要与各种各样的人进行社交, 那么人类的社会心理和行为是否也会受光的影响呢?作为光的非视觉效应的一个分支, 目前光照与社会行为和心理的研究相对其他光照的非视觉研究数量少很多, 但是该领域近几年来蓬勃发展, 潜力无限。光照对攻击行为、社会利他、道德决策、自我控制、冲突解决、自我表露、社会评价、刻板印象和求偶行为等一系列的社会心理和行为具有影响, 背后的心理加工机制可能涉及到情绪、相依型自我建构、匿名感、道德自我和概念隐喻等。接下来, 本文将对该领域的研究现状、心理加工机制和未来研究展望三个方面进行回顾和综述。
大部分自然光与攻击行为的研究发现, 自然光的光照强度与攻击性行为的发生呈负相关关系。例如, 患有轻微季节性情绪障碍的个体在高亮度的自然光条件下会更乐于进行社交活动, 进行人际沟通时态度更随和, 暴力和吵架行为也会明显减少(aan het Rot, Moskowitz, & Young, 2008)。此外, 与攻击性密切联系的犯罪行为的有关研究也发现这种现象。自然光与犯罪行为的研究一般采用相关研究的范式, 使用日光的照射强度、照射时间作为自变量, 分析其与犯罪行为的报警数量的相关关系。一项长期的追踪研究表明, 暴力犯罪通常发生在日光照射较少的夜间(Hartley, 1974)。另外一项研究探讨了天气状况和时间相关因素与家庭暴力和强奸事件报案数量之间的关系, 结果发现, 家庭暴力和强奸事件更可能发生在自然光较少的日落之后(Cohn, 1993)。
早在1979年, 心理学家Cunningham就提出“阳光善人” (Sunshine Samaritan)的假设。他在春夏冬三季的实验发现, 在日照强度较高的天气里, 助人行为发生的频率更高, 而气温、湿度、风速和月相的影响相对较弱(Cunningham, 1979)。在这之后, 陆续有研究开始分析自然光对人际行为的影响。Guéguen和Lamy(2013)采用现场实验研究了自发助人行为, 在控制了气温的条件下, 分别在自然光较强的晴天和自然光较弱的阴天测量过往行人是否会主动提醒主试物品掉落的情况。其研究结果和Cunningham (1979)的研究结论基本一致, 即人们在晴天更愿意提供帮助。然而以上研究并未进一步挖掘这些现象背后的原因, 但普遍猜测这种关系可能是由于光照会引发积极情绪, 进而促进人际间的亲和与友好行为(王琰, 陈浩, 2017)。
人工光方面的研究却产生了一些与自然光不同的结果。有研究者发现暗光能够激发相依型自我建构, 从而促进亲社会的合作行为的发生(Steidle, Hanke, & Werth, 2013)。他们使用一系列经典的社会困境任务进行实验, 如公共物品困境、资源困境和囚徒困境, 结果一致发现被试在暗光房间中会更倾向选择合作, 而相依型建构在其中起中介作用。人工光和自然光结果不一致的原因可能是, 关于自然光的研究大多在现实环境中进行, 虽然对自变量的操纵方法可以达到改变光照强度的效果, 但是同时也增加了很多混淆变量。例如Guéguen和Lamy (2013)的实验中虽然晴天和阴天确实代表了亮光和暗光的条件, 但是也可能存在没有控制好的物理环境变量以及情境变量(如阴天路人大多行色匆匆, 从时间的紧迫性行来说很少有人会停下来帮忙)影响实验结果。而关于人工光的研究则大多在实验室内进行, 可以通过一定手段只改变自变量(如光照强度)而减少无关变量的影响。
光照与道德决策之间的研究应该是人工光方面研究最活跃的领域之一, 不同的学者实施了不同的实验研究, 并提出不同的心理机制。Zhong等人首次对这个议题进行探究, 他们认为在实际匿名性一致的情况下, 黑暗会让人产生一种虚幻的匿名感进而促进不诚实和自私行为的发生, 其实验结果表明, 居于暗光环境中的被试更易于通过欺骗的方式获取更多的游戏报酬, 佩戴深色墨镜的被试(知觉到的外界光环境是昏暗的)比佩戴透明眼镜的被试(知觉到的外界光环境是明亮的)在独裁者博弈游戏中会表现出更加自私的行为, 匿名感在黑暗和自私行为中起中介作用(Zhong, Bohns, & Gino, 2010)。Chiou和Cheng (2013)认为, 基于光和善良之间的隐喻性联系, 明亮可以增强个体的道德自我(moral salience)进而促进道德行为的发生, 他们通过三个实验发现, 与暗光环境中的被试相比, 处于亮光环境中的被试在博弈游戏中表现出更少的自私行为, 且愿意捐赠更多的钱, 做出更多的慈善行为, 并且道德自我在明亮和道德行为之间起中介作用。此外, 他们也测量了不同光环境下被试的匿名感, 但是并没有发现显著差异。究其原因, 其一可能是Chiou和Cheng (2013)的研究在第一个实验中设置了三种不同的照度环境(12/8/4盏灯), 直接通过不同的光照环境来启动被试的明暗知觉, 在此情况下测量被试的匿名感; 而Zhong等人(2010)则是通过让被试佩戴太阳眼镜来启动被试的暗知觉, 在此情况下测量被试的匿名感。因此, 两者对明暗知觉的操纵方式存在差异, 这可能是导致结果不一致的重要原因。另外, 这也可能是因为两者使用了不同类型的道德任务。前者侧重的是不道德行为, 比如欺骗行为; 而后者侧重的是道德行为, 比如捐助行为等。而Schwartz和Bilsky (1990)提出道德行为和不道德行为不是一个维度相反的两端, 而是两个不同的维度。而根据Janoff-Bulman, Sheikh和Hepp (2009)提出的道德自我调节中的趋向-回避差异, 明亮与道德可能对正性结果更加敏感, 强调我们应该做什么, 如捐钱、做志愿者; 而黑暗与不道德则可能对负性结果更加敏感, 强调我们不应该做什么, 如欺骗、偷窃。此外, 作为填充材料, 研究者也测量了不同光环境下被试的情绪状态, 但并未发现显著差异。国内也有学者对该问题进行了探索, 他们在实验中设置了两种不同的照度环境——明(> 500 lx)和暗(< 30 lx), 也发现了类似的现象, 但是他们认为其背后的机制既非匿名感也非道德自我, 而是光照与道德认知之间的概念隐喻(殷融, 叶浩生, 2014)。他们也比较了明暗环境下被试的负性情绪(厌恶感、焦虑感和恐惧感), 但未发现显著差异。而以往的心理学研究显示, 黑暗会增加人们的焦虑感等负性情绪(Grillon, Pellowski, Merikangas, & Davis, 1997)。出现不一致结果的原因可能是因为殷融和叶浩生(2014)的研究中,暗条件并非完全的黑暗, 所以并没有引起被试强烈的负面情绪。
以往研究表明, 光照可能对自我控制有所影响。Steidle和Werth (2014)发现亮光会增加自我意识从而诱发反思式和控制式的自我调控方式。他们通过5个实验证实了这个假设, 具体来说, 相对于暗光房间的被试来说, 在亮光房间的被试主观报告具有更高程度的公共自我意识; 无论是通过实际的灯光环境操纵还是概念启动操纵, 明亮都能诱发被试使用控制程度更高和反思式的自我调节策略; 此外, 亮光还能够抑制欲望和不合理的冲动, 这都反映了较高水平的自我控制。在性别、年龄和匿名感作为协变量进行分析之后, 这些结果模式也并未改变。然而, 其他学者却并未发现光照对自我控制的影响。Smolders和de Kort (2014, 2017)利用主观量表来测量自我控制, 她们分别探讨了照度和色温对自我控制的影响, 结果却显示光照对自我控制没有显著影响。具体来说, 在控制了色温(4000 K)之后, 发现照度(1000 lx vs. 200 lx)对自我控制没有显著影响(Smolders & de Kort, 2014); 在控制了照度(500 lx)之后, 也没有发现色温(2700 K vs. 6000 K)对自我控制的作用(Smolders & de Kort, 2017)。二者结果的不一致可能是由测量手段的差异导致的, 前者使用了量表和类似投射测验的两种主观指标来测量自我控制, 并用对冲动和欲望的抑制这一客观行为来表征自我控制, 而后者则只使用了主观量表; 另外, 二者对自变量的操纵手段也并不完全一致。由于自我控制和一系列的社会心理和行为均存在密切联系, 因此, 自我控制也有可能是光照的社会效应背后的潜在机制之一。自然光方面并未发现此类研究。
光照对冲突解决的策略选择具有显著影响。早期的研究发现, 人们在低色温的暖白光环境下更倾向采用合作、和解而非对抗的积极应对方式解决人际冲突(Baron, Fortin, Frei, Hauver, & Shack, 1990)。在后续研究中, 他们严格操纵了照度(150 lx vs. 1500 lx)和色温(暖白 vs. 冷白), 结果发现, 相对于冷白光(4200 K), 处于暖白光(3000 K)照明环境下的个体更倾向于通过合作而非逃避的方式解决人际冲突和矛盾(Baron, Rea, & Daniels, 1992)。最近有研究者在前人研究的基础上, 纳入自我建构和社会支配倾向这两个因素, 发现光照对冲突解决的影响受社会支配倾向调节, 具体来说, 社会支配倾向高的个体更容易受光照条件的影响, 他们在低照度的暖色光条件下更倾向于选择合作性的冲突解决策略(Kombeiz, Steidle, & Dietl, 2017)。
以往有研究发现, 黑暗环境中的被试更倾向于拥抱陌生人, 并向他人袒露自己的私人信息(Gergen, Gergen, & Barton, 1973; Miwa & Hanyu, 2006)。Gifford (1988)的研究却发现, 亮光不仅会增加被试间一般性的交流, 也会增加亲密性的交流, 这有可能是因为亮光造成的宽敞感(spaciousness perceptions)所致。有关医患交流的研究也发现, 让被试想象自己在明亮的房间相对于昏暗的房间, 能够有效提高被试的自我表露意愿(Okken, van Rompay, & Pruyn, 2013)。Mehta等人基于前人研究的不一致, 探讨了环境照度(40 lx vs. 372 lx)对自我表露的影响(Mehta, Mukherjee, & Manjaly, 2017), 然而结果却并未发现光照对自我表露的主观意愿还是自我表露的实际行为具有显著影响, 他们认为这可能是由于所选照度水平差异太小所致。自然光方面并未发现该类研究。
除了以上提到的社会心理和行为之外, 以往研究还发现光照对其他一系列的社会认知和行为均有不同影响, 如社会评价、刻板印象和求偶行为等。
目前, 光照与社会评价的研究都集中于人工光。前人研究分别探讨了色温和照度对社会评价的影响, 但是并未得出统一的结论。有研究发现处于暖色温照明环境中的被试更易给予虚拟求职者更加积极的技能鉴定与行为绩效评估(Baron et al., 1992; Cardy & Dobbins, 1986)。然而, 其他研究却未能重复出同样的结果(Boyce et al., 2006; Knez & Enmarker, 1998; Veitch & Newsham, 1998)。如有研究发现, 不同色温照明环境下, 被试对他人的吸引力和友善程度的评价并无显著差异(Boray, Gifford, & Rosenblood, 1989)。
光照还会影响刻板印象的加工。当个体感受到威胁时, 会促进他对消极刻板印象和偏见的加工(Blascovich, Mendes, Hunter, Lickel, & Kowai- Bell, 2001; Fein & Spencer, 1997)。黑暗的光环境作为一种威胁性刺激, 会使个体感受到危险, 从而诱发个体的自我保护动机。当人们身处漆黑的房间内, 自我保护特质倾向明显的个体, 可能会在工作记忆中提取出罪犯、不可信任等词汇来形成对黑人或其他人种(如伊朗人)的刻板印象, 但是他们不会提取懒惰与愚昧等词汇来概括对黑人的刻板印象(Schaller, Park, & Mueller, 2003)。
该假说认为光照之所以会对社会认知和行为产生影响是因为光照会诱发不同的情绪状态, 从而导致不同的社会评价和社会行为。自然光对情绪的影响在一系列的社会心理学和实验经济学领域的研究中都得到了确认和证实, 目前较为统一的结论是自然光能够诱发积极情绪。早期研究中, Persinger (1975)和Cunningham (1979)的研究均表明自然光和自我报告情绪呈显著的正相关关系, 具体来说, 前者发现, 每天日照时间越短、空气相对湿度越高, 个体的情绪越低落(unhappy, discontented, concerned); 后者发现, 与多云的阴天相比, 阳光充足的晴天个体更开心(good mood)。Schwarz和Clore (1983)的研究发现晴天的被试比阴天的被试更开心, 并且生活满意度更高。Rind (1996)把被试暴露在不同的天气条件下, 结果发现, 阳光影响了自我报告情绪和被试的行为, 但是其他环境因素, 比如气温和降水则没有这种提升情绪的作用。Saunders (1993)在探讨天气因素对股价的影响时, 也发现了类似的结果。有研究把被试随机分配到晴天和阴天条件, 结果发现阳光能够诱发更加积极的自我报告情绪(Bassi, Colacito, & Fulghieri, 2013)。最近有一项研究使用自然光作为情绪指标, 来探讨情绪对信贷发放的影响, 结果发现晴天诱发的积极情绪有助于信贷发放, 而阴天诱发的消极情绪则不利于信贷发放, 背后的机制在于自然光诱发的情绪影响了管理者的风险容忍度和主观判断(Cortés, Ran, & Sosyura, 2016)。自然光对社会心理和行为的影响方面的研究较为一致地认为正是自然光诱发的积极情绪导致人们更加愿意帮助他人(Cunningham, 1979; Guéguen & Lamy, 2013), 对搭讪对象更友好(Guéguen, 2013)。然而, 他们并没有对这一假说进行实证检验。
