心理科学进展, 2018, 26(6): 1012-1018 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01012

研究前沿

音乐句法的内隐习得及其对图式性期待的影响 *

邓珏1, 叶一舵,1, 陈言放2

1 福建师范大学心理学院, 福州 350000

2 厦门大学艺术学院, 厦门 361005

Implicit acquisition of musical syntax and its influence on schema expectation

DENG Jue1, YE Yiduo,1, CHEN Yanfang2

1 School of Psychology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350000, China

2 Art College, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China

通讯作者: 叶一舵, E-mail: yeyiduo@163.com

收稿日期: 2017-10-12   网络出版日期: 2018-06-10

基金资助: * 厦门大学哲学社会科学繁荣计划艺术学院音乐系项目.  0120-Y07xXX

Received: 2017-10-12   Online: 2018-06-10

摘要

音乐句法的习得来源于对音乐图式统计规则的长期抽象, 有赖于日常音乐曝光和统计学习能力, 其在构建音乐心理词典的过程中发挥着重要作用并影响着音乐图式性期待的形成。音乐句法可在无意识曝光中被内隐习得, 而外显的专业训练可能有利于音乐统计学习能力的提升。对ERAN、N5、mCPS等音乐句法相关脑电成分进行研究有助于深入了解音乐句法内隐习得的加工机制。在完整音乐结构背景下, 考察各音乐要素习得之间的交互作用, 将使音乐学习实验更具生态效度, 促进研究成果运用于音乐教学实践。

关键词: 内隐习得 ; 音乐句法 ; 统计学习 ; 曝光效应 ; 音乐期待

Abstract

The acquisition of musical syntax derives from the long-term abstraction of statistical rules of musical schema, which depends on the daily music exposure and statistical learning ability. It plays an important role in the process of constructing musical mental lexicon and influences the formation of musical schema expectation. The musical syntax has been proved to be implicitly learned with unconscious exposure, while explicit professional training may be conducive to the improvement of music statistical learning ability. The researches of the ENAN, N5, mCPS and other musical syntax-related electroencephalograms help to understand the processing mechanism of implicit learning of musical syntax. Therefore, future studies should examine, in the complete music structure, how the acquisitions of various music elements interact to make music learning experiments more ecologically effective and to promote the application of the research results in music teaching practice.

Keywords: implicit acquisition ; musical syntax ; statistical learning ; exposure effect ; musical expectation

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本文引用格式

邓珏, 叶一舵, 陈言放. 音乐句法的内隐习得及其对图式性期待的影响 * . 心理科学进展[J], 2018, 26(6): 1012-1018 doi:10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01012

DENG Jue, YE Yiduo, CHEN Yanfang. Implicit acquisition of musical syntax and its influence on schema expectation. Advances in Psychological Science[J], 2018, 26(6): 1012-1018 doi:10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01012

1 前言

在聆听音乐时, 人们时常有这样的感受:某个音听起来“不舒服”; 某个和弦似乎“不协和”; 某段旋律“不应该”如此进行等。这种感受是由于音乐图式性期待的违背。音乐图式性期待是在内隐推断基础上对音乐信息的自动预测(郑茂平, 2010), 来源于通过曝光而习得的内隐知识库(Trainor & Corrigall, 2010; Hannon & Trainor, 2007)。

这些内隐知识并不是音乐声本身, 而是一种被抽象出来的、具有特异性的图式表征, 它们以音乐句法为核心, 存在于非意识层面(Hodges, 1996/2006; Patel, 2008/2012)的长时记忆中(音乐心理词典, Musical mental lexicon) (Peretz, 1996), 在音乐认知过程中发挥巨大作用, 奠定了音乐图式性期待的基础, 影响着人们的音乐偏好(Zajonc, 2001)。

目前国内外关于音乐内隐习得的研究较少, 本文立足于音乐曝光和统计学习的作用, 从音乐句法的内隐习得及其影响因素出发, 探讨其对音乐图式性期待的影响。其中, 音乐曝光是指人们对环境中音乐信息的被动接触和无意识聆听; 统计学习是一种领域一般性的能力(Frost, Armstrong, Siegelman, & Christiansen, 2015), 指的是人们能够无意识检测并学习周围环境中的统计规则(李菲菲, 宋晨璐, 刘宝根, 2017; Batterink, Reber, Neville, & Paller, 2015)。

2 音乐句法的内隐习得及其影响因素

音乐要素(旋律、和弦和声、节拍、节奏等)基于音乐句法规则构成音乐作品, 其中, 旋律的进行与和弦的连接是音乐句法规则的重要体现(张晶晶, 杨玉芳, 2017)。

2.1 旋律句法的内隐习得及其影响因素

旋律是由一系列音符按照特定音高、节奏以及节拍关系构成的音符序列(蒋存梅, 2016), 它涉及音高事件的时间序列, 表示了音符的开始、持续和休止。人们能够从音乐曝光中习得旋律句法统计特征的观点已经得到了广泛的认可(Loui, Wessel, & Hudson Kam, 2010)。Thompson, Balkwill和Vernescu (2000)对被试进行旋律曝光, 并对结束音符的旋律延续性进行考察, 发现仅仅是内隐意义的曝光就可以让被试习得旋律模式。Szpunar, Schellenberg和Pliner (2004)的研究也发现, 即便是在新旋律和曝光过的旧旋律高度相似的情况下, 被试也更偏爱旧旋律, 表现了对旧旋律的内隐习得。那么这种习得效果是否会受到被试已有的大小调听赏习惯的影响呢?

在实验中引入人工音阶可以较好的排除这种影响。Loui和Wessel (2008)利用一种与大小调式截然不同的人工音阶(BP-Scale)作为组织实验旋律材料的基础, 发现被试可以在大量的旋律曝光之后习得并内化其中的音阶模式。这项研究排除了大小调式的干扰, 表明了旋律模式的内隐习得受益于听觉领域的统计学习能力, 而与已有的特定调式听赏习惯无关。之后的研究进一步证实, 成年被试能够内隐习得未接触过的新音阶和特殊句法构成的旋律, 长度可多达32个音符, 而且能够在测试期间实时习得正在进行的旋律组块(Rohrmeier, Rebuschat, & Cross, 2011)。这暗示了一个强大的学习机制:人们可以通过音乐曝光内隐习得并内化旋律信息中的句法规则。

这一机制也可以通过音乐家与非音乐家之间的对比研究得到一定程度的验证。一项考察音乐层级边界知觉的研究对比了音乐家(受训时间在10年之上)和非音乐家(从未接触过音乐训练)在旋律加工方面的差异(Zhang, Jiang, Zhou, & Yang, 2016), 发现虽然音乐家被试在不同层次的旋律边界诱发了不同强度的mCPS (反映音乐句法结构认知的一种脑电成分), 但是非音乐家被试在旋律半终止处诱发了一个前侧负波, 在全终止处诱发了mCPS。对mCPS的研究也得到了来自跨文化非音乐家被试的证据:中国和德国的非音乐家在乐句结构边界都诱发了CPS (Nan, Knösche,& Friederici, 2009)。虽然关于mCPS的现有研究结果还存在矛盾之处(Knösche et al., 2005), 但是总得来说, 无论是音乐家还是非音乐家, 在某些任务情况下, 听者可以对音乐乐句结构边界进行加工, 并在400-600ms的时间窗口出现CPS成分(蒋存梅, 2016)。这暗示着没有接受外显训练的非音乐家也具有一定的音乐句法知识, 只是这些句法知识以较为内隐和模糊的方式获得和运作。

