心理科学进展, 2018, 26(12): 2204-2215 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.02204

研究前沿

职场网络不文明行为:现实与虚拟的溢出和反溢出机制

严瑜,, 衷敬红

武汉大学哲学学院心理学系, 武汉 430072

Workplace cyber incivility: The spillover and anti-spillover mechanisms between the reality and the virtual world

YAN Yu,, ZHONG Jinghong

Department of Psychology, School of Philosophy, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China

通讯作者: 严瑜, E-mail: yanyu@whu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2018-03-2   网络出版日期: 2018-12-15

基金资助: *国家社科基金一般项目.  18BGL119
教育部人文社科一般规划项目资助.  17YJA190013

Received: 2018-03-2   Online: 2018-12-15

摘要

以往研究主要关注职场不文明行为的面对面形式, 发现了其在工作领域和家庭领域间的溢出和交叉效应。但近来研究指出, 职场不文明行为的虚拟形式有其特殊之处, 并具有更加恶劣的影响后果。在综述已有的网络不文明行为研究基础之上, 引入社会临场感的概念, 总结了职场不文明行为在现实工作领域和虚拟工作领域之间的溢出与反溢出机制; 并基于此提出多个研究展望, 建议未来研究以此为出发点, 考察职场网络不文明行为的不同演变模式。

关键词: 网络不文明行为 ; 溢出效应 ; 反溢出效应 ; 社会临场感

Abstract

Previous research on workplace incivility has primarily focused on those occurring face-to-face, and demonstrated that it has spillover and crossover effects between the work domain and family domain. However, recent studies suggested that workplace cyber incivility, the virtual form of workplace incivility, has its own unique features and has worse consequences. Based on the review of existing literature on workplace cyber incivility, we introduce the concept of social presence, and summarize potential spillover and anti-spillover mechanisms between the reality and the virtual world for workplace incivility. In addition, we propose several research propositions, and encourage future research to uses these propositions to examine different forms of workplace cyber incivility.

Keywords: cyber incivility ; spillover effects ; anti-spillover effects ; social presence

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本文引用格式

严瑜, 衷敬红. (2018). 职场网络不文明行为:现实与虚拟的溢出和反溢出机制. 心理科学进展, 26(12), 2204-2215

YAN Yu, ZHONG Jinghong. (2018). Workplace cyber incivility: The spillover and anti-spillover mechanisms between the reality and the virtual world. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(12), 2204-2215

1 引言

电子信息技术的进步和虚拟社交网络的普及改变了职场人际沟通方式, 网络在当代组织中扮演着愈来愈重要的角色:员工们不仅通过网络完成日常工作任务, 而且在网络中与领导、同事或下属进行日常的互动交往, 如电子邮件就是出现最早和最为常用的职场网络沟通工具。组织可以利用网络来优化和协调员工的工作, 以提高工作效率。从积极的角度看, 在线工作突破了时间和空间的限制, 其便捷性和即时性让员工能更高效地完成工作任务。但是, 网络互动缺乏面对面沟通时的各种背景信息, 且交流反馈具有滞后性, 这些缺陷使员工在虚拟情境中更可能也更容易表现出特殊的不文明行为——即职场网络不文明行为(Workplace Cyber Incivility)。

职场网络不文明行为是一种负面的人际沟通行为, 通常出现在以计算机网络为媒介的人际交往行为中, 违反了相互尊重的职场规范(Lim & Teo, 2009)。Williams和Loughlin (2015)发现, 网络不文明行为具有攻击性、无礼性和违反尊重规范的特点, 是虚拟工作情境中的特殊不文明行为形式, 更是一种常见的职场压力源。目前, 面对面职场不文明行为(Workplace Incivility)的研究已较为全面和深入, 并证实了其对个人和组织的消极影响(Cortina et al., 2001; Lim, Cortina & Magley, 2008; Porath & Pearson, 2010)。但随着网络技术在职场中的高度普及, 员工间在工作中的在线交流逐渐增多而面对面互动则日益减少, 这正在促使职场不文明行为从现实工作情境溢出到网络工作情境中(Dyer, Green, Pitts, & Millward, 1995)。且网络不文明行为的消极影响可能比面对面不文明行为更为恶劣(Giumetti et al., 2013)。目前, 国内外的职场网络不文明行为研究均处于描述性阶段, 多探讨其前因变量和结果变量, 仅有少数研究涉及过程机制的考察(表1对相关研究进行了归纳梳理)。尽管要求组织行为研究情境化的呼声日益高涨, 但不同工作情境中的不文明行为动态演变研究仍极度匮乏。在信息技术应用普遍的网络化职场中, 新的工作情境将滋生新的组织行为, 职场不文明行为也因出现在不同工作情境中而有了新的表现形式和特征。