而关于人工光对情绪的影响, 相关研究的结论就要更加复杂, 研究之间的结果也常常出现不一致的情况(Bedrosian & Nelson, 2017), 并且情绪说似乎也并未在人工光方面的研究中得到证实。如Baron团队的研究发现, 处于暖白光照明环境下的个体更倾向于通过合作或和解而非逃避或对抗的方式解决人际冲突和矛盾(Baron et al., 1990, 1992)。他们认为这种结果有可能是因为暖白光诱发了积极情绪, 从而影响了冲突解决策略的选择。然而, 遗憾的是, 他们并未直接对情绪可能的中介作用和调节作用进行检验。最近一项探讨同样主题的研究直接对这种假设进行了检验, 结果却并未发现情绪的中介或者调节作用(Kombeiz et al., 2017), 因此, 情绪说在人工光的相关研究中还有待后续研究的进一步检验。以往研究对于情绪的测量方式较为单一和粗糙, 基本采取主观问卷的方式进行且通常只测量一个维度, 因此对于情绪的测量手段的多样化可以作为一个比较好的切入点, 例如情绪的不同维度的细化(唤醒度、愉悦度等)、情绪的主观和客观指标的综合考察等。
自我建构(self-construal)指个体在进行自我定义时所表现出的倾向性(Markus & Kitayama, 1991)。作为认知过程的核心, 其对个体的认知、动机和情绪均产生重要影响(Cross, Hardin, & Gercek-Swing, 2011; Markus & Kitayama, 1991), 并且呈现出动态的文化特性(买热巴·买买提, 吴艳红, 2017)。自我建构主要分为独立型自我建 构(independent self-construal)和相依型自我建构(interdependent self-construal)。前者注重自身独特性, 追求个人的独立自主, 与之相联系的自我表征多涉及个人特质、能力和偏好; 后者则注重自己与他人的联系, 渴望获得良好人际关系, 其自我表征多以人际交往为背景(Markus & Kitayama, 1991)。以往研究发现, 相对于独立型自我建构来说, 相依型自我建构非常容易受外界环境的影响(Markus & Kitayama, 1991)。如有研究发现, 相依型自我建构对光照的细微变化十分敏感, 并且可以用来解释由光照诱发的社会行为改变。具体来说, 暗光会提高相依型自我建构水平, 从而增加合作行为(Steidle et al., 2013)。该假说认为光照之所以会对社会心理和行为产生影响是因为光照会影响个体的认知加工方式(如暗光环境下个体更倾向于使用整体性的加工方式, 注重抽象信息) (Steidle, Werth, & Hanke, 2011), 而相依型自我建构比独立型自我建构抽象水平更高(因为相依型自我建构包含了关于个体自我更整体和抽象的信息) (Trope & Liberman, 2010), 所以暗光会提高情境性相依型自我建构的水平, 而情境性的相依型自我建构水平又会对一系列的社会心理和行为产生影响, 因此光照通过影响相依型自我建构, 进而影响社会心理和行为(Kombeiz et al., 2017; Steidle et al., 2013)。
根据Wheeler等人提出的激活自我理论(Active- Self account), 启动的概念或认知会通过暂时激活的自我概念(active self-concept)来影响行为(Wheeler, Demarree, & Petty, 2007)。该理论可以用来解释自我如何参与到启动-行为(prime-to-behavior)效应中, 并预测起决定作用的自我成分影响行为的模式。而另一方面, 围绕道德信念组织自我概念的个体极有可能将信念转化成行动(Hertz & Krettenauer, 2016)。因此, 道德自我假说认为, 亮光会凸显人们的道德自我, 从而进一步增加人们做出道德行为的可能性。道德自我突出在光照对道德行为产生影响中起中介作用。研究发现, 明亮的室内光环境能够使得个体的道德自我凸显, 从而增加道德行为(Chiou & Cheng, 2013)。
黑暗象征邪恶, 而光亮象征善良。近年来, 许多实证研究支持了这种隐喻映射(Chiou & Cheng, 2013; Zhong et al., 2010; 殷融, 叶浩生, 2014)。一般来说, 具身认知理论认为, 在概念隐喻的层面上, 人们会将黑或暗的视知觉概念与不道德相关联, 而将白或明的视知觉概念与道德相关联(殷融, 苏得权, 叶浩生, 2013)。在前人研究的基础上, 殷融和叶浩生(2014)认为既不是由于暗光环境增强匿名感从而提高了被试的自私自利性, 也不是因为暗光环境引发了被试的消极思维, 光照对道德决策的影响是由于亮光环境与道德认知之间具有特定的关联所致。他们通过实验研究证明了光照会对人的道德认知判断过程产生直接影响, 且光照与道德认知之间存在典型的隐喻一致性效应, 这种隐喻一致性效应的形式同黑白颜色知觉与道德认知间的干扰效应具有共通性。具体而言, 暗光环境组被试会比亮光环境组被试更倾向于认为自己在酬劳分配中会受到合作者的不公平对待, 并预期酬劳更低。这证明, 暗光环境比亮光环境更容易引发被试对负性道德特质的联想, 当被试思考的问题涉及道德因素时, 光照会对道德认知判断产生直接的影响。此外, 有研究发现, 人们回忆不道德事件后会降低对环境亮度的知觉(Banerjee, Chatterjee, & Sinha, 2012)。因此, 不仅存在从光照知觉到道德或不道德概念加工的隐喻映射, 而且道德或不道德概念加工也能隐喻映射光照知觉。这种基于隐喻的双向干扰效应似乎也为该假说提供了更多实证证据。
纵观以往研究, 自然光一般采用现场实验的方式收集数据, 对混淆变量的控制相对宽松而生态效度较好; 而人工光的研究则一般采取实验室研究的方式进行, 对混淆变量的控制严格而生态效度较差。自然光的研究涉及的主题(攻击行为、社会利他和求偶行为)不多但每个主题下的研究较多, 而人工光的研究却相反：涉及主题较多(攻击行为、社会利他、道德决策、自我控制、冲突解决、自我表露、社会评价和刻板印象)而每个研究主题下的研究却并不多。该领域研究的兴趣点较为分散, 关注较多的同一个主题下, 最多也只有两到三项研究, 而且研究结果往往不太一致。这有可能是因为以往研究中所使用的灯光参数水平未有可比性, 更严重的问题是以往研究对于光照参数的报告往往不太一致, 有的研究只报告一个参数, 而有的报告则只报告某几个参数, 有的研究甚至完全不报告灯光参数, 这会导致研究之间的可对比性和后续研究的可重复性(Baker, 2016; 胡传鹏等, 2016)大大降低, 针对这一情况, Lucas联合相关领域的专家学者于2014年在Trends in Neurosciences上发文共同倡议并提供了标准化的光照参数工具箱来解决这一问题(Lucas et al., 2014)。因此, 在未来该领域的研究中, 研究者务必使用该工具箱对光照参数进行标准化报告。此外, 不同研究方法学上的差异也可能导致结果的不一致性。有的研究使用主观问卷, 而有的研究采用行为实验。再次, 不同研究的关注点不同, 选取的中介变量和调节变量不同, 也有可能导致研究结论之间的差异。目前光与社会行为的研究相对零散, 往往不成体系和系统, 未来研究需要系统地探讨光照对社会认知和行为的影响, 深化人们对光的非视觉效应在社会层面的认识。具体来说可以从以下几个角度进行切入。
以往人工光照明的研究中, 主要聚焦的是照度这一单一维度, 而光照还有许多其他维度, 如色温和波长等, 目前研究中, 对于其他维度的考量仍然欠奉, 更毋论各种维度之间的交互作用。此外, 以往研究往往使用两极化的变量水平, 很少对变化水平进行详细划分。因此, 未来研究除了对照度这一维度进行细化以增加实验的内部效度之外, 还需要对光照的其他维度(如色温、波长、光照时长和光照时间等) (Cajochen, 2007; LeGates et al., 2014; Vandewalle et al., 2009)进行系统考察, 并对维度之间的相互影响进行深入探讨, 从而建立光照与社会心理和行为的动态交互模型。
此外, 对动态光模式的考量也逐渐成为研究趋势。以往人工光的研究多采用静态照明(即光照参数固定不变)的方式进行, 而近年来, 随着智能照明理念的提出, 越来越多的研究者开始关注动态照明对社会认知和行为的影响。动态光模式指的是在某一时间段内根据人们的生理节律和活动特点来调控照明环境的灯光参数使之有利于促进当前活动的高效完成、提高机体警觉性及主观幸福感等的照明模式, 它是与静态照明相对而言的一种新型照明方式(Aarts, Aries, Straathof, & van Hoof, 2015; Canazei, Dehoff, Staggl, & Pohl, 2014)。例如, 有研究探讨了动态灯光对小学生的好动行为、攻击性行为和亲社会行为的影响。这一研究中的动态灯光系统采用7种不同的灯光方案, 这7种灯光方案由不同的照度和色温组合而成。使用控制严格的准实验现场研究方法, 收集了被试的横断数据和纵向数据。结果表明, 在控制了人口学因素(如社会阶层、健康状况)和环境因素(如日照、温度和座位安排)的影响之后, 动态灯光组小学生相比控制组小学生的好动行为和攻击性行为明显下降, 亲社会行为明显增多(Wessolowski, Koenig, Schulte-Markwort, & Barkmann, 2014)。总的来说, 研究结果表明, 动态灯光能够直接减少小学生的好动行为, 提升他们的社会行为表现。国内也有研究者开始关注动态灯光对社会行为的影响, 他们发现, 动态灯光条件的实验组幼儿在自信、视线对人、回应指令、积极合作、分享和口头语言上明显优于控制组, 而在自卑、视线对物、消极合作的均值上明显低于控制组, 且二者在自信、回应指令和口头语言上均存在显著差异(向英, 周念丽, 陈国鹏, 何海云, 2015)。未来研究需要突破以往静态光照方式的局限, 聚焦与探索光照和社会认知和行为的动态交互作用, 并且发展社会认知和行为的最优光模型。
以往自然光的研究, 因为实验条件的不可操纵性, 往往采用准实验的方式进行, 得出的结论虽然生态效度较高, 但是由于准实验设计的固有弊端, 比如对混淆变量的控制不严格等, 此类研究的结论往往需要进一步商榷。随着科学技术的发展, 近年来许多学者致力于研发模拟自然光的灯光系统, 并且开发出对应的灯光产品, 如dawn simulator (Fromm, Horlebein, Meergans, Niesner, & Randler, 2011), Skylight (Canazei et al., 2016; Canazei, Pohl, Bliem, Martini, & Weiss, 2017)等, 这些产品能够对自然光照条件进行有效模拟, 并提供多样化的灯光参数, 目前已经用来探讨模拟自然光对人身心健康的影响(Canazei et al., 2017; Danilenko & Ivanova, 2015)。因此, 此类灯光系统有望能够引入到自然光对社会认知和行为影响的相关研究中, 使研究者能够人为操纵相应的自然光参数, 来探讨自然光的不同光参数对社会认知和行为的不同影响, 从而使得自然光的实验室研究成为可能。
从上文总结的潜在心理机制来看, 目前相关研究的实证证据都很匮乏并且还存在很多争议。总的来说, 虽然以上几种假说都得到一定实验证据的支持, 然而, 它们一般都只能局限于解释某几种特定的心理现象, 如道德自我说和概念隐喻说目前只用来解释道德决策领域的结果, 而且某些假说在近期的研究中已经被推翻, 比如, 情绪说。因此, 在未来的研究中, 需要根据已有结果, 一方面拓展已有理论假说在其他领域的解释力度, 另一方面则需要构建解释力更强的理论体系尽可能统合光照对社会心理和行为的影响。从目前的研究现状来看, 具身认知理论得到较多的实证支持。此外, 解释水平理论和进化动机理论也有望成为这种理论的范例。比如, 前人有研究发现解释水平会影响认知、情绪和社会行为(Trope & Liberman, 2010; 李明晖, 饶俪琳, 2017), 而光照对解释水平具有重要影响, 暗光可以提高人们的抽象解释水平(Steidle et al, 2011), 那么除了以上提到的几种假说之外, 解释水平是否也有可能是光照和道德判断之间的加工机制呢?这一问题也值得未来研究进一步探索。另外, 从进化动机角度进行切入也可能是一个很好的进路。进化心理学认为, 人类在漫长的进化过程当中, 具有几类基本的进化动机(Schaller, Kenrick, Neel, & Neuberg, 2017), 如自我保护动机、求偶动机(苏金龙, 苏彦捷, 2017)、寻求地位(status)动机(Anderson, Hildreth, & Howland, 2015)、养育后代动机以及配偶守护动机等, 这些机能性的进化动机对社会认知有重要影响。社会交往过程中人们的注意、记忆和判断等低阶认知活动以及外显行为等, 都可能受到进化动机的影响(李宏利, 王燕, 2011)。前人研究业已发现, 光照会诱发自我保护动机, 进而影响对刻板印象的加工(Schaller et al., 2003), 那么光照是否对其他进化动机也有影响, 从而调节社会心理和行为, 也是未来值得研究的方向之一。
光照对社会认知和行为影响的生化机制和神经生理机制还需要进一步探讨。考虑到光照对激素分泌的重大影响, 未来研究需要着重对生化机制的探讨。前人研究发现, 光照对激素分泌具有重大影响, 其中, 影响最大的当属褪黑素。最近, 有研究发现褪黑素能够增加反应式攻击行为(Liu et al., 2017), 那么光照对攻击认知和行为的影响是否通过褪黑素起作用, 这一可能的生化通路值得未来研究进一步探讨。此外, 与社会认知和行为密切相关的其他激素, 如催产素(Ma, Shamay- Tsoory, Han, & Zink, 2016; 刘金婷, 蔡强, 王若菡, 吴寅, 2011)和睾酮(刘金婷等, 2013)等, 是否也会受到光照的调节, 进而影响社会认知和行为, 也是未来探索的方向之一。