然而, 如果构成旋律的句法发生一般性违规(违反旋律构建的跨文化原则, 而不是仅与某种调性规则不同)时, 内隐学习就受到了削弱, 这表明音乐内隐学习是以人类音乐中那些普遍的、跨文化的规则为基础的 (Loui, 2012)。虽然人们对环境中旋律句法的统计学习不受特定调式的影响, 却受制于人类的听觉偏好共性, 例如旋律中相邻音高之间以小音程为主(Patel, 2008/2012)。此外, 虽有研究发现十二平均律作品的旋律变式(倒置、模进、逆行等)只能被音乐家被试内隐习得(Dienes & Longuet-Higgins, 2004), 但是后续研究比较了偶然学习和有意学习两种条件, 发现只有那些被鼓励探索的被试才能习得旋律的变式规则(Kuhn & Dienes, 2006); 该矛盾结果或许是由于音乐家被试在长期的音乐训练中形成了较强的对旋律中句法规则进行抽象的统计学习能力, 音乐训练使人们在无意识状态下对听觉环境中规则信息的捕捉更加敏锐。

2.2 和弦的内隐习得及其影响因素

和弦是两个以上同时发声并有特定根音的音高序列, 和声指的是和弦序列的进行(Rohrmeier & Rebuschat, 2012)。已有研究证实了和弦序列句法规则可被内隐习得。早在1987年, Bharucha和Stoekig就验证了和弦启动在本质上更多是基于对音乐规则和背景的内隐习得。以和弦序列为实验材料考察音乐对情感词判断的启动, 发现具有和弦曝光经历的被试的反应时显著快于无和弦曝光经历的被试(Ignacio, 2016)。Jonaitis和Saffran (2009)发现被试能够从两种特定句法(大小调和弗吉尼亚调式)的材料中习得和弦转换生成的句法规则; 同时也有研究发现了和弦统计学习的效果存在于非西方调性中(Loui, Wu, Wessel, &Knight, 2009)。Bly, Carrión和Rasch (2009)进行了相似的研究, 发现在人造的、遵循或违反西方全音阶和声规则的和弦序列中都发生了内隐学习。采用八音音阶(一种人工音阶)组织和弦序列作为实验材料, 发现音乐家被试在过程分离范式下习得了八音音阶的和声系统; 这表明即便和弦进行与被试记忆中已有图式相违背, 其句法规则在内隐条件下也可以很快被习得, 似乎并不受音乐调性经验和文化背景的影响 (Rohrmeier, 2011)。

然而, Rohrmeier和Cross (2010)的另一项研究发现, 对违反和声进行规则的材料的记忆成绩要显著低于符合和声进行规则的记忆成绩。这表明和弦序列句法的违规与否会影响其习得, 显示了被试长时记忆中音乐图式对和弦刺激习得的增强作用。在一项以先天失歌症患者为被试的研究中发现, 当目标和弦播放为主和弦时, 被试的正确反应时显著快于目标和弦为非主和弦的情况, 而且这种启动效应在正常被试群体中更为显著(Tillmann, Gosselin, Bigand, & Peretz, 2012), 表明和弦序列的内隐习得会受到被试已有音乐图式的影响:正常被试具有比失歌症者更牢固的和声句法知识, 促进了其对和弦序列规则的提取。

通过对比音乐家和非音乐家和弦加工的脑电研究可以发现, 音乐家和非音乐家被试都在和弦进行发生违规时产生了ERAN (违规音乐句法加工的相关脑电成分)效应:非音乐家被试在内隐任务中对位于第3位置和第5位置的拿波里和弦的加工诱发出了波幅更大的ERAN (Koelsch, Gunter, Friederici, & Schröger, 2000);音乐家被试和非音乐家被试在和弦序列以重属和弦结尾时也诱发了ERAN效应(Koelsch & Sammler, 2008)。虽然音乐家诱发的ERAN效应强于非音乐家, 但是这些结果也说明了人类一些基本的音乐和声句法知识并不需要通过接受外显的专业训练获得, 而是可以在音乐曝光中内隐习得。然而, 这些句法知识的内隐习得受到句法难度的调节:有研究对比了不同音乐经验被试在整合和声句法线性结构和嵌套结构上的差异, 发现业余者和专业者都能够完成线性结构的整合, 且线性结构句法的违反诱发了更大的ERAN和N5(该成分反映了句法整合的难度); 但是嵌套结构句法的整合只有接受过外显训练的专业被试能够完成, 音乐专业者能被嵌套结构的句法违反诱发更大的ERAN和N5,普通听众却不能(马谐, 杨玉芳, 2017)。该结果也在儿童身上得到了验证:有研究以30个月的幼儿为被试发现了拿波里和弦诱发的ERAN效应(Jentschke, Friederici, & Koelsch, 2014), 但是波幅较小; 随着年龄增大, 5岁幼儿的ERAN成分就较为清晰(Jentschke, Koelsch, Sallat, & Friederici, 2008); 无论儿童是否接受过音乐训练, 违规和弦都诱发了ERAN, 但是受过训练的儿童的ERAN效应更强。这些结果不仅显示了和弦句法知识可以通过内隐习得, 还表明了音乐训练的作用。但是音乐训练在其中的作用是固化和弦句法知识, 还是强化对句法规则的统计学习能力, 亦或是二者兼备, 值得进一步考察。此外, fMRI研究也显示出和弦启动过程中参与序列统计学习的脑区——额下回(尤其是Broca区)的潜在活动(Ettlinger, Margulis, & Wong, 2011), 这很可能为和声句法的统计学习及其运用的内隐性提供证据, 应该进一步验证。

2.3 节奏、节拍的内隐习得及其影响因素

时间是音乐形式存在的载体, 节奏(rhythm)和节拍(metre)是音乐的“时间形式”。音乐中相同时间的片段按一定强弱规律作循环重复被称为节拍(罗小平, 黄虹, 2008); 节奏指的则是音的长、短交替的规律(张前, 王次炤, 1992), 其中也包含了强弱的变化; 速度指的是节拍的速率。被试对节奏、节拍句法的习得本质上是对音乐时间模式的习得。

节奏、节拍作为音乐时间模式的体现, 其习得被认为是通过单纯的曝光效应而不是外显的音乐训练, 曝光可能是节奏和节拍计量习得的重要来源(Pearce & Christensen, 2012)。Schultz, Stevens, Keller和Tillmann (2013)采用修改过的过程分离范式, 考察强节奏、弱节奏和无节奏的单音呈现刺激条件下时间模式的学习, 发现了脱离相关序列线索的时间模式的内隐习得; 也就是说, 时间模式在有/无节奏的情况下都可以获得。然而, 在有节奏的情况下, 被试对强拍音的预期比弱拍音的预期更显著, 这表明了节奏对时间模式习得的影响(Rohrmeier & Rebuschat, 2012)。而且, 节奏的难度也影响着其内隐习得的效果, 研究证实规律性强的节奏更易记忆和复述; 个体对规律的敏感性对节奏习得也有影响(Grahn & Schuit, 2012), 这暗示着统计学习在音乐时间模式习得中的作用及其个体差异。在西方音乐中, 二拍子和四拍子比三拍子普遍得多, Brochard, Abecasis, Potter, Ragot和Drake (2003)证实, 当呈现出模糊的刺激时, 听众会默认地把刺激划分为二拍子(Ettlinger et al., 2011)。