以上文提到的求偶行为为例, 光照是如何影响求偶行为的呢?神经递质方面的研究或许可以给我们一些生理方面的答案。光照主要影响生殖系统的两大重要激素：黄体化激素和促卵泡激素。促卵泡激素(Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, FSH)亦称为卵泡刺激素, 是一种由脑垂体合成并分泌的激素, 属于糖基化蛋白质激素, 因最早发现其对女性卵泡成熟的刺激作用而得名。后来的研究表明, FSH在男女两性体内都是很重要的激素之一, 调控着发育、生长、青春期性成熟、以及生殖相关的一系列生理过程。黄体化激素(Luteinizing Hormone, LH)是一种在脑下垂体前叶合成的荷尔蒙, 在女性体内, LH的周期性急速上升导致每月的排卵的发生; 在男性体内, LH刺激睾丸中睾丸间质细胞(莱迪希细胞, Leydig Cell)合成睾丸素。FSH和LH在生殖相关的生理过程中协同发挥着至关重要的作用。研究表明, 连续五天一个小时 (5: 00-6: 00)的亮光(1000 lx)照射, 相对于控制组(小于10 lx的红光)来说, 能够显著提高健康年轻男性的LH的分泌量(Yoon, Kripke, Elliott, & Youngstedt, 2003)。无论是自然光(Danilenko, Sergeeva, & Verevkin, 2011)还是人工光(Danilenko, 2007; Dewan, Menkin, & Rock, 1978; Lin, Kripke, Parry, & Berga, 1990; Putilov, Danilenko, Protopopova, & Kripke, 2002; Rex, Kripke, Cole, & Klauber, 1997)都会缩短女性的月经周期, 背后的机制在于光照促进了LH、FSH和催乳素的分泌和卵巢卵泡的生长, 增加了排卵次数(Danilenko & Samoilova, 2007)。最近的一项研究表明, 在控制了照度(1200 lx)之后, 早上加蓝白光(相对红光而言)在照射22分钟之后就能显著提高月经周期中晚期女性FSH的分泌量(Danilenko & Sergeeva, 2015), 这也为光照和生殖系统之间的功能联系提供了直接证据。而有研究发现, 在夜店里, 处于月经周期中的排卵期的女性更容易接受陌生男士一起跳舞的邀请(Guéguen, 2009a, b)。此外, 个体的内在因素(如荷尔蒙的分泌)也可能激发个体的心理动机系统, 例如处于排卵期会激发女性的配偶获取系统(Gangestad, Haselton, & Buss, 2006; 陈瑞, 郑毓煌, 2015)。综上所述, 光照可能通过对生殖激素的调节, 影响了生理周期和求偶动机, 从而在一定程度上影响了求偶行为及其结果, 但是这一猜想还需要未来研究进行实证证明。
另一方面, 目前该领域的研究多采用准实验的现场研究、或者以问卷和行为实验的方法进行, 而对于神经生理机制的探讨目前处于一片空白的状态, 未来研究需要使用ERP、MEG、PET、TMS、tDCS、fMRI和近红外光成像等技术对该领域的研究进行深入探究。
以往研究发现性别和年龄可能对光的非视觉效应具有显著影响(Daneault et al., 2016)。如男性在冷色光(4000 K)条件下认知表现更好, 而女性则在暖色光(3000 K)条件下认知表现更好(Knez, 1995); 年轻人喜欢在暖色光条件下进行认知加工而老年人则偏爱在冷色光条件下进行认知加工(Knez & Kers, 2000)。而光照对社会心理和行为的影响是否也同样具有性别和年龄差异则需要未来研究进一步探讨。另外, 目前该领域的研究主要使用健康成人作为被试群体, 对于青少年群体和老年群体的考察较少, 因此未来研究需要进一步拓宽被试群体, 比较群体差异。此外, 考虑到某些特殊群体(如自闭症和强迫症等)的社会认知和行为模式本身就与常人存在较大差异, 而光照是否能够减轻或者加重这种差异也并未可知。
总的来说, 本领域以往研究的关注点较为分散, 针对同一个主题可能往往只有一两个研究, 很少有一系列研究针对一个研究主题进行深入探讨, 并且研究结论多不一致。而以往研究较少探讨光对社会行为影响背后的机制, 目前的相关研究结论也很不一致, 主要原因可能在于不同的研究出发点不同, 因此关注的中介变量和得出的结论也不尽相同。此外, 光对各个研究关注的中介变量的影响, 目前研究也尚未有所定论, 因此要得出确切的结论更是雪上加霜。针对这一现状, 首先, 我们需要针对光对各种可能的中介变量(如情绪、认知、动机和自我控制等)进行系统探讨, 得出较为明确的结论。其次, 在厘清心理机制的基础上, 未来研究还需要对背后的神经生化机制进行深入探讨。最后, 本领域的研究亟需一个解释力更强的理论框架来对光的社会效应进行更全面和系统的诠释。由于明显的跨学科性质, 该领域的发展不仅需要传统心理学专家的努力, 也需要其他相关学科专家的共同协助。作为一个方兴未艾的领域, 亟需学界投入更多精力以帮助人们更好地了解光照在人们社会生活中所起的重要作用及其发生机制。
进化动机影响社会认知的研究关 注社会认知的起源、机能及影响。进化动机影响社会认知的一般特点有(1)特殊性,如成功地解决求偶问题的机制不能用来解决身体危险有关的问题,(2)灵活 性,如不同类别的环境线索自动地激活与线索类别有关的社会信息。借用传统的社会认知研究方法,研究者发现特定的线索会启动相应的进化动机(如面孔吸引力启 动人们的求偶动机),进化动机激活后就能引导人们加工有利于这种动机(或目标)实现的信息(如性别相关的风险信息等)。未来的进化动机影响社会认知的研究 可以结合积极心理学(positive psychology)与具身认知(embodied cognition)的理论假设,以产生更有价值的研究成果。
Exposure to bright light is associated with positive social interaction and good mood over short time periods: A naturalistic study in mildly seasonal people,
Bright light is used to treat winter depression and might also have positive effects on mood in some healthy individuals. We examined possible links between bright light exposure and social interaction using naturalistic data. For 20 days in winter and/or summer, 48 mildly seasonal healthy individuals wore a light meter at the wrist and recorded in real-time their behaviours, mood, and perceptions of others during social interactions. Possible short-term effects of bright light were examined using the number of minutes, within any given morning, afternoon or evening, that people were exposed to light exceeding 1000 lux (average: 19.6 min). Social interactions were labelled as having occurred under conditions of no, low or high bright light exposure. Independent of season, day, time, and location, participants reported less quarrelsome behaviours, more agreeable behaviours and better mood when exposed to high but not low levels of bright light. Given that the effects were seen only when exposure levels were above average, a minimum level of bright light may be necessary for its positive effects to occur. Daily exposure levels were generally low in both winter and summer. Spending more time outdoors and improving indoor lighting may help optimize everyday social behaviour and mood across seasons in people with mild seasonality.
Dynamic lighting systems in psychogeriatric care facilities in the Netherlands: A quantitative and qualitative analysis of stakeholders' responses and applied technology,
Long-term care facilities are currently installing dynamic lighting systems with the aim to improve the well-being and behaviour of residents with dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the implementation of dynamic lighting systems from the perspective of stakeholders and the performance of the technology. Therefore, a questionnaire survey was conducted with the management and care professionals of six care facilities. Moreover, light measurements were conducted in order to describe the exposure of residents to lighting. The results showed that the main reason for purchasing dynamic lighting systems lied in the assumption that the well-being and day/night rhythmicity of residents could be improved. The majority of care professionals were not aware of the reasons why dynamic lighting systems were installed. Despite positive subjective ratings of the dynamic lighting systems, no data were collected by the organizations to evaluate the effectiveness of the lighting. Although the care professionals stated that they did not see any large positive effects of the dynamic lighting systems on the residents and their own work situation, the majority appreciated the dynamic lighting systems more than the old situation. The light values measured in the care facilities did not exceed the minimum threshold values reported in the literature. Therefore, it seems illogical that the dynamic lighting systems installed in the researched care facilities will have any positive health effects.
Is the desire for status a fundamental human motive? A review of the empirical literature,
Abstract The current review evaluates the status hypothesis, which states that that the desire for status is a fundamental motive. Status is defined as the respect, admiration, and voluntary deference individuals are afforded by others. It is distinct from related constructs such as power, financial success, and social belongingness. A review of diverse literatures lent support to the status hypothesis: People's subjective well-being, self-esteem, and mental and physical health appear to depend on the level of status they are accorded by others. People engage in a wide range of goal-directed activities to manage their status, aided by myriad cognitive, behavioral, and affective processes; for example, they vigilantly monitor the status dynamics in their social environment, strive to appear socially valuable, prefer and select social environments that offer them higher status, and react strongly when their status is threatened. The desire for status also does not appear to be a mere derivative of the need to belong, as some theorists have speculated. Finally, the importance of status was observed across individuals who differed in culture, gender, age, and personality, supporting the universality of the status motive. Therefore, taken as a whole, the relevant evidence suggests that the desire for status is indeed fundamental. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
1,500 scientists lift the lid on reproducibility,
Survey sheds light on the ‘crisis’ rocking research.
Is it light or dark? Recalling moral behavior changes perception of brightness,
Reducing organizational conflict: The role of socially-induced positive affect,
ABSTRACT Two studies were conducted to investigate the impact of socially-induced positive affect on organizational conflict. In Study I, male and female subjects were provoked or not provoked, and then exposed to one of several treatments designed to induce positive affect among them. Results indicated that several of these procedures (e.g., mild flattery, a small gift, self-deprecating remarks by an opponent) increased subjects' preference for resolving conflict through collaboration, but reduced their preference for resolving conflict through competition. In addition, self-deprecating remarks by an opponent (actually an accomplice) increased subjects' willingness to make concessions to this person during negotiations. In Study 2, male and female subjects were exposed to two treatments designed to induce positive affect (humorous remarks, mild flattery). These were presented before, during, or after negotiations with another person (an accomplice). Both treatments reduced subjects' preferences for resolving conflict through avoidance and increased their preferences for resolving conflict through collaboration, but only when delivered during or immediately after negotiations. Together, the results of both studies suggest that simple interventions designed to induce positive affect among the parties to conflicts can yield several beneficial effects.
Effects of indoor lighting (illuminance and spectral distribution) on the performance of cognitive tasks and interpersonal behaviors: The potential mediating role of positive affect,
Three studies examined the effects of key aspects of indoor lighting (illuminance, spectral distribution) on the performance of tasks that did not primarily involve visual processing. It was hypothesized that lighting conditions which generated positive affect among subjects would influence behavior and cognition in ways consistent with the findings of previous research on the influence of such affect. Results of all three studies offered partial support for this hypothesis. In Study 1, male and female subjects exposed to relatively low levels of illuminance (150 lux) assigned higher performance appraisals to a fictitious employee and included a broader range of words in specific word categories than subjects exposed to relatively high levels of illuminance (1500 lux). In Study 2, subjects exposed to warm white light reported stronger preferences for resolving interpersonal conflicts through collaboration and weaker preferences for resolving conflicts through avoidance than subjects exposed to cool-white light. Additionally, illuminance and spectral distribution (color) interacted to influence subjects' self-set goals on a clerical coding task. In Study 3, receipt of a small, unexpected gift and exposure to warm-white light both increased the amount of time subjects were willing to donate as unpaid volunteers. In addition, in the absence of a gift, subjects volunteered more time under low than under high illuminance.
'O sole mio: An experimental analysis of weather and risk attitudes in financial decisions,
Timing of light exposure affects mood and brain circuits,
Translational Psychiatry explores the more translational area between the research in neuroscience and conceptually novel treatments
Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock,
Perceiver threat in social interactions with stigmatized others,
The extent to which stigmatized interaction partners engender perceivers' threat reactions (i.e., stigma-threat hypothesis) was examined. Experiments 1 and 2 included the manipulation of stigma using facial birthmarks. Experiment 3 included manipulations of race and socioeconomic status. Threat responses were measured physiologically, behaviorally, and subjectively. Perceivers interacting with stigmatized partners exhibited cardiovascular reactivity consistent with threat and poorer performance compared with participants interacting with nonstigmatized partners, who exhibited challenge reactivity. In Experiment 3, intergroup contact moderated physiological reactivity such that participants who reported more contact with Black persons exhibited less physiological threat when interacting with them. These results support the stigma-threat hypothesis and suggest the utility of a biopsychosocial approach to the study of stigma and related constructs.
Effects of warm white, cool white and full-spectrum fluorescent lighting on simple cognitive performance, mood and ratings of others,
Fluorescent illumination has become common, but its alleged effects on behavior are still controversial. This experiment was designed to determine whether warm white, cool white, and full-spectrum fluorescent spectra at approximately equal illuminances differentially affect performance on simple verbal and quantitative tasks, salary recommendations, rated attractiveness and friendliness of others, judged room attractiveness, estimated room size, and self-reported pleasure and arousal. The results showed no significant differences among the three lighting types on any of the dependent measures. A subsequent power analysis indicated that if differences actually do exist, they are quite small. Cool white or warm white lamps are recommended because they are much less expensive than full-spectrum lamps.
Lighting quality and office work: Two field simulation experiments,
This paper describes two experiments concerning the effects of variations in lighting quality on office worker performance, health, and well-being. Experiment 1 had four experimental conditions: a regular array of fully direct recessed parabolic luminaires; direct/indirect luminaires with no control; direct/indirect luminaires with a switchable desk lamp; and, workstation-specific direct/indirect luminaires with control over the direct portion. Experiment 2 contrasted two conditions with no individual lighting control: a regular array of recessed prismatic lensed luminaires, and suspended direct/indirect luminaires. Participants considered the direct/indirect systems to be more comfortable than the direct-only systems, with a further increase in comfort associated with individual control in Experiment 1. There were no simple main effects of lighting quality on the performance of any task, although the expected changes in performance associated with task visibility, practice, and fatigue were found. Interactions between lighting quality and time suggested that having a degree of individual control of lighting tended to maintain motivation and vigilance over the day.
Alerting effects of light,
Effects of dynamic ambient lighting on female permanent morning shift workers,
ABSTRACT Permanent morning shift workers often suffer from impaired sleep and complain about increased fatigue during the day due to an early rising time in the morning. A controlled field investigation with female permanent morning shift workers was conducted, which evaluated the acute, monthly and seasonal psycho-physiological and productivity-related impacts of a dynamic ambient lighting scenario. Dynamic lighting had an acute psycho-physiological calming effect and positively influenced sleep latency and anxiety/depression ratings. Finally, productivity (decreased mean relative handling time) was increased during the winter. This field study contributes to the growing knowledge about biological lighting impacts during shift work. Furthermore it indicates lighting effects on productivity-related and subjective measures for a sleep-deprived working population.
Room- and illumination- related effects of an artificial skylight,
ABSTRACT An artificial skylight has been developed which aims at creating an impression of a daylight opening in the ceiling by means of an artificial sunspot and a blue sky with perceived infinite depth. It is the goal of this work to compare and quantify the perceived room atmosphere created by this artificial system with that created by a conventional lighting system. A total of 100 subjects participated in a randomized controlled study within which the short-term effects on room lighting- and room atmosphere-appearance were determined. Both the artificial skylight and the resulting room atmosphere were perceived as very natural and attractive. Thus, the first strong evidence for the expected positive effects of this artificial skylight was determined.
Psychophysiological effects of a single, short, and moderately bright room light exposure on mildly depressed geriatric inpatients: A pilot study,
Abstract Background: Light interventions typically exert their mood-related effects during morning bright light exposures over several weeks. Evidence about immediate ambient room light effects on depressed individuals is still sparse. Objective: The present study aimed at examining the acute effects of a single moderately bright room light exposure on mood, and behavioural and cardiac stress reactions of mildly depressed geriatric inpatients during a short cognitive stimulation and while resting. Methods: Twenty-one inpatients were tested in a balanced cross-over design on 2 consecutive days under either conventional room light (standard light) or artificial sunlight conditions for 30 min. Room illumination was implemented with an artificial skylight, which perfectly imitated solar indoor illumination (e.g., cloudless sky and bright artificial sun). Light-induced changes of mood, heart rate, and heart rate variability were recorded while performing a perseveration test (acted as cognitive stimulation) twice. Additionally, light-related behaviour was observed during a resting period between the cognitive tests and various subjective ratings were obtained. Results: Compared to standard light, exposure to artificial sunlight had a subjective calming effect over time (p = 0.029) as well as decreased heart rate and increased vagal tone (root mean squared of successive inter-beat intervals), both under cognitive workload and in resting conditions. Effect sizes of reported cardiac reactions were large. Cognitive variables were not influenced by light. Additionally, under the higher corneal illuminance of the artificial sunlight, patients perceived stronger glare (p = 0.030) and kept their eyes closed for longer times (p = 0.033) during the resting period. However, patients did not avoid bright light exposure while resting but voluntarily stayed within the area directly lit by the artificial sun nearly all the time (97%). Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study for the first time demonstrated immediate psychophysiological effects of a single, short room light exposure in mildly depressed geriatric inpatients during a short cognitive stimulation and while resting. The findings complement reported evidence on immediate alerting and mood-related effects of bright light exposures.
Artificial skylight effects in a windowless office environment,
Research on the effects of windows has clearly indicated that humans want and need daylight to perform and feel well in indoor environments. However, until now, beneficial skylight effects have rarely been investigated. The present laboratory study aimed to quantify temporary artificial skylight effects using a randomized controlled study design.One hundred healthy young subjects either stayed in a windowless office environment that was illuminated by fluorescent lamps or an artificial skylight system that provided a virtual view of a cloudless sky and sun. Subjects rated room atmosphere parameters and their mood states, and participated in two different decision-making tests.Our results indicated that study participants felt more connected to the nature and perceived the windowless test room as more “lively,” and less “tense” and “detached” under artificial skylight as compared to that under fluorescent illumination. Furthermore, under artificial skylight, subjects reported lower feelings of tension, anxiety, and claustrophobic symptoms, and a higher positive mood state. Finally, subjects made riskier as well as more selfish decisions under artificial skylight.Thus, daylight-substituting technologies may profoundly influence mood states and alter decision-making behavior in windowless environments.
Affect and appraisal accuracy: Liking as an integral dimension in evaluating performance,
Abstract Tested the possibility that liking may influence rating accuracy by operating as an integral dimension in 66 undergraduate raters. Ss evaluated vignettes of 4 professors; liking was manipulated with 40 trait terms (e.g., amusing, greedy, bashful) that engendered different liking levels, but had little implication for professor performance. Results indicate a significant effect on rating accuracy, suggesting that liking is an integral dimension that is difficult to separate from performance dimensions. Results support the potential importance of affect in appraisal. (40 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In broad daylight, we trust in God! Brightness, the salience of morality, and ethical behavior,
Based on metaphorical associations between light and goodness, we hypothesized that experiencing brightness increases the salience of moral considerations and the likelihood of engaging in ethical behavior. The results of three experiments supported these predictions. In Experiment 1, participants in a well-lit room acted less selfishly in the dictator game and were more likely to return undeserved money than were those in a moderately or a dimly lit room. In Experiment 2, participants' monetary donations were positively associated with environment lighting. In Experiment 3, participants in a well-lit room volunteered to code more data sheets than did participants in moderate brightness. Experiments 2 and 3 used implicit and explicit measures of the salience of morality to self to demonstrate that the relationship between brightness and ethical behavior is driven by an increased mental accessibility of morality. Control over environment lighting may be an effective approach to increasing ethical behavior. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The prediction of police calls for service: The influence of weather and temporal variables on rape and domestic violence,
Abstract Rape and domestic violence are two of the most controversial types of criminal behavior. Both are violent crimes and both are usually directed towards women. This research examines the short-term effect of weather and temporal variations (time of day, day of week, holidays, etc.) on calls for police service in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The influence of these variables on domestic violence and rape is compared and it is found that the two types of crimes are affected in very different ways by the independent variables used. The results suggest that the occurrence of domestic violence is much more highly influenced by immediate temporal and weather variables such as time of day, day of week and ambient temperature. However, rape appears not to be as greatly affected by immediate situational conditions and contexts. Possible explanations for the findings and implications of the research are discussed.