然而, 也有研究发现时间模式加工在音乐家和非音乐家之间的不同:Jongsma, Desain和Honing (2004)比较了音乐家和非音乐家在加工2拍子和3拍子时的差异, 发现非音乐家在聆听节奏时诱发了比音乐家更大的P300, 表明了没有接受过音乐训练的被试在节奏加工中耗费了更大的认知资源; 而且3拍子诱发了比2拍子更大的P300, 这似乎说明了音乐训练对不同类型节奏学习的影响。但是, 该研究中所观察到的音乐家与非音乐家的差异, 或许是因为在日常音乐环境中3拍子音乐远远少于2拍子, 所以3拍子音乐对非音乐家来说具有一定的新异性, 在聆听初期需要将其整合进原有节拍图式; 而3拍子对音乐家来说较为常见; 故这并不能很好的说明音乐训练对节拍习得能力的影响。而且, 已有研究采用序列反应时范式, 对比2-2-4节拍(符合4/4拍)的材料和2-2-3节拍(7拍子)的材料, 发现在两种材料中, 都出现了由于曝光导致的反应时减少以及相应拍击任务成绩的提高, 这表明了不同类型的节拍模式都可以通过曝光而习得, Jongsma等人(2004)之前所观察到的差异可能并不是音乐训练造成的; 此外, 由于该研究采用的测试和训练刺激的拍子不同, 故得出结论:被试在节拍习得中抽象的是相对时间模式而不是绝对的时间模式(Tillmann, Stevens, & Keller, 2011)。

而且, 已有研究发现非音乐家中也有一部分人对节奏和节拍规律具有“准音乐家”能力(欧阳玥, 戴志强, 2010), 还有研究通过“声音丢失”实验范式发现了婴儿对节奏强拍丢失诱发了与成人相似的MMN (失匹配负波) (Honing, Ladinig, Háden, & Winkler, 2009); 这暗示了人们对音乐时间模式的习得能力似乎是天生的, 节奏和节拍的习得更多的受到个体对时间模式先天感受性的影响。据此, 笔者认为人们对音乐中周期性时间规律的习得很大程度上有赖于天生的听觉统计学习能力; 这种能力表现为音乐时间模式的感受性, 影响着个体在音乐曝光环境中对节奏、节拍的内隐习得, 且(相对于旋律、和声句法来说)较少受到音乐外显训练的影响。

3 音乐句法内隐习得与音乐图式性期待的关系

音乐期待在音乐聆听中历来被认为是最主要的心理现象, 分为真实性期待和图式性期待两种类型(郑茂平, 2006):图式性期待是基于音乐句法知识的自动预测, 这些句法知识是被动建立的, 可能需要很多年; 真实性期待指的是听众对熟悉的音乐作品中特定音乐事件的预期(Guo & Koelsch, 2016)。在音乐认知中, 个体会对音乐事件的发展产生自动化的期待, 这种期待是被“实现”还是被“违反”, 影响着音乐事件之间的张弛关系, 进而激活聆听者自主神经系统反应并影响被试的情绪唤醒度(Egermann, Pearce, Wiggins, & McAdams, 2013)。音乐句法表征是引发聆听者对音乐事件的发展产生图式性期待的最重要因素(马谐, 杨玉芳, 张秋月, 2016), 这些表征是基于大量音乐事件记忆形成的知识库(Schubert & Pearce, 2015), 而且对大多数人而言, 仅仅通过无意识的曝光, 就可以内隐习得这些句法规则知识, 而不需要外显的专业训练(Ettlinger et al., 2011)。

然而, Leman (2000)提出的听觉短时记忆模型(auditoryshort-term memory, ASTM)却认为音乐期待是短时记忆中音高频率(声学信号)不断累加的结果, 是一种自下而上的知觉驱动。但是, 那些在音乐进行中没有多次出现主和弦或主功能音的作品也能诱发听者对主音的期待; 甚至在大量非主功能音之后, 听者对主音的期待更为强烈, 可见音乐期待更受制于强大的内隐图式的影响。对此, Koelsch和Sammler (2008)的研究在严格控制了声学相似性的条件下, 发现和弦序列期待的违反诱发了显著的ERAN效应, 证实了ERAN效应有赖于对音乐图式统计规则的长期习得和抽象, 而不是对某个特定序列的短期暴露。Koelsch, Gunter, Wittfoth和Sammler (2005)还考察了没有音乐经验的成人和10岁儿童对以拿波里六和弦为终止的句法违规的反应, 发现在左侧前额区域、缘上回区域和颞叶区域, 儿童的激活水平明显低于成人。这表明音乐期待的形成可能有赖于音乐句法长期的内隐习得和积累。后续研究进一步证实, 音乐图式性期待相对于外显音乐事件具有一定的独立性:即便告知被试检测结束音违规与否, 也只是提前了ERAN的峰值时间, 并不影响ERAN的波幅, 可见音乐期待是基于牢固的内隐知识产生的, 而且不受实时外显音乐事件的影响, 这也就是为什么在那些我们已经听过的、假终止的音乐作品中, 我们还是会有完全终止的期待(即便我们知道这个终止不会出现) (Guo & Koelsch, 2016)。而且, 即使被试无法在外显层面识别出句法违规, 对预期的和弦、旋律和节奏模式的违反也一样诱发了检测违规的晚正电位成分LPC (Besson & Faïta, 1995)。Seger等(2013)的fMRI研究也提供了音乐期待基于内隐音乐句法知识的证据:对比非音乐家被试对正格终止、假终止、调外终止和无调性终止(结束在非大小调式体系的音上)的反应, 发现基底神经节(BG)、双侧额下回(IFG)和颞上回(STG)前部的激活都受到期待违反的显著影响; 而双侧额下回和颞上回前部已被证实与句法加工相关。

尽管音乐图式性期待基于音乐句法产生这一结果得到了诸多佐证, 但在儿童身上却发现了矛盾的结果:James, Cereghetti, Tribes和Oechslin (2015)以10岁儿童为被试, 发现儿童可以很好检测出违反期待的和弦(高于随机水平), 但并没有发现句法相关的ERAN和N5成分, 而是发现了与语义相关的N400类似的CPN (centro-posterior negativity)。这似乎说明了在儿童期, 音乐句法和音乐语义的加工具有一致性, 也说明了儿童的音乐期待有可能并不完全基于句法表征。还有研究以老年群体为被试, 发现老年人在检测音乐期待违反与否时, 诱发了更大的P200(而且在左半球违规音诱发的P200波幅更大); 这种P200的增强效应也发现在音乐家和非音乐家的对比研究中, 而在对非音乐家进行短期训练后, 其在听觉任务中诱发的P200得到了增强(Halpern et al., 2017)。这暗示了老年人对预期违反具有更强的敏感性, 他们可能对音乐期待形成了更强大的网络或更牢固的图式模板, 即使在对周围环境的听觉能力下降的情况下, 这种对期待违反的检测也能发挥很大的作用。对此, 笔者结合对音乐期待的不同解释进行假设:或许音乐期待在早期更多地依赖声学信号累加的知觉驱动, 但是随着曝光增多和内隐经验的丰富, 音乐句法图式随年龄增长趋于稳定, 图式启动在音乐期待中的作用越来越大(且这种音乐句法图式具有文化特异性)。这可能就是为什么许多老年人偏爱具有“年代感”的音乐却排斥新兴流行音乐的原因:特定音乐句法图式越稳固, 音乐期待违反的敏感性就越强, 对新异音乐风格的顺应就越困难。

4 研究展望

在已有研究中, 对不同音乐要素(如旋律、和弦、节奏等)的内隐习得多是分开探讨的, 但是此类研究置于音乐整体中的生态效度几许?音乐要素以时间为载体互相交织, 具有浓厚的格式塔色彩, 例如旋律进行过程中也包含着和声功能的进行, 旋律的组织也离不开节奏的变化等。因此, 将音乐要素割裂开来的研究设计显然有待改进, 聚焦于考察不同要素在音乐习得中的交互作用或许对音乐教学实践更有价值。

其次, 已知音乐句法知识可以通过曝光效应和统计学习内隐获得, 那么外显的音乐专业训练在促进音乐句法习得和音乐期待形成中究竟发挥着怎样的作用:是对音乐句法知识的固化或外显化?还是强化个体对音乐句法规则的统计学习能力?亦或是二者兼备?这值得进一步考察。

此外, 统计学习是一种在多个感觉通道发挥作用的一般能力, 但其作为音乐句法内隐习得的重要机制, 是有其领域特异性的。考察在音乐记忆中统计学习是如何发挥作用的, 以及哪些音乐知识和音乐能力能够在曝光中通过统计学习习得而哪些不能, 能使音乐训练更有针对性。

最后, 对音乐聆听者神经活动的探究还需要从纵向收集, 考察ERAN、N5、mCPS等成分与年龄、不同音乐训练经验和音乐文化背景的关系, 能为音乐知识的内隐习得提供更直接的证据。对于统计学习、音乐句法违规检测和音乐期待相关脑区的探索, 有利于我们为音乐审美活动提供更完整的解释。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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Abstract Numerous past studies have investigated neurophysiological correlates of music-syntactic processing. However, only little is known about how prior knowledge about an upcoming syntactically irregular event modulates brain correlates of music-syntactic processing. Two versions of a short chord sequence were presented repeatedly to non-musicians (n090009=09000920) and musicians (n090009=09000920). One sequence version ended on a syntactically regular chord, and the other one ended on a syntactically irregular chord. Participants were either informed (cued condition), or not informed (non-cued condition) about whether the sequence would end on the regular or the irregular chord. Results indicate that in the cued condition (compared to the non-cued condition) the peak latency of the early right anterior negativity (ERAN), elicited by irregular chords, was earlier in both non-musicians and musicians. However, the expectations due to the knowledge about the upcoming event (veridical expectations) did not influence the amplitude of the ERAN. These results suggest that veridical expectations modulate only the speed, but not the principle mechanisms, of music-syntactic processing.

Halpern A. R., Zioga I., Shankleman M., Lindsen J., Pearce M. T., & Bhattacharya J . ( 2017).

That note sounds wrong! Age-related effects in processing of musical expectation

Brain & Cognition, 113, 1-9.

URL     PMID:28064077      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Part of musical understanding and enjoyment stems from the ability to accurately predict what note (or one of a small set of notes) is likely to follow after hearing the first part of a melody. Selective violation of expectations can add to aesthetic response but radical or frequent violations are likely to be disliked or not comprehended. In this study we investigated whether a lifetime of exposure to music among untrained older adults would enhance their reaction to unexpected endings of unfamiliar melodies. Older and younger adults listened to melodies that had expected or unexpected ending notes, according to Western music theory. Ratings of goodness-of-fit were similar in the groups, as was ERP response to the note onset (N1). However, in later time windows (P200 and Late Positive Component), the amplitude of a response to unexpected and expected endings was both larger in older adults, corresponding to greater sensitivity, and more widespread in locus, consistent with a dedifferentiation pattern. Lateralization patterns also differed. We conclude that older adults refine their understanding of this important aspect of music throughout life, with the ability supported by changing patterns of neural activity. Copyright 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Hannon, E. E., & Trainor, L. J . ( 2007).

Music acquisition: Effects of enculturation and formal training on development

Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11( 11), 466-472.

URL     PMID:17981074      [本文引用: 1]

Musical structure is complex, consisting of a small set of elements that combine to form hierarchical levels of pitch and temporal structure according to grammatical rules. As with language, different systems use different elements and rules for combination. Drawing on recent findings, we propose that music acquisition begins with basic features, such as peripheral frequency-coding mechanisms and multisensory timing connections, and proceeds through enculturation, whereby everyday exposure to a particular music system creates, in a systematic order of acquisition, culture-specific brain structures and representations. Finally, we propose that formal musical training invokes domain-specific processes that affect salience of musical input and the amount of cortical tissue devoted to its processing, as well as domain-general processes of attention and executive functioning.

Hodges D. A. (2006). Handbook of music psychology. San Antonio: IMR Press. (Original work published 1996)

[本文引用: 1]

[ 霍杰斯 , D. A. (2006). 音乐心理学手册 (刘沛, 任恺译). 长沙: 湖南文艺出版社.]

[本文引用: 1]

Honing H., Ladinig O., Háden G. P., & Winkler I . ( 2009).

Is beat induction innate or learned?

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169, 93-96.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Meter is considered an important structuring mechanism in the perception and experience of rhythm in music. Combining behavioral and electrophysiological measures, in the present study we investigate whether meter is more likely a learned phenomenon, possibly a result of musical expertise, or whether sensitivity to meter is also active in adult nonmusicians and newborn infants. The results provide evidence that meter induction is active in adult nonmusicians and that beat induction is already functional right after birth.

Ignacio, D. A . ( 2016).

The cognitive effects of musical expectations on affective priming

Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, & Brain, 26( 4), 358-365.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Whether music has the potential to enhance cognition has been a question of great psychological...

James C. E., Cereghetti D. M., Tribes E. R., & Oechslin M. S . ( 2015).

Electrophysiological evidence for a specific neural correlate of musical violation expectation in primary-school children

NeuroImage, 104, 386-397.

URL     PMID:25278251      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The majority of studies on music processing in children used simple musical stimuli. Here, primary schoolchildren judged the appropriateness of musical closure in expressive polyphone music, while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Stimuli ended either regularly or contained refined in-key harmonic transgressions at closure. The children discriminated the transgressions well above chance. Regular and transgressed endings evoked opposite scalp voltage configurations peaking around 400ms after stimulus onset with bilateral frontal negativity for regular and centro-posterior negativity (CPN) for transgressed endings. A positive correlation could be established between strength of the CPN response and rater sensitivity (d-prime). We also investigated whether the capacity to discriminate the transgressions was supported by auditory domain specific or general cognitive mechanisms, and found that working memory capacity predicted transgression discrimination. Latency and distribution of the CPN are reminiscent of the N400, typically observed in response to semantic incongruities in language. Therefore our observation is intriguing, as the CPN occurred here within an intra-musical context, without any symbols referring to the external world. Moreover, the harmonic in-key transgressions that we implemented may be considered syntactical as they transgress structural rules. Such structural incongruities in music are typically followed by an early right anterior negativity (ERAN) and an N5, but not so here. Putative contributive sources of the CPN were localized in left pre-motor, mid-posterior cingulate and superior parietal regions of the brain that can be linked to integration processing. These results suggest that, at least in children, processing of syntax and meaning may coincide in complex intra-musical contexts. Copyright 漏 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Jentschke S., Koelsch S., Sallat S., & Friederici A. D . ( 2008).