Clouded judgment: The role of sentiment in credit origination,
Using daily fluctuations in local sunshine as an instrument for sentiment, we study its effect on day-to-day decisions of lower-level financial officers. Positive sentiment is associated with higher credit approvals, and negative sentiment has the opposite effect of a larger magnitude. These effects are stronger when financial decisions require more discretion, when reviews are less automated, and when capital constraints are less binding. The variation in approval rates affects ex post financial performance and produces significant real effects. Our analysis of the economic channels suggests that sentiment influences managers' risk tolerance and subjective judgment.
The what, how, why, and where of self-construal,
Weather, mood, and helping behavior: Quasi experiments with the sunshine Samaritan,
Abstract Conducted 2 field studies on the relationship of weather variables to helping behavior. In Study 1 (540 adult Ss), which was executed in the spring and summer and subsequently replicated in the winter, the amount of sunshine reaching the earth was found to be a strong predictor of an S's willingness to assist an interviewer. Smaller relationships were also found between helping and temperature, humidity, wind velocity, and lunar phase. Exp II was conducted indoors with 130 dining parties to control for comfort factors. Sunshine, lunar phase, and S's age and sex were found to predict the generosity of the tip left for a restaurant waitress. Sunshine and temperature were also significantly related to the 6 waitresses' self-reports of mood. (35 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Light-sensitive brain pathways and aging,
Notwithstanding its effects on the classical visual system allowing image formation, light acts upon several non-image-forming (NIF) functions including body temperature, hormonal secretions, sleep-wake cycle, alertness, and cognitive performance. Studies have shown that NIF functions are maximally sensitive to blue wavelengths (460-480 nm), in comparison to longer light wavelengths. Higher blue light sensitivity has been reported for melatonin suppression, pupillary constriction, vigilance, and performance improvement but also for modulation of cognitive brain functions. Studies investigating acute stimulating effects of light on brain activity during the execution of cognitive tasks have suggested that brain activations progress from subcortical regions involved in alertness, such as the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the brainstem, before reaching cortical regions associated with the ongoing task. In the course of aging, lower blue light sensitivity of some NIF functions has been reported. Here, we first describe neural pathways underlying effects of light on NIF functions and we discuss eye and cerebral mechanisms associated with aging which may affect NIF light sensitivity. Thereafter, we report results of investigations on pupillary constriction and cognitive brain sensitivity to light in the course of aging. Whereas the impact of light on cognitive brain responses appears to decrease substantially, pupillary constriction seems to remain more intact over the lifespan. Altogether, these results demonstrate that aging research should take into account the diversity of the pathways underlying the effects of light on specific NIF functions which may explain their differences in light sensitivity.
Shortening of the menstrual cycle following light therapy in seasonal affective disorder,
A significantly earlier onset of menstruation by 1.2days, on average, was found following light therapy in 38 winter depressives; in two of them it could be classified as a minor side effect. There was no association between this shortening and depression improvement. A direct action of light on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis is suggested.
Menstrual cycles are influenced by sunshine,
Abstract INTRODUCTION: The study determined the effect of seasons and meteorological variables on ovarian-menstrual function. METHODS: Women (N=129) living in Novosibirsk (55°N), Russia, provided data on normal menstrual cycles for over 1 year between 1999 and 2008. Of these, 18 together with 20 other healthy women were investigated once in winter and once in summer in 2006-2009. The investigated variables included serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin on day 65 7 of the menstrual cycle, ovary follicle size (by ultrasound) on day 65 12 and ovulation occurrence on subsequent days. RESULTS: In summer vs. winter, there was a trend towards increased FSH secretion, significantly larger ovarian follicle size, higher frequency of ovulation (97% vs. 71%) and a shorter menstrual cycle (by 0.9 days). LH and prolactin levels did not change. In all seasons combined, increased sunshine (data derived from local meteorological records) 2-3 days before the presumed ovulation day (calculated from the mean menstrual cycle) led to a shorter cycle length. Air/perceived temperature, atmospheric pressure, moon phase/light were not significant predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian activity is greater in summer vs. winter in women living in a continental climate at temperate latitudes; sunshine is a factor that influences menstrual cycle.
Dawn simulation vs. bright light in seasonal affective disorder: Treatment effects and subjective preference,
Studies comparing the efficacy of dawn simulation to conventional bright light for the treatment of seasonal affective disorder (in parallel groups) have yielded conflicting results. This crossover study investigated treatment outcomes and long-term treatment preference. Forty winter depressives were treated for a week with bright light (4.300lx for 30–45min shortly after awakening) or dawn simulation (gradually increasing light during the last 30min of sleep achieving 100lx before alarm beep, with the dawn simulator placed closer to the open eyes for a further 15min: 250lx). The depression level was self-rated using SIGH-SAD-SR. Depression scores reduced similarly following bright light and dawn simulation: for 43.8% and 42.2% (medians), respectively; efficacy ratio was 23:17. The preference was also similar (21:19). Among those who preferred bright light, the most common reason was that they perceived the bright light to be more effective (19/21; it was more effective, p=0.0096; this subgroup tended to have more severe depression) and ease of use (6/21). Among those who preferred the dawn simulator, the reasons were a more “natural” action (9/19), device compactness and/or time-saving (10/19) and in 4 cases where bright light caused eyestrain. Not overhead naturalistic light for dawn simulation, self-rating of depression. Dawn simulation is similarly effective to bright light in the treatment of winter depression. Patients with more severe depression tended to report greater improvement with bright light; in such cases, this would outweigh the non-clinical advantages of dawn simulation.
Stimulatory effect of morning bright light on reproductive hormones and ovulation: Results of a controlled crossover trial,
Objectives Studies have shown a shortening of the menstrual cycle following light exposure in women with abnormally long menstrual cycles or with winter depression, suggesting that artificial light can influence reproductive hormones and ovulation. The study was designed to investigate this possibility. Design Placebo-controlled, crossover, counterbalanced order. Setting Medical centres and participants' homes in Novosibirsk (55 N), Russia. Participants Twenty-two women, aged 19-37 years, with baseline menstrual cycle length 28.1-37.8 d and no clinically evident endocrine abnormalities completed the study. The study lasted for two menstrual cycles separated by at least one off-protocol cycle. Interventions During one experimental cycle, bright light was administered at home for 1 wk with a light box emitting white light at 4,300 lux at 41 cm for 45 min shortly after awakening. During the other experimental cycle, dim light was <100 lux at 41 cm with a one-tube fluorescent source. Outcome Measures Blood samples and ultrasound scans were obtained in the afternoon before and after the week of light exposure, on day ~7 and 14 after menstruation onset. Further ultrasound scans after day 14 documented ovulation. Serum was assayed for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and estradiol (E2). Results Concentrations of PRL, LH, and FSH were significantly increased with bright versus dim light exposure, as was follicle size (ANOVA, intervention day, p = 0.0043, 0.014, 0.049, and 0.042, respectively). The number of ovulatory cycles increased after exposure to bright compared to dim light (12 versus 6 cycles, Wilcoxon tied p = 0.034). Conclusions Morning exposure to bright light in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle stimulates the secretion of hypophyseal reproductive hormones, promotes ovary follicle growth, and increases ovulation rates in women with slightly lengthened menstrual cycles. This might be a promising method to overcome infertility. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00327366
Immediate effect of blue-enhanced light on reproductive hormones in women,
ABSTRACT Light is known to stimulate reproductive function in women. We here investigated the immediate effect of light on reproductive hormones, addressing the role of blue-sensitive (~480 nm) melanopsin-based photoreception mediating the non-visual effects of light. Sixteen healthy women attended the Institute at ~07:25 (shortly after waking; sunglasses worn) twice in 2-3 days in April-May, within days 4-10 of their menstrual cycle. During one session, a broad-spectrum white-appearing light with a superimposed peak at 469 nm was presented against 5-10 lux background; during the other session, short-spectrum red light peaked at 651 nm with similar irradiance level (~7.0 W/m2, corresponds to ~1200 lux) was used. Venous blood was taken at 0, 22 and 44 minutes of light exposure to measure concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol, and saliva was sampled to measure melatonin as a recognised indicator of the spectral-specific action of light. Melatonin values, as expected, were lower with white vs. red light (p=0.014), with the greatest difference at 22 minutes. Of the other hormones, only FSH concentrations differed significantly: they were mildly higher at white vs. red light (again, at 22 minutes; p=0.030; statistical analysis adjusted for menstrual cycle day and posture change [pre-sampling time seated]). Moderately bright blue-enhanced white light, compared to matched-by-irradiance red light, transiently (within 22 minutes) and mildly stimulated morning secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone in women in mid-to-late follicular phase of their menstrual cycle suggesting a direct functional link between the light and reproductive system.
Effect of photic stimulation on the human menstrual cycle,
To test the hypothesis that artificial light can be used to regularize the human menstrual cycle, 16 women with histories of menstrual irregularity and/or abnormally long cycles were studied. It was assumed that a 29-day cycle is the "normal" length. Thus, light exposure was begun on the evening of day 14, with the expectation that ovulation would be triggered by day 15 and menstruation on day 30. The light regimen was continued for 2-3 nights more. Temperature graphs indicated all subjects were ovulating. 41 control and 41 matching experimental cycle lengths were obtained. The experimental cycle lengths were less variable than the control lengths and showed a sharp peak at 29 days. In the 11 subjects exposed to light for more than 1 cycle, 9 showed a decrease in the range of cycle length (3.3% level of significance difference between control and experimental groups in terms of cycle length). It is concluded that these data provide evidence that photic stimulation can regularize menstrual cycle length and thus influence the time of ovulation, thereby facilitating use of the rhythm method of birth control. Further studies involving larger samples and more sophisticated measurements of ovulation in relation to photic stimulation are recommended.
Prejudice as self-image maintenance: Affirming the self through derogating others,
The authors argue that self-image maintenance processes play an important role in stereotyping and prejudice. Three studies demonstrated that when individuals evaluated a member of a stereotyped group, they were less likely to evaluate that person negatively if their self-images had been bolstered through a self-affirmation procedure, and they were more likely to evaluate that person stereotypically if their self-images had been threatened by negative feedback. Moreover, among those individuals whose self-image had been threatened, derogating a stereotyped target mediated an increase in their self-esteem. The authors suggest that stereotyping and prejudice may be a common means to maintain one's self-image, and they discuss the role of self-image-maintenance processes in the context of motivational, sociocultural, and cognitive approaches to stereotyping and prejudice.
The effects of light at night on circadian clocks and metabolism,
Abstract Most organisms display endogenously produced 24-hour fluctuations in physiology and behavior, termed circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms are driven by a transcriptional-translational feedback loop that is hierarchically expressed throughout the brain and body, with the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus serving as the master circadian oscillator at the top of the hierarchy. Appropriate circadian regulation is important for many homeostatic functions including energy regulation. Multiple genes involved in nutrient metabolism display rhythmic oscillations, and metabolically related hormones such as glucagon, insulin, ghrelin, leptin, and corticosterone are released in a circadian fashion. Mice harboring mutations in circadian clock genes alter feeding behavior, endocrine signaling, and dietary fat absorption. Moreover, misalignment between behavioral and molecular circadian clocks can result in obesity in both rodents and humans. Importantly, circadian rhythms are most potently synchronized to the external environment by light information and exposure to light at night potentially disrupts circadian system function. Since the advent of electric lights around the turn of the 20th century, exposure to artificial and irregular light schedules has become commonplace. The increase in exposure to light at night parallels the global increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders. In this review, we propose that exposure to light at night alters metabolic function through disruption of the circadian system. We first provide an introduction to the circadian system, with a specific emphasis on the effects of light on circadian rhythms. Next we address interactions between the circadian system and metabolism. Finally, we review current experimental and epidemiological work directly associating exposure to light at night and metabolism.