Children with specific language impairment also show impairment of music-syntactic processing

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20( 11), 1940-1951.

URL     PMID:18416683      [本文引用: 1]

Both language and music consist of sequences that are structured according to syntactic regularities. We used two specific event-related brain potential (ERP) components to investigate music-syntactic processing in children: the ERAN (early right anterior negativity) and the N5. The neural resources underlying these processes have been posited to overlap with those involved in the processing of linguistic syntax. Thus, we expected children with specific language impairment (SLI, which is characterized by deficient processing of linguistic syntax) to demonstrate difficulties with music-syntactic processing. Such difficulties were indeed observed in the neural correlates of music-syntactic processing: neither an ERAN nor an N5 was elicited in children with SLI, whereas both components were evoked in age-matched control children with typical language development. Moreover, the amplitudes of ERAN and N5 were correlated with subtests of a language development test. These data provide evidence for a strong interrelation between the language and the music processing system, thereby setting the ground for possible effects of musical training in SLI therapy.

Jentschke S., Friederici A. D., & Koelsch S . ( 2014).

Neural correlates of music-syntactic processing in two-year old children

Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 200-208.

URL     PMID:24907450      [本文引用: 1]

Music is a basic and ubiquitous socio-cognitive domain. However, our understanding of the time course of the development of music perception, particularly regarding implicit knowledge of music-syntactic regularities, remains contradictory and incomplete. Some authors assume that the acquisition of knowledge about these regularities lasts until late childhood, but there is also evidence for the presence of such knowledge in four- and five-year-olds. To explore whether such knowledge is already present in younger children, we tested whether 30-month-olds (N = 62) show neurophysiological responses to music-syntactically irregular harmonies. We observed an early right anterior negativity in response to both irregular in-key and out-of-key chords. The N5, a brain response usually present in older children and adults, was not observed, indicating that processes of harmonic integration (as reflected in the N5) are still in development in this age group. In conclusion, our results indicate that 30-month-olds already have acquired implicit knowledge of complex harmonic music-syntactic regularities and process musical information according to this knowledge.

Jonaitis, E. M., & Saffran, J. R . ( 2009).

Learning harmony: The role of serial statistics

Cognitive Science, 33( 5), 951-968.

URL     PMID:21585492      [本文引用: 1]

How do listeners learn about the statistical regularities underlying musical harmony? In traditional Western music, certain chords predict the occurrence of other chords: Given a particular chord, not all chords are equally likely to follow. In Experiments 1 and 2, we investigated whether adults make use of statistical information when learning new musical structures. Listeners were exposed to a novel musical system containing phrases generated using an artificial grammar. This new system contained statistical structure quite different from Western tonal music. Our results suggest that learners take advantage of the statistical patterning of chords to acquire new musical structures, similar to learning processes previously observed for language learning.

Jongsma M. L. A., Desain P., & Honing H . ( 2004).

Rhythmic context influences the auditory evoked potentials of musicians and nonmusicians

Biological Psychology, 66( 2), 129-152.

URL     PMID:15041136      [本文引用: 2]

We found that the AEP P3a component is sensitive to violation of temporal expectancies. In addition, behavioural data and P3a correlation coefficients (CCs) suggest that temporal patterns are processed sequentially in nonmusicians but are processed in a hierarchical way in rhythmic experts.

Knösche T. R., Neuhaus C., Haueisen J., Alter K., Maess B., Witte O. W., & Friederici A. D . ( 2005).

Perception of phrase structure in music

Human Brain Mapping, 24( 4), 259-273.

URL     PMID:15678484      [本文引用: 1]

Neither music nor spoken language form uniform auditory streams, rather, they are structured into phrases. For the perception of such structures, the detection of phrase boundaries is crucial. We discovered electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) correlates for the perception of phrase boundaries in music. In EEG, this process was marked by a positive wave approximately between 500 and 600 ms after the offset of a phrase boundary with a centroparietal maximum. In MEG, we found major activity in an even broader time window (400-700 ms). Source localization revealed that likely candidates for the generation of the observed effects are structures in the limbic system, including anterior and posterior cingulate as well as posterior mediotemporal cortex. The timing and topography of the EEG effect bear some resemblance to a positive shift (closure positive shift, CPS) found for prosodic phrase boundaries during speech perception in an earlier study, suggesting that the underlying processes might be related. Because the brain structures, which possibly underlie the observed effects, are known to be involved in memory and attention processes, we suggest that the CPS may not reflect the detection of the phrase boundary as such, but those memory and attention related processes that are necessary to guide the attention focus from one phrase to the next, thereby closing the former and opening up the next phrase.

Koelsch S., Gunter T., Friederici A. D., & Schröger E . ( 2000).

Brain indices of music processing: "nonmusicians" are musical

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12( 3), 520-541.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Koelsch S., Gunter T. C., Wittfoth M., & Sammler D . ( 2005).

Interaction between syntax processing in language and in music: An ERP study

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17( 10), 1565-1577.

URL     PMID:16269097      [本文引用: 1]

The present study investigated simultaneous processing of language and music using visually presented sentences and auditorily presented chord sequences. Music-syntactically regular and irregular chord functions were presented synchronously with syntactically correct or incorrect words, or with words that had either a high or a low semantic cloze probability. Music-syntactically irregular chords elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN). Syntactically incorrect words elicited a left anterior negativity (LAN). The LAN was clearly reduced when words were presented simultaneously with music-syntactically irregular chord functions. Processing of high and low cloze-probability words as indexed by the N400 was not affected by the presentation of irregular chord functions. In a control experiment, the LAN was not affected by physically deviant tones that elicited a mismatch negativity (MMN). Results demonstrate that processing of musical syntax (as reflected in the ERAN) interacts with the processing of linguistic syntax (as reflected in the LAN), and that this interaction is not due to a general effect of deviance-related negativities that precede an LAN. Findings thus indicate a strong overlap of neural resources involved in the processing of syntax in language and music.

Koelsch, S., & Sammler, D. (2008).

Cognitive components of regularity processing in the auditory domain

PLoS One, 3( 7), e2650.

URL     PMID:2440538      [本文引用: 2]

Music-syntactic irregularities often co-occur with the processing of physical irregularities. In this study we constructed chord-sequences such that perceived differences in the cognitive processing between regular and irregular chords could not be due to the sensory processing of acoustic factors like pitch repetition or pitch commonality (the major component of 'sensory dissonance').Two groups of subjects (musicians and nonmusicians) were investigated with electroencephalography (EEG). Irregular chords elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN) in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs). The ERAN had a latency of around 180 ms after the onset of the music-syntactically irregular chords, and had maximum amplitude values over right anterior electrode sites.Because irregular chords were hardly detectable based on acoustical factors (such as pitch repetition and sensory dissonance), this ERAN effect reflects for the most part cognitive (not sensory) components of regularity-based, music-syntactic processing. Our study represents a methodological advance compared to previous ERP-studies investigating the neural processing of music-syntactically irregular chords.

Kuhn, G., & Dienes, Z. (2006).

Differences in the types of musical regularity learnt in incidental- and intentional- learning conditions

Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59( 10), 1725-1744.

URL     PMID:16945857      [本文引用: 1]

Several studies have found learning of biconditional grammars only under intentional rule-search conditions (e.g., Johnstone & Shanks, 2001). Memorization of strings merely led to the learning of chunks. We used a musical grammar, a diatonic inversion, that is a type of biconditional grammar. Participants either were required to memorize a set of grammatical tunes (incidental learning), or were asked to search for the underlying rule whilst being given feedback about their performance (intentional learning). The results showed that participants in the incidental-learning condition did not learn the inversion rule and merely acquired explicit knowledge about chunks. However, participants in the intentional-learning condition learnt both the inversion rule and chunks.

Leman, M. (2000).

An auditory model of the role of short-term memory in probe-tone ratings

Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 17( 4), 481-509.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Auditory modeling is used to investigate the role of short-term memory in probe-tone experiments. A framework for auditory modeling is first defined, based on a distinction between auditory images, processes, and stimulus-driven inferences. Experiments I and II of the probe-tone experiments described by C. Krumhansl and E. Kessler (1982) are simulated. The results show that a short-term memory model, working on echoic images of periodicity pitch, may account for the probe-tone ratings. The simulations challenge the claim that probe-tone experiments provide evidence that listeners familiar with Western music have abstracted tonal hierarchies in a long-term memory.

Loui, P. (2012).

Learning and liking of melody and harmony: Further studies in artificial grammar learning

Topics in Cognitive Science, 4( 4), 554-567.

URL     PMID:3465524      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Much of what we know and love about music is based on implicitly acquired mental representations of musical pitches and the relationships between them. While previous studies have shown that these mental representations of music can be acquired rapidly and can influence preference, it is still unclear which aspects of music influence learning and preference formation. This article reports two experiments that use an artificial musical system to examine two questions: (1) which aspects of music matter most for learning, and (2) which aspects of music matter most for preference formation. Two aspects of music are tested: melody and harmony. In Experiment 1 we tested the learning and liking of a new musical system that is manipulated melodically so that only some of the possible conditional probabilities between successive notes are presented. In Experiment 2 we administered the same tests for learning and liking, but we used a musical system that is manipulated harmonically to eliminate the property of harmonic whole-integer ratios between pitches. Results show that disrupting melody (Experiment 1) disabled the learning of music without disrupting preference formation, whereas disrupting harmony (Experiment 2) does not affect learning and memory but disrupts preference formation. Results point to a possible dissociation between learning and preference in musical knowledge.

Loui, P., & Wessel, D. (2008).

Learning and liking an artificial musical system: Effects of set size and repeated exposure

Musicae Scientiae the Journal of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music, 12( 2), 207-230.

URL     PMID:20151034      [本文引用: 1]

We report an investigation of humans' musical learning ability using a novel musical system. We designed an artificial musical system based on the Bohlen-Pierce scale, a scale very different from Western music. Melodies were composed from chord progressions in the new scale by applying the rules of a finite-state grammar. After exposing participants to sets of melodies, we conducted listening tests to assess learning, including recognition tests, generalization tests, and subjective preference ratings. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with 15 melodies 27 times each. Forced choice results showed that participants were able to recognize previously encountered melodies and generalize their knowledge to new melodies, suggesting internalization of the musical grammar. Preference ratings showed no differentiation among familiar, new, and ungrammatical melodies. In Experiment 2, participants were given 10 melodies 40 times each. Results showed superior recognition but unsuccessful generalization. Additionally, preference ratings were significantly higher for familiar melodies. Results from the two experiments suggest that humans can internalize the grammatical structure of a new musical system following exposure to a sufficiently large set size of melodies, but musical preference results from repeated exposure to a small number of items. This dissociation between grammar learning and preference will be further discussed.

Loui P., Wessel D. L.,& Hudson Kam, C. L. (2010).

Humans rapidly learn grammatical structure in a new musical scale

Music Perception, 27( 5), 377-388.

URL     PMID:2927013      [本文引用: 1]

KNOWLEDGE OF MUSICAL RULES AND STRUCTURES HASbeen reliably demonstrated in humans of different ages, cultures, and levels of music training, and has been linked to our musical preferences. However, how humans acquire knowledge of and develop preferences for music remains unknown. The present study shows that humans rapidly develop knowledge and preferences when given limited exposure to a new musical system. Using a nontraditional, unfamiliar musical scale (Bohlen-Pierce scale), we created finite-state musical grammars from which we composed sets of melodies.After 25-30 min of passive exposure to the melodies, participants showed extensive learning as characterized by recognition, generalization, and sensitivity to the event frequencies in their given grammar, as well as increased preference for repeated melodies in the new musical system. Results provide evidence that a domain-general statistical learning mechanism may account for much of the human appreciation for music.

Loui P., Wu E. H., Wessel D. L., & Knight R. T . ( 2009).

A generalized mechanism for perception of pitch patterns

Journal of Neuroscience, 29( 2), 454-459.

URL     PMID:19144845      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Surviving in a complex and changeable environment relies on the ability to extract probable recurring patterns. Here we report a neurophysiological mechanism for rapid probabilistic learning of a new system of music. Participants listened to different combinations of tones from a previously unheard system of pitches based on the Bohlen-Pierce scale, with chord progressions that form 3:1 ratios in frequency, notably different from 2:1 frequency ratios in existing musical systems. Event-related brain potentials elicited by improbable sounds in the new music system showed emergence over a 1 h period of physiological signatures known to index sound expectation in standard Western music. These indices of expectation learning were eliminated when sound patterns were played equiprobably, and covaried with individual behavioral differences in learning. These results demonstrate that humans use a generalized probability-based perceptual learning mechanism to process novel sound patterns in music.

Nan Y., Knösche T. R., & Friederici A. D . ( 2009).

Non-musicians' perception of phrase boundaries in music: A cross-cultural ERP study

Biological Psychology, 82( 1), 70-81.

URL     PMID:19540302      [本文引用: 1]

The present study investigates neural responses to musical phrase boundaries in subjects without formal musical training, with special emphasis on the issue of cultural familiarity (i.e., the relation between the enculturation of the subjects and the cultural style of the presented music). German and Chinese non-musicians listened to Western and Chinese melodies which contained manipulated phrase boundaries while event-related potentials (ERP) were measured. The behavioral data clearly showed that melodic phrase boundary perception is influenced by cultural familiarity. The ERP revealed a series of positive and negative peaks with latencies between 40ms and 550ms relative to the phrase boundary offset, all of which were influenced by the phrase melodic structure type. In contrast, cultural familiarity only influenced phrase boundary processing at longer latencies, reflected by a P3-like component peaking at 280ms. At about 450-600ms post phrase boundary offset, we observed a slightly right-lateralized music closure positive shift (CPS), which has been reported as a marker for phrase boundary processing in musicians in earlier studies. This study demonstrates for the first time that the music CPS can be elicited in non-musicians, suggesting that the underlying phrase boundary processing does not require formal musical training.