Evaluation of a dawn simulator in children and adolescents,
During adolescence, young people shift their circadian rhythm towards eveningness and their late chronotype does not fit into the morning-oriented school start times. Here, we tested the influence of a wake-up light (WuL; dawn simulation) on the subjective well-being and awakening of children and adolescents. The pupils were treated in a matched pairs procedure to obtain a within-subject comparison. Each individual used his/her usual device for getting up during one week (control week) and one week with the WuL. The sample was based on 44 boys and 59 girls from 7 to 18 years. During the WuL week, pupils awoke earlier, felt more alert at awakening, got up easier and reported a higher alertness during the second lesson at school. Evening types benefited more than morning types. The data suggest that the WuL seems a good device to improve rising, awakening and subjective well-being in children and adolescents, especially in evening types.
Evolutionary foundations of cultural variation: Evoked culture and mate preferences,
We articulate an evolutionary perspective on cultural variation, centering on the concept of evoked culture. We then demonstrate how the framework of evoked culture has been used to predict and explain cultural variation and report new tests of hypotheses about cultural variation in mate preferences. These tests demonstrate the predictive power of ecological variables such as parasite prevalence that are implicated by evolutionary psychological theories. New empirical tests provided little support for the predictions advanced by competing social role theories (e.g., Eagly & Wood, 1999), with some findings running opposite to those predicted by such theories. We propose that a well-articulated evolutionary perspective on cultural variation may be particularly useful because it can specify how variation in cultural practice itself may emerge. We conclude that discussions of cultural variation should move beyond false dichotomies of social versus biological and suggest that evolutionary psychology provides frameworks that transcend these dichotomies.
Deviance in the dark,
Light, decor, arousal, comfort and communication,
The effect of lighting level and room decor on interpersonal communication was investigated. Arousal and comfort models were invoked to generate hypotheses that (a) brighter lighting would stimulate more general communication, (b) lower lighting levels would encourage more intimate communication, (c) over time, lower light levels would dampen both general and intimate communication, and (d) home-like decor would encourage more general and more intimate communication. In a 2 2 between-subjects design, pairs of female friends wrote two letters to one another in bright vs. soft lighting and office-like vs. home-like decor. All the hypotheses were confirmed, except that brighter light encouraged more rather than less intimate communication.
Darkness facilitates the acoustic startle reflex in humans,
The effects of darkness on startle reactivity and prepulse inhibition were investigated in two studies with 25 subjects participating in each study. Acoustic startle stimuli that were or were not preceded by an acoustic prepulse were delivered in alternating periods of complete darkness or light. In both studies, darkness significantly increased the magnitude of startle but did not affect prepulse inhibition (PPI). The PPI results suggest that darkness did not increase attention to the auditory modality, so that the startle facilitation in the dark probably did not result from an attentional process. The increased startle in the dark was significantly correlated with the intensity of subjects' fear of the dark as children based on retrospective rating scales. It is hypothesized that the startle facilitation in the dark results from a change in affect rather than from a change in attention.
Menstrual cycle phases and female receptivity to a courtship solicitation: An evaluation in a nightclub,
Previous research has demonstrated that female behaviors toward men or sexual interest are different across the menstrual cycle. However, women's receptivity to an explicit courtship solicitation still remained in question. In a field experiment, 20-year-old women were approached by 20-year-old male confederates in nightclubs and solicited to dance during the period when slow songs were played. A survey was administered to the women in order to obtain information about the number of days since the onset of previous menses. It was found that women in their fertile phase agreed more favorably to the dance request than women in their luteal phase or in their menstrual phase.
The receptivity of women to courtship solicitation across the menstrual cycle: A field experiment,
Abstract Research has demonstrated that women's behaviors toward men or sexual interest are different across the menstrual cycle. However, this effect was only found on verbal interest and the receptivity of women to a courtship solicitation had never been tested before. In a field experiment, 455 (200 with normal cycles and 255 pill-users) 18-25-year-old women were approached by 20-year-old male-confederates who solicited them for their phone number. A survey was administered to the women solicited 1 min later in order to obtain information about the number of days since the onset of their last menses. It was found that women in their fertile phase, but not pill-users, agreed more favorably to the request than women in their luteal phase or in their menstrual phase.
Weather and courtship behavior: A quasi-experiment with the flirty sunshine,
Studies have shown that pleasant weather conditions (namely sunshine) favor positive social relationships and improve moods. However, the effect of sunshine on romantic relationships has never been studied. In a field quasi-experiment 18 25-year-old women walking alone in the street were approached by an attractive 20-year-old male confederate who solicited them for their phone numbers. The women were solicited on days that were evaluated as being either sunny or cloudy but care was taken to control for temperature and not to solicit participants when it rained. It was found that women agreed more often to the confederate's courtship solicitation on the sunny days. Positive mood induction by the sun may explain such results.
Weather and helping: Additional evidence of the effect of the sunshine Samaritan,
Abstract Pleasant weather conditions (i.e., sunshine) favor positive social relationships and improve mood. However, the effect of sunshine on spontaneous helping still remains in question. In a field experiment, male and female confederates accidentally dropped a glove on the ground while walking in pedestrian streets. The confederate continued walking, apparently unaware of his/her loss. The experiment was conducted on predominantly cloudy or predominantly sunny days, but precaution was taken to control for the temperature and not to solicit participants when it rained. Passers-by helped the confederates more favorably on the sunnier days. Positive mood induced by sun may explain such results.
Does moral identity effectively predict moral behavior?: A meta-analysis,
This meta-analysis examined the relationship between moral identity and moral behavior. It was based on 111 studies from a broad range of academic fields including business, developmental psychology and education, marketing, sociology, and sport sciences. Moral identity was found to be significantly associated with moral behavior (random effects model, r = .22, p < .01, 95% CI [.19, .25]). Effect sizes did not differ for behavioral outcomes (prosocial behavior, avoidance of antisocial behavior, ethical behavior). Studies that were entirely based on self-reports yielded larger effect sizes. In contrast, the smallest effect was found for studies that were based on implicit measures or used priming techniques to elicit moral identity. Moreover, a marginally significant effect of culture indicated that studies conducted in collectivistic cultures yielded lower effect sizes than studies from individualistic cultures. Overall, the meta-analysis provides support for the notion that moral identity strengthens individuals readiness to engage in prosocial and ethical behavior as well as to abstain from antisocial behavior. However, moral identity fares no better as a predictor of moral action than other psychological constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
The influence of light administration on interpersonal behavior and affect in people with mild to moderate seasonality,
Proscriptive versus prescriptive morality: Two faces of moral regulation,
Abstract A distinction is made between two forms of morality on the basis of approach-avoidance differences in self-regulation. Prescriptive morality is sensitive to positive outcomes, activation-based, and focused on what we should do. Proscriptive morality is sensitive to negative outcomes, inhibition-based, and focused on what we should not do. Seven studies profile these two faces of morality, support their distinct motivational underpinnings, and provide evidence of moral asymmetry. Both are well-represented in individuals' moral repertoire and equivalent in terms of moral weight, but proscriptive morality is condemnatory and strict, whereas prescriptive morality is commendatory and not strict. More specifically, in these studies proscriptive morality was perceived as concrete, mandatory, and duty-based, whereas prescriptive morality was perceived as more abstract, discretionary, and based in duty or desire; proscriptive immorality resulted in greater blame, whereas prescriptive morality resulted in greater moral credit. Implications for broader social regulation, including cross-cultural differences and political orientation, are discussed.
Effects of indoor lighting on mood and cognition,
Two experiments investigated the effect of indoor lighting on cognitive performance via mood. Experiment 1 varied two lighting parameters in a factorial, between-subject design: two illuminance levels (dim; 300 lx vs bright; 1500 lx) by two colour temperatures (‘warm’ white; 3000K vs ‘cool’ white; 4000K) at high CRI (Colour Rendering Index; 95). In experiment 2 the parameters of lighting were identical to the first experiment, except for the low CRI (CRI; 55). In both experiments gender was introduced as an additional grouping factor. Results in experiment 1 showed that a colour temperature which induced the least negative mood enhanced the performance in the long-term memory and problem-solving tasks, in both genders. In experiment 2, the combination of colour temperature and illuminance that best preserved the positive mood in one gender enhanced this gender's performance in the problem-solving and free recall tasks. Thus, subjects' mood valences and their cognitive performances varied significantly with the genders' emotionally different reactions to the indoor lighting. This suggests, in practice, that the criteria for good indoor lighting may be revised, taking into account females' and males' emotional and cognitive responses as well.
Effects of office lighting on mood and cognitive performance and a gender effect in work-xrelated judgment,
The study presents an investigation of the effects of the recommended office lighting on subjects' mood and cognitive performance in the physical setting of an office. In addition, a gender effect in the performance appraisal task was examined, both as a between- and within-subject factor. The results showed no significant effect of the lighting on the performance of cognitive tasks. However, an interaction between gender and color temperature on mood showed that 3000K (more reddish) and 4000K (more bluish) office lighting may communicate different affective loadings or meanings to each gender. The cognitive workload induced by almost 2 hours of intellectual work diminished the subjects' positive mood and augmented a negative mood. Moreover, independently of their gender, the raters evaluated the neutral female significantly different from the neutral male ratee. Implications of these findings for the mood effects of indoor lighting and the gender effect in work-related judgment are discussed.
Effects of indoor lighting, gender, and age on mood and cognitive performance,
View it in a different light: Mediated and moderated effects of dim warm light on collaborative conflict resolution,
How can the physical environment, especially light, facilitate conflict resolution? Previous research has led to no clear answers about optimal lighting conditions in conflict situations and, until now, potential moderators and mediators have been scarcely investigated. Building on research on light-induced cooperativeness, we expected that self-oriented individuals would be influenced by the lighting in social situations such as conflict resolution. In self-oriented individuals, dim warm light should promote interdependent self-construal and, in turn, lead to a preference for collaborative conflict resolution strategies. Two studies confirmed our assumptions, with social dominance orientation and trait interdependent self-construal serving as indicators of individuals' social orientation. Overall, these results provide an explanation for inconsistent previous findings and contribute to the understanding of light-induced changes in social behavior. Limitations as well as practical implications for lighting design in social spaces are discussed.
Distinct contributions of rod, cone, and melanopsin photoreceptors to encoding irradiance,
Photoreceptive, melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) encode ambient light (irradiance) for the circadian clock, the pupillomotor system, and other influential behavioral/physiological responses. mRGCs are activated both by their intrinsic phototransduction cascade and by the rods and cones. However, the individual contribution of each photoreceptor class to irradiance responses remains unclear. We address this deficit using mice expressing human red cone opsin, in which rod-, cone-, and melanopsin-dependent responses can be identified by their distinct spectral sensitivity. Our data reveal an unexpectedly important role for rods. These photoreceptors define circadian responses at very dim "scotopic" light levels but also at irradiances at which pattern vision relies heavily on cones. By contrast, cone input to irradiance responses dissipates following light adaptation to the extent that these receptors make a very limited contribution to circadian and pupillary light responses under these conditions. Our data provide new insight into retinal circuitry upstream of mRGCs and optimal stimuli for eliciting irradiance responses.
Light as a central modulator of circadian rhythms, sleep and affect,
Light has profoundly influenced the evolution of life on earth. As widely appreciated, light enables us to generate images of our environment. However, light - through intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) - also influences behaviours that are essential for our health and quality of life but are independent of image formation. These include the synchronization of the circadian clock to the solar day, tracking of seasonal changes and the regulation of sleep. Irregular light environments lead to problems in circadian rhythms and sleep, which eventually cause mood and learning deficits. Recently, it was found that irregular light can also directly affect mood and learning without producing major disruptions in circadian rhythms and sleep. In this Review, we discuss the indirect and direct influence of light on mood and learning, and provide a model for how light, the circadian clock and sleep interact to influence mood and cognitive functions.
Night light alters menstrual cycles,
Dewan asserted 20 years ago that a bedside light could shorten and regularize the menstrual cycle among women with long and irregular menstrual patterns. To replicate this, seven volunteers slept with a 100-watt bulb by the bedside from days 13-17 of their menstrual cycles, while nine controls similarly used a dim red placebo (photographic safe light). Indeed, the 100-watt bulbs shortened menstrual cycles from a mean of 45.7 days to 33.1 days and reduced variability, but the placebo had no effect. These results suggest that light may have promise for treatment of infertility, for contraception, and for other endocrine interventions.
Melatonin increases reactive aggression in humans,
OBJECTIVE: Melatonin, a hormone released preferentially by the pineal gland during the night, affects circadian rhythms and aging processes. As animal studies have shown that melatonin increases resident-intruder aggression, this study aimed to investigate the impact of melatonin treatment on human aggression. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled between-participant design, 63 healthy male volunteers completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) after oral administration of melatonin or placebo. RESULTS: We found that when given the opportunity to administer high or low punishments to an opponent, participants who ingested melatonin selected the high punishment more often than those who ingested placebo. The increased reactive aggression under melatonin administration remained after controlling for inhibitory ability, trait aggression, trait impulsiveness, circadian preference, perceptual sensibility to noise, and changes in subjective sleepiness and emotional states. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel and direct evidence for the involvement of melatonin in human social processes.
Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,
Abstract Light is a potent stimulus for regulating circadian, hormonal, and behavioral systems. In addition, light therapy is effective for certain affective disorders, sleep problems, and circadian rhythm disruption. These biological and behavioral effects of light are influenced by a distinct photoreceptor in the eye, melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), in addition to conventional rods and cones. We summarize the neurophysiology of this newly described sensory pathway and consider implications for the measurement, production, and application of light. A new light-measurement strategy taking account of the complex photoreceptive inputs to these non-visual responses is proposed for use by researchers, and simple suggestions for artificial/architectural lighting are provided for regulatory authorities, lighting manufacturers, designers, and engineers. Copyright 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oxytocin and social adaptation: Insights from neuroimaging studies of healthy and clinical populations,
The clinical implications of the SAM for OT therapeutic potential are discussed.
Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation,
It is suggested that perceptions of the self, of others, and of the relationship between self and others are very powerful and that this influence is clearly reflected in culture. The independent view of the self, represented in Western culture, is contrasted with the interdependent view in many other cultures. (SLD)
Can lighting influence self-disclosure?,
With the advent of social networks where people disclose a lot of their information and opinions publicly, this research attempted to re-look at the effect of environmental lighting on willingness and actual disclosure of personal information. Previous literatures mostly addressed counseling setups and the findings were mixed. In order to clarify the effect of lighting on self-disclosure, two experiments were conducted with reported willingness to disclose (Experiment 1) as well as actual disclosure (Experiment 2) on a range of topics like social issues, body, money, work, and personality. While quite a handful of studies have reported differences in disclosure from very subtle environmental lighting manipulations, in both experiments we could not find any effect of ambient room lighting conditions on self-disclosure. These results call for caution both in over-interpreting subtle environmental effects and in increased generalization of perceptual metaphors to actual behavior.
The effects of interior design on communication and impressions of a counselor in a counseling room,
This study aimed to investigate effects of the interior design of a counseling room on participants' self-disclosure and impressions of a counselor. The authors examined the effects of lighting and decorations. It tested four conditions crossing decorations (with or without home-like decorations) and type of lighting (bright or dim). Eighty undergraduate students (clients) were randomly assigned to one of the conditions and individually underwent a structured interview with an interviewer (a counselor) and then completed a questionnaire. The results showed that dim lighting yielded more pleasant and relaxed feelings, more favorable impressions of the interviewer, and more self-disclosure than did the bright lighting. However, the authors found no predominant pattern of the decorations. Thus, the pleasant and relaxed feelings related to dim lighting may well enhance the perceived attractiveness of a counselor and self-disclosure from clients. The results imply that interior design could influence communication and other relationships in counseling rooms.
When the world is closing in: Effects of perceived room brightness and communicated threat during patient-physician interaction,
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The study proposes that room brightness creates impressions of a more spacious environment and that this perception positively impacts feelings and behaviors during high-threat conversations in particular. BACKGROUND: To a large extent healthcare providers depend on their patients' willingness to disclose information. In addition to characteristics related to the physician and topic of conversation, research indicates that environmental factors influence patients' affective experiences and self-disclosure. METHODS: A two-factor between-subjects experimental design was used in which participants (n = 90) were presented with a scenario describing a patient-physician encounter varying in communicated threat. Subsequently, participants were exposed to a picture in which room brightness was manipulated. Next, patient comfort, experienced spaciousness, and self-disclosure intentions were measured. RESULTS: An effect of brightness was found on affective experiences and self-disclosure intentions. In addition, the predicted interaction was obtained between brightness and communicated threat on these measures. Analyses confirmed that perceived spaciousness mediates the relationship between room brightness and self-disclosure intentions. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirms that brightness impacts self-disclosure intentions. Additionally, this relationship is influenced by psychological circumstances, with a more pronounced need for spaciousness when in an anxious state of mind. The results suggest that the physical environment can be used as a tool to improve active participation. In addition, the results stress the importance of attending to the patient's state of mind in creating the right atmosphere.
Bright light therapy for depression: A review of its effects on chronobiology and the autonomic nervous system,
Bright light therapy (BLT) is considered among the first-line treatments for seasonal affective disorder (SAD), yet a growing body of literature supports its use in other neuropsychiatric conditions including non-seasonal depression. Despite evidence of its antidepressant efficacy, clinical use of BLT remains highly variable internationally. In this article, we explore the autonomic effects of BLT and suggest that such effects may play a role in its antidepressant and chronotherapeutic properties. After providing a brief introduction on the clinical application of BLT, we review the chronobiological effects of BLT on depression and on the autonomic nervous system in depressed and non-depressed individuals with an emphasis on non-seasonal depression. Such a theory of autonomic modulation via BLT could serve to integrate aspects of recent work centered on alleviating allostatic load, the polyvagal theory, the neurovisceral integration model and emerging evidence on the roles of glutamate and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GABA).
Environmental influences on aggression: The effects of darkness and proximity of victim
It was hypothesized that darkness acts as a disinhibitor, and that subjects would deliver higher intensity shocks to a victim in a dimly lit setting than in a brightly lit setting. It was also predicted that this effect would be greater when subject and victim were in close proximity than when they were isolated from each other. The results supported these predictions. It was suggested that lighting may have important effects on social behaviors, and that further research on the influences of lighting on human behavior is needed.
Lag responses in mood reports to changes in the weather matrix,
Correlations were calculated between daily self-evaluated mood reports (4 reports/day) of 10 student subjects and 10 meteorological-geophysical variables over a 90-day period. The variables included mean and/or change measures of temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, sunshine hours, wind speeds and global geomagnetic activity. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the weather matrix used could account for not more than 35% of the mood variance on the day of the evaluation. Lag correlations over the previous week clearly indicated a greater number of significant correlations between mood reports and weather of the previous two days. The mean correlation coefficient was 0.27. In general, "lower moods" were associated with fewer sunshine hours, higher relative humidity, and smaller humidity variations than "higher moods". It was concluded that mood reports can show weak responsivity to antecedent weather fluctuations.
Menstrual phase response to nocturnal light,
The aims of the study were to test whether nocturnal white light can normalize menstrual cycles in oligomenorrheic women, and whether the phase of the menstrual cycle in which light is given is important for the shortening effect. Twenty-five women with long menstrual cycles (35.909000953.4 days on average) were treated for 10900093 cycles, each of which was preceded and followed by at least two untreated cycles. Treatments were 100 watt bedside lights administered for 5 consecutive nights. They centered at three different phases of the menstrual cycle: 60900097th, 1409000917th or 2309000925th days of the treated cycle (early, middle or late treatment, respectively). On average, the treatment cycle lengths were modestly, but significantly reduced compared to the duration of baseline cycles (more than 11 %). The difference in the effects of the early, middle and late treatment was not significant. However, if middle or late treatments were administered in the latter half of the interval between the menstrual cycle onset and probable time of ovulation, reductions of the treated cycle length were substantial (more than 20 %, resulting in cycles less than 33 days on average; p < 0.001). Other treatments produced only weak (up to 7 %), if any, cycle reductions. Moreover, we found a strong correlation (p < 0.001) between the duration of baseline cycle and differential effect of middle treatment (compared to early or late treatment). Middle treatments reduced treated cycle duration to the normal range in the subjects with shorter mean baseline cycles (<42 days), while in the subjects with longer duration of baseline cycle the shortening effect was produced by late treatments (p = 0.005 and p = 0.001, respectively). The results support the suggestion that a bedside lamp used on nights prior to ovulation can cause reduction of long menstrual cycles.
Shrouded in the veil of darkness: Machiavellians but not narcissists and psychopaths profit from darker weather in courtship,
We proposed in the “Veil of Darkness” hypothesis that dark personalities (narcissists, Machiavellians, psychopaths) profit from conditions of less illumination where they can better manipulate others. As an initial test of this hypothesis in the domain of mating, we predicted that male dark personalities should be more successful in their courtship during dark/cloudy rather than bright/sunny weather. In a large naturalistic field-study, 59 men romantically advanced 1395 women on the street, while they were unobtrusively followed by confederate observers. We thus obtained ratings from men, women, and observers on women’s reactions to men’s advances. Machiavellians, but not narcissists and psychopaths, elicited more positive reactions from women during cloudy weather. This effect was mediated by Machiavellian men’s assuredness. We discuss different mechanisms that may constitute the observed Veil of Darkness effect for Machiavellianism.
Promise, peril, and perspective: Addressing concerns about reproducibility in social-personality psychology,
Current discussion about the evidentiary value of published research in social ersonality psychology includes elements ranging in their premise. Some deride current practices as fundamentally flawed and call for extensive, perhaps even revolutionary, changes. Others are more circumspect, seeing the discipline as essentially healthy while acknowledging the need for evolution in several particulars about how research is conducted and reported. The articles in this special issue ofJESPoffer a variety of useful suggestions and recommendations in this latter regard. Our commentary provides an overarching perspective on these articles, suggesting a framework for considering their proposals in a way that stresses the promise of our science rather than its limitations.
Nocturnal light effects on menstrual cycle length,
In previous University of California, San Diego (UCSD) studies, nocturnal illumination shortened menstrual cycles that were longer than 33 days. The studies reported here extend the previous findings, confining the illumination to the sleep period.Two light levels (235 to 250 lux and less than 1 lux) and 2 modes of light delivery (lighted sleep mask and bedside lamp) were tested.235 to 250 lux treatment cycle lengths were significantly shorter than baseline, but not significantly shorter than the less than 1 lux treatment cycle lengths. Subjective reports of sleep disturbance were greater with the 235 to 250 lux treatment, but there was no significant difference in overall quality of sleep between the two light levels.The current data alone do not exclude spontaneous remission or suggestion, but our previous studies demonstrated significant contrasts between 235 to 250 lux and less than 1 lux light levels. This study suggests that treatment may be effective when confined to the sleep period, and that light masks, which do not disturb bed partners, may be used in place of bedside lamps.