Patel A. D. (2012). Music, language, and the brain. New York: Oxford University Press. (Original work published 2008)

[本文引用: 2]

[ 帕特尔 , A. D. (2012). 音乐、语言与脑 (杨玉芳, 蔡丹超等译). 上海: 华东师范大学出版社.]

[本文引用: 2]

Pearce, M. T., & Christensen, J. F . ( 2012).

Conference report: The neurosciences and music-IV—learning and memory

Psychomusicology, 22( 1), 70-73.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The year 2011 saw the fourth in a series of conferences on Neurosciences and Music organized by...

Peretz, I. (1996).

Can we lose memory for music? A case of music agnosia in a nonmusician

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 8( 6), 481-496.

URL     PMID:23961980      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Abstract A follow-up study of a patient, C.N., with a severe auditory agnosia limited to music is reported. After bilateral temporal lobe damage, C.N., whose cognitive and speech functions are otherwise normal, is totally unable to identify or to experience a sense of familiarity with musical excerpts that were once highly familiar to her. However, she can recognize the lyrics that usually accompany the songs. She can also identify familiar sounds, such as animal cries. Thus, her agnosia appears highly specific to music. The functional nature of her deficit has been investigated through various perceptual tasks. She was initially severely impaired in processing pitch sequential structure but has always enjoyed normal processing of temporal structure. This selective disturbance for sequential pitch information can hardly account for her tune agnosia since processing of pitch variations has dramatically improved over the years. This recovery was not accompanied by any signs of improvement in music recognition, which remains extremely poor. Moreover, the fact that she has never been able to hum tunes from memory argues for a basic memory disturbance. Thus, she was tested here with a series of tests aiming at assessing her memory for familiar and unfamiliar music. The results show that C.N. has now recovered most perceptual skills and that despite a transient ability to exhibit knowledge of familiar music under restricted circumstances, she is markedly impaired at naming a tune and at judging its familiarity, as well as at memorizing familiar as well as novel music. This deficit was found to be not only modality-specific but music-specific as well. The findings suggest the existence of a perceptual memory that is specialized for music and that can be selectively damaged so as to prevent most forms of recognition ability.

Rohrmeier, M. A., & Cross, I. (2010).

Narmour’s principles affect implicit learning of melody

In S. M. Demorest (Ed.), Proceedings of the 11th international conference on music perception and cognition (ICMPC 2010)(pp. 1-5). Seattle, WA: University of Washington School of Music.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Rohrmeier, M., & Rebuschat, P. (2012).

Implicit learning and acquisition of music

Topics in Cognitive Science, 4( 4), 525-553.

URL     PMID:23060126      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Implicit learning is a core process for the acquisition of a complex, rule-based environment from mere interaction, such as motor action, skill acquisition, or language. A body of evidence suggests that implicit knowledge governs music acquisition and perception in nonmusicians and musicians, and that both expert and nonexpert participants acquire complex melodic, harmonic, and other features from mere exposure. While current findings and computational modeling largely support the learning of chunks, some results indicate learning of more complex structures. Despite the body of evidence, more research is required to support the cross-cultural validity of implicit learning and to show that core and more complex music theoretical features are acquired implicitly.

Rohrmeier M., Rebuschat P., & Cross I . ( 2011).

Incidental and online learning of melodic structure

Consciousness & Cognition, 20( 2), 214-222.

URL     PMID:20832338      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract The cognition of music, like that of language, is partly rooted in enculturative processes of implicit and incidental learning. Musicians and nonmusicians alike are commonly found to possess detailed implicit knowledge of musical structure which is acquired incidentally through interaction with large samples of music. This paper reports an experiment combining the methodology of artificial grammar learning with musical acquisition of melodic structure. Participants acquired knowledge of grammatical melodic structures under incidental learning conditions in both experimental and untrained control conditions. Subsequent analysis indicates a large effect of unsupervised online learning in the experimental and control group throughout the course of the testing phase suggesting an effective ongoing learning process. Musicians did not outperform nonmusicians, indicating that musical expertise is not advantageous for the learning of a new, unfamiliar melodic system. Confidence ratings suggest that participants became aware of the knowledge guiding their classification performance despite the incidental learning conditions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Schubert E.,& Pearce, M.( 2015).

A new look at musical expectancy: The veridical versus the general in the mental organization of music

In International symposium on computer music multidisciplinary research (pp. 358-370). Springer International Publishing.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This paper takes a step back from what we label ‘problem solving’ approaches to the psychology of music memory and processing. In contrast with generalised expectation theories of music processing, a

Schultz B. G., Stevens C. J., Keller P. E., & Tillmann B . ( 2013).

The implicit learning of metrical and nonmetrical temporal patterns

Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66( 2), 360-380.

URL     PMID:22943558      [本文引用: 1]

Implicit learning (IL) occurs unintentionally. IL of temporal patterns has received minimal attention, and results are mixed regarding whether IL of temporal patterns occurs in the absence of a concurrent ordinal pattern. Two experiments examined the IL of temporal patterns and the conditions under which IL is exhibited. Experiment 1 examined whether uncertainty of the upcoming stimulus identity obscures learning. Based on probabilistic uncertainty, it was hypothesized that stimulus-detection tasks are more sensitive to temporal learning than multiple-alternative forced-choice tasks because of response uncertainty in the latter. Results demonstrated IL of metrical patterns in the stimulus-detection but not the multiple-alternative task. Experiment 2 investigated whether properties of rhythm (i.e., meter) benefit IL using the stimulus-detection task. The metric binding hypothesis states that metrical frameworks guide attention to periodic points in time. Based on the metric binding hypothesis, it was hypothesized that metrical patterns are learned faster than nonmetrical patterns. Results demonstrated learning of metrical and nonmetrical patterns but metrical patterns were not learned more readily than nonmetrical patterns. However, abstraction of a metrical framework was still evident in the metrical condition. The present study shows IL of auditory temporal patterns in the absence of an ordinal pattern.

Seger C. A., Spiering B. J., Sares A. G., Quraini S. I., Alpeter C., David J., & Thaut M. H . ( 2013).

Corticostriatal contributions to musical expectancy perception

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25( 7), 1062-1077.

URL     PMID:23410032      [本文引用: 1]

This study investigates the functional neuroanatomy of harmonic music perception with fMRI. We presented short pieces of Western classical music to nonmusicians. The ending of each piece was systematically manipulated in the following four ways: Standard Cadence (expected resolution), Deceptive Cadence (moderate deviation from expectation), Modulated Cadence (strong deviation from expectation but remaining within the harmonic structure of Western tonal music), and Atonal Cadence (strongest deviation from expectation by leaving the harmonic structure of Western tonal music). Music compared with baseline broadly recruited regions of the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Parametric regressors scaled to the degree of deviation from harmonic expectancy identified regions sensitive to expectancy violation. Areas within the BG were significantly modulated by expectancy violation, indicating a previously unappreciated role in harmonic processing. Expectancy violation also recruited bilateral cortical regions in the IFG and anterior STG, previously associated with syntactic processing in other domains. The posterior STG was not significantly modulated by expectancy. Granger causality mapping found functional connectivity between IFG, anterior STG, posterior STG, and the BG during music perception. Our results imply the IFG, anterior STG, and the BG are recruited for higher-order harmonic processing, whereas the posterior STG is recruited for basic pitch and melodic processing.

Szpunar K. K., Schellenberg E. G., & Pliner P . ( 2004).

Liking and memory for musical stimuli as a function of exposure

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 30( 2), 370-381.

URL     PMID:14979811      [本文引用: 1]

Three experiments examined changes in liking and memory for music as a function of number of previous exposures, the ecological validity of the music, and whether the exposure phase required focused or incidental listening. After incidental listening, liking ratings were higher for music heard more often in the exposure phase and this association was stronger as ecological validity increased. After focused listening, liking ratings followed an inverted U-shaped function of exposure for the most ecologically valid stimuli (initial increases followed by decreases), but this curvilinear function was attenuated or nonexistent for less valid stimuli. In general, recognition improved as a function of previous exposure for focused listeners, but the effect was attenuated or absent for incidental listeners.

Thompson W. F., Balkwill L. L., & Vernescu R . ( 2000).

Expectancies generated by recent exposure to melodic sequences

Memory & Cognition, 28( 4), 547-555.

URL     PMID:10946538      [本文引用: 1]

In four experiments, we examined the effects of exposure to unfamiliar tone sequences on melodic expectancy and memory. In Experiment 1, 30 unfamiliar tone sequences (target sequences) were presented to listeners three times each in random order (exposure phase), and listeners recorded the number of notes in each sequence. Listeners were then presented target and novel sequences and rated how well the final note continued the pattern of notes that preceded it. Novel sequences were identical to target sequences, except for the final note. Ratings were significantly higher for target sequences than for novel sequences, illustrating the influence of exposure on melodic expectancy. Experiment 2 confirmed that without exposure to target sequences, ratings were equivalent for target and novel sequences. In Experiment 3, new listeners were assessed for explicit memory for target sequences following the exposure phase. Recognition of target sequences was above chance, but unrelated to expectancy judgments in Experiment 1. Experiment 4 replicated the exposure effect, using a modified experiment design, and confirmed that the effect is not dependent on explicit memory for sequences. We discuss the idea that melodic expectancies are influenced by implicit memory for recently heard melodic patterns.

Tillmann B., Stevens C., & Keller P. E . ( 2011).

Learning of timing patterns and the development of temporal expectations

Psychological Research, 75( 3), 243-258.

URL     PMID:20683612      [本文引用: 1]

The present study investigated the learning of a culturally unfamiliar musical rhythm, leading to the development of temporal expectations, and it explored the potential for generalization across tempi and tasks. With that aim, we adapted the serial reaction time task to examine the learning of temporal structures by an indirect method. The temporal pattern employed was based on a complex interval ratio (2:3) and compared to one based on a simple interval ratio (1:2). In the exposure phase, non-musician participants performed a two-choice speeded discrimination task that required responding by key press to each event of the simple or complex auditory pattern. Participants were not informed about the temporal regularities; their task solely concerned the discrimination task. During exposure (Experiments 1-3), response times decreased over time for both temporal patterns, but particularly for the events following the longer interval of the more complex 2:3 pattern. Exposure further influenced performance in subsequent testing phases, notably the precision of tap timing in a production task (Experiment 2) and temporal expectations in a perception task (Experiment 3). Our findings promote the new paradigm introduced here as a method to investigate the learning of temporal structures.

Tillmann B., Gosselin N., Bigand E., & Peretz I . ( 2012).

Priming paradigm reveals harmonic structure processing in congenital amusia

Cortex, 48( 8), 1073-1078.

URL     PMID:22326325      [本文引用: 1]

Deficits for pitch structure processing in congenital amusia has been mostly reported for melodic stimuli and explicit judgments. The present study investigated congenital amusia with harmonic stimuli and a priming task. Amusic and control participants performed a speeded phoneme discrimination task on sung chord sequences. The target phoneme was sung either on a functionally important chord (tonic chord, referred to as “related target”) or a less important one (subdominant chord, referred to as “less-related target”). Correct response times were faster when the target phoneme was sung on tonic chords rather than on subdominant chords, and this effect was less pronounced, albeit significant, in amusic participants. These data report for the first time a deficit in congenital amusia for chord processing, but also provide evidence that, despite this deficit, amusic individuals have internalized sophisticated syntactic-like functions of chords in the Western tonal musical system. This finding suggests that thanks to this musical knowledge, amusic individuals could develop expectancies for musical events, and, presumably, follow the tension-relaxation schemas in Western tonal music, which also influence emotional responses to music.

Trainor, L. J., & Corrigall, K. A . ( 2010). Music acquisition and effects of musical experience. In J. M. Riess, R. Fay, & A. Popper (Eds.), Music perception (Vol. 36, pp. 89-127). New York, NY: Springer.

[本文引用: 1]

Zajonc, R. B . ( 2001).

Mere exposure: A gateway to the subliminal

Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10( 6), 224-228.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

In the mere-repeated-exposure paradigm, an individual is repeatedly exposed to a particular stimulus object, and the researcher records the individual's emerging preference for that object. Vast literature on the mere-repeated-exposure effect shows it to be a robust phenomenon that cannot be explained by an appeal to recognition memory or perceptual fluency. The effect has been demonstrated across cultures, species, and diverse stimulus domains. It has been obtained even when the stimuli exposed are not accessible to the participants' awareness, and even prenatally. The repeated-exposure paradigm can be regarded as a form of classical conditioning if we assume that the absence of aversive events constitutes the unconditioned stimulus. Empirical research shows that a benign experience of repetition can in and of itself enhance positive affect, and that such affect can become attached not only to stimuli that have been exposed but also to similar stimuli that have not been previously exposed, and to totally distinct stimuli as well. Implications for affect as a fundamental and independent process are discussed in the light of neuroanatomical evidence.

Zhang J. J., Jiang C. M., Zhou L. S., & Yang Y. F . ( 2016).

Perception of hierarchical boundaries in music and its modulation by expertise

Neuropsychologia, 91, 490-498.

URL     PMID:27659874      [本文引用: 1]

Hierarchical structure with units of different timescales is a key feature of music. For the perception of such structures, the detection of each boundary is crucial. Here, using electroencephalography (EEG), we explore the perception of hierarchical boundaries in music, and test whether musical expertise modifies such processing. Musicians and non-musicians were presented with musical excerpts containing boundaries at three hierarchical levels, including section, phrase and period boundaries. Non-boundary was chosen as a baseline condition. Recordings from musicians showed CPS (closure positive shift) was evoked at all the three boundaries, and their amplitude increased as the hierarchical level became higher, which suggest that musicians could represent music events at different timescales in a hierarchical way. For non-musicians, the CPS was only elicited at the period boundary and undistinguishable negativities were induced at all the three boundaries. The results indicate that a different and less clear way was used by non-musicians in boundary perception. Our findings reveal, for the first time, an ERP correlate of perceiving hierarchical boundaries in music, and show that the phrasing ability could be enhanced by musical expertise.

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