Effect of beliefs about weather conditions on tipping,
Abstract Research has shown that greater degrees of sunshine experienced directly are associated with greater amounts of compliance and tipping. This paper describes two studies that investigated beliefs about sunshine and tipping. The studies were conducted at a casino hotel in Atlantic City; a male server who delivered food and drinks to guests' rooms acted as the confederate. In Study 1, the server reported to guests the actual sky conditions: sunny, partly sunny, cloudy, or rainy. Tip percentages increased linearly from the worst to the best conditions. Study 2 used an experimental design. The server informed guests that the weather was either warm and sunny, cold and sunny, warm and rainy, or cold and rainy. Guests were gullible because their rooms shielded them from the actual conditions. Belief in sunny skies produced greater tip percentages. The temperature belief manipulation had no effect. This research extended previous research by showing that beliefs about weather, in addition to actual weather, can affect behavior.
Stock prices and Wall Street weather,
No abstract is available for this item.
Evolution and human motivation: A fundamental motives framework,
An evolutionary perspective on human motivation provides a means of identifying conceptually distinct motivational systems (including motives pertaining to self-恜rotection, disease avoidance, affiliation, status, mate acquisition, mate retention, and parental care), each of which has unique implications for affect, cognition, and behavior. We provide an illustrative summary of some of these empirically documented implications--including those pertaining to individual differences in chronic motivational tendencies, as well as additional implications that follow from temporary activation of these motivational systems. We also summarize a variety of broader implications--both conceptual and practical--that follow from this framework.
Fear of the dark: Interactive effects of beliefs about danger and ambient darkness on ethnic stereotypes,
ABSTRACT Two studies examined effects of ambient darkness and chronic beliefs about danger on activation of stereotypes about Blacks. Chronic beliefs were measured by a Belief in a Dangerous World (BDW) questionnaire. In Study, 1, participants in either a dimly lit or dark room saw photos of Black men and rated the extent to which specific traits described the cultural stereotype of Blacks. In Study 2, participants in either a well-lit or dark room completed reaction-time tasks assessing implicit associations between Blacks and evaluative attributes. Separate measures assessed stereotypes connoting danger versus those that are merely derogatory. Results revealed BDW x Darkness interactions on activation of danger-relevant stereotypes: BDW positively predicted activation in dark but not in light conditions. It appears that chronic beliefs about danger can facilitate activation of functionally relevant stereotypes, but this effect occurs primarily under circumstances (such as darkness) that heuristically suggest vulnerability to harm. Conceptual implications are discussed.
Toward a theory of the universal content and structure of values: Extensions and cross-cultural replications,
ABSTRACT The universality of S. H. Schwartz and W. Bilsky's (see record 1988-01444-001) theory of the psychological content and structure of human values was examined with data from Australia, Finland, Hong Kong, Spain, and the United States. Smallest space analyses of the importance ratings that individuals assigned to values revealed the same 7 distinct motivational types of values in each sample as had emerged earlier in samples from Germany and Israel: achievement, enjoyment, maturity, prosocial, restrictive conformity, security, self-direction. Social power, studied only in Hong Kong, also emerged. The structural relations among the value types suggest that the motivational dynamics underlying people's value priorities are similar across the societies studied, with an exception in Hong Kong. The interests that values serve (individual vs. collective) and their goal type (instrumental vs. terminal) also distinguished values in all samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: Informative and directive functions of affective states,
The role of affect in information processing has recently received attention, and several possible influences of affect have been suggested. The informational and directive effects of affect were investigated with subjects (N=61) who either described events in their recent past that made them feel good, described events that made them feel bad, or gave no description of life-events. Additionally, subjects expected to be put in either a good or a bad mood as a result of an external factor, or had no expectations concerning their mood. Describing positive life-events increased reported happiness and life satisfaction relative to a control group, while describing negative life-events decreased the indices of well-being. The impact of describing negative events was eliminated when subjects expected to feel bad due to an external influence, but was nonsignificantly increased when subjects expected to feel good because of an external influence. Subjects describing positive life-events
Bright light and mental fatigue: Effects on alertness, vitality, performance and physiological arousal,
61We investigated effects of diurnal exposure to bright light after mental fatigue.61Participants felt less sleepy, more vital and happier when exposed to bright light.61Effects on subjective sleepiness and self-control were moderated by mental fatigue.61Physiological and performance-based measures showed mixed results.61Daytime bright light effects need not to be identical to effects reported at night.
Investigating daytime effects of correlated colour temperature on experiences, performance, and arousal,
Research in the late evening and at night has shown that acute activating effects of light are particularly sensitive to short-wavelength light. Yet, findings on such effects during daytime are still inconclusive. This study (N=39) investigated effects of correlated colour temperature (CCT; 2700K vs. 6000 K, 500 lx on the desk) on individuals' experiences, performance, and physiology during one hour of exposure in the morning versus afternoon. Except for a higher subjective vitality in the 6000K condition in the morning, results showed no significant activating effects, and even subtle performance-undermining effects in the relatively high CCT condition. Moreover, participants rated both their mood and the light settings as less positive in the 6000K vs. 2700 K condition. It is therefore questionable whether lighting solutions with commonly experienced intensity levels should provide a higher CCT during daytime office hours.
In the dark we cooperate: The situated nature of procedural embodiment,
Grounded and embodied cognitions have gained increasing interest in explaining the effects of the physical environments on social cognition and behavior. However, the very nature of the processes underlying embodiment is largely unknown. The current research aims at contributing to this issue by (1) differentiating between the embodiment of contents and procedures, (2) unfolding the processes underlying mechanism of an embodied procedure, and (3) showing its boundary conditions. Seven experiments investigated these refinements using the examples of darkness, self-construal, and cooperation in social dilemmas. The results provided consistent evidence that darkness triggers interdependent self-construal, which in turn promotes cooperation. Moreover, the individual's internal context and external context moderated the darkness-cooperation effect. These results contribute to the understanding of embodied and situated social cognition and behavior and provide a consistent explanation for the mixed findings of lighting on cooperation in particular and prosocial behavior in general.
You can’t see much in the dark: Darkness affects construal level and psychological distance,
In the spotlight: Brightness increases self-awareness and reflective self-regulation,
Impulse and reflection jointly drive people's behavior. However, the impact of the physical environment, especially light and brightness, on reflective and impulsive behavior and the underlying processes have not been understood. We expected that light and brightness would increase self-awareness and, in turn, lead to a reflective and controlled self-regulation. Five studies confirmed our assumptions. Particularly, participants in a brightly lit room reported a higher public self-awareness than those in a dim room. Moreover, brightness triggers more controlled and reflective forms of self-regulation independent of whether lighting conditions (Study 2) or priming methods (Study 3) were used to manipulate brightness. Finally, two additional studies revealed that brightness facilitates the suppression of desires and socially undesirable impulses which signals high self-control. Overall, these results contribute to the understanding of automatic effects of light and brightness and effortless self-control. Limitations as well as practical implications for lighting design in therapeutical settings and retail spaces and are discussed.
The influence of light on thermal responses,
Light is essential for vision and plays an important role in non-visual responses, thus affecting alertness, mood and circadian rhythms. Furthermore, light influences physiological processes, such as thermoregulation, and therefore may be expected to play a role in thermal comfort (TC) as well. A systematic literature search was performed for human studies exploring the relation between ocular light exposure, thermophysiology and TC. Experimental results show that light in the evening can reduce melatonin secretion, delay the natural decline in core body temperature (CBT) and slow down the increase in distal skin temperature. In the morning though, bright light can result in a faster decline in melatonin levels, thus enabling a faster increase in CBT. Moreover, the colour of light can affect temperature perception of the environment. Light with colour tones towards the red end of the visual spectrum leads to a warmer perception compared to more bluish light tones. It should be noted, however, that many results of light on thermal responses are inconclusive, and a theoretical framework is largely lacking. In conclusion, light is capable of evoking thermophysiological responses and visual input can alter perception of the thermal environment. Therefore, lighting conditions should be taken into consideration during thermophysiological research and in the design of indoor climates.
Construal-level theory of psychological distance,
People are capable of thinking about the future, the past, remote locations, another person's perspective, and counterfactual alternatives. Without denying the uniqueness of each process, it is proposed that they constitute different forms of traversing psychological distance. Psychological distance is egocentric: Its reference point is the self in the here and now, and the different ways in which an object might be removed from that point-in time, in space, in social distance, and in hypotheticality-constitute different distance dimensions. Transcending the self in the here and now entails mental construal, and the farther removed an object is from direct experience, the higher (more abstract) the level of construal of that object. Supporting this analysis, research shows (a) that the various distances are cognitively related to each other, (b) that they similarly influence and are influenced by level of mental construal, and (c) that they similarly affect prediction, preference, and action.
Light as a modulator of cognitive brain function,
Humans are a diurnal species usually exposed to light while engaged in cognitive tasks. Light not only guides performance on these tasks through vision but also exerts non-visual effects that are mediated in part by recently discovered retinal ganglion cells maximally sensitive to blue light. We review recent neuroimaging studies which demonstrate that the wavelength, duration and intensity of light exposure modulate brain responses to (non-visual) cognitive tasks. These responses to light are initially observed in alertness-related subcortical structures (hypothalamus, brainstem, thalamus) and limbic areas (amygdala and hippocampus), followed by modulations of activity in cortical areas, which can ultimately affect behaviour. Light emerges as an important modulator of brain function and cognition.
Lighting quality and energy-efficiency effects on task performance, mood, health, satisfaction, and comfort,
The effect of variable light on the fidgetiness and social behavior of pupils in school,
Studies on the effects of light in work environments show that specific lighting situations have different effects on human performance and social behavior. These findings suggest that beneficial lighting should also be applied in schools. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of variable lighting on pupils' fidgetiness and their aggressive and prosocial behaviors. The variable lighting system employed was equipped with seven lighting programs featuring different varieties of illuminance and color temperature. In a controlled, quasi-experimental field study, a combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal observations was collected. The participants included n =110 pupils of various age levels and school types and n =11 teachers from Hamburg. Fidgetiness was measured by the changes in pixel scores in a digital recording of the students. To quantify aggressiveness and prosocial behaviors, structured behavioral observations were conducted. Self-perceived changes throughout the school year were captured using questionnaires. The findings showed a significantly stronger decline in fidgetiness and observed aggressive behaviors and a tendency toward increased prosocial behaviors within the intervention group. In the long term, the pupils did not rate themselves as being calmer or less aggressive. Overall, the findings indicated that variable light could directly reduce pupils' restlessness and improve their social behaviors. Variable lighting can thus play a part in optimizing general conditions for school learning.
Understanding the role of the self in prime-to-behavior effects: The Active-Self account,
Luteinizing hormone following light exposure in healthy young men,
Abstract Urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) and the melatonin metabolite (6-sulfatoxymelatonin; aMT6s) were measured in normal young men following early morning light exposure. Eleven young healthy men ages 19-30 years participated in this study. During separate weeks in counterbalanced order, each subject received both 5 days of bright light treatment (BL) and 5 days of placebo light treatment (PL) for 1 h (05:00-06:00). LH excretion was increased 69.5% after bright light exposure, but was not changed by placebo light exposure. The acrophases and offsets of aMT6s were advanced, but the duration of aMT6s excretion was not changed after BL. Light stimulation of LH could have interesting applications in psychiatry and reproductive endocrinology.
Good lamps are the best police: Darkness increases dishonesty and self-interested behavior,
Abstract Darkness can conceal identity and encourage moral transgressions; it may also induce a psychological feeling of illusory anonymity that disinhibits dishonest and self-interested behavior regardless of actual anonymity. Three experiments provided empirical evidence supporting this prediction. In Experiment 1, participants in a room with slightly dimmed lighting cheated more and thus earned more undeserved money than those in a well-lit room. In Experiment 2, participants wearing sunglasses behaved more selfishly than those wearing clear glasses. Finally, in Experiment 3, an illusory sense of anonymity mediated the relationship between darkness and self-interested behaviors. Across all three experiments, darkness had no bearing on actual anonymity, yet it still increased morally questionable behaviors. We suggest that the experience of darkness, even when subtle, may induce a sense of anonymity that is not proportionate to actual anonymity in a given situation.
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