表1   网络不文明行为相关研究摘要

研究 前因变量 结果变量 中介/调节变量 主要发现
Lim &
Chin, 2006
网络不文明行为 领导满意度、离职意图、组织承诺 调节: 领导性别 男性领导的网络不文明行为明显、直接; 女性领导则隐蔽、间接; 网络不文明行为与领导满意度负相关, 与离职意图正相关, 与组织承诺负相关
Yuin, 2006 网络不文明行为 愤怒、挫折 中介: 互动不
公正
调节: 领导性别
明显的和隐蔽的网络不文明行为均会导致员工的愤怒和挫折情绪, 互动不公正中介这一过程, 领导性别调节受害者对网络不文明行为的应对方式
Lim &
Teo, 2008
网络不文明行为 工作满意度 调节: 领导性别 网络不文明行为会降低员工对领导的满意度, 领导性别调节这一过程
Byron, 2008 发送者性别、相对地位、联系时间; 接收者年龄、消极情绪 对邮件的情绪
误判
调节: 社会背
景、消息内容
(情绪线索)
工作邮件接收者更易将邮件内容中的情绪性信息误解为消极的, 以此造成不必要的冲突
Lim &
Teo, 2009
网络不文明行为 工作满意度、组织承诺、离职意图、职场偏离行为 网络不文明行为与员工的工作满意度和组织承诺负相关; 与离职意图和职场偏离行为正相关
Giumetti
et al., 2012
网络不文明行为 倦怠、旷工、
离职意图
调节: 神经质 领导网络不文明行为与员工的倦怠、旷工和离职意图正相关, 神经质调节这一过程
Giumetti
et al., 2013
领导网络行为
(不文明/支持)
情绪、工作投入度、工作绩效 中介: 精力水平 领导网络不文明行为与工作投入度、工作绩效负相关; 精力水平中介领导网络不文明行为与消极情绪之间的正相关关系
Song, 2013 - - - 探讨了职场网络不文明行为的煽动者、消极后果、干预措施
Ophoff
et al., 2015
网络不文明行为 工作绩效、工作环境氛围 对比了网络不文明行为、网络欺凌、网络骚扰三者之间的区别和概念重叠; 网络不文明行为会降低工作绩效, 污染工作环境
Francis
et al., 2015
网络行为的文明度 规则违反行为 调节: 工作负荷 高工作负荷的员工更易被网络不文明行为激惹, 进而表现出不文明行为
Park
et al., 2015
网络不文明行为 情绪痛苦、身体
痛苦
调节: 工作控制感、与工作的心理分离 网络不文明行为造成的情绪和身体痛苦具有延续效应, 工作控制感和与工作的心理分离可以缓冲网络不文明行为的消极效应
Krishnan,
2016
外向性、情绪稳定性 网络不文明行为 调节: 责任心 网络不文明行为与外向性正相关, 与情绪稳定性负相关; 责任心负向调节外向性和情绪稳定性与网络不文明行为的关系
Giumetti
et al., 2016
网络不文明行为 工作绩效 中介: 工作满意

调节: 积极情绪
工作满意度中介网络不文明行为与工作绩效之间的负相关关系; 积极情绪调节网络不文明行为与工作绩效之间的负相关关系
Kim &
Carthy, 2016
感知的不文明行为的普遍性 职场人际关系、工作绩效 面对面不文明行为和网络不文明行为之间的潜在差异; 不文明行为对职场人际关系具有消极影响
Kowalski
et al., 2017
Study1: 网络欺凌、传统欺凌
Study2: 面对面欺凌、面对面不文明行为、网络欺凌、网络不文明行为
Study1: 抑郁、社会焦虑、自尊
Study2: 旷工、离职、工作满意度、CWB
调节: 行为的
来源
四种类型的职场不当行为均会产生与心理和工作相关的消极后果; 职场网络不文明行为具有更高的发生率, 但其消极效应小于网络欺凌。

注:此表为作者经过文献整理而成。

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研究表明, 不文明行为的消极后果会超越职场范围外溢到其他领域, 尤其是家庭领域(Lim & Lee, 2011)。Dionisi和Barling (2015)认为, 溢出(Spillover)是指个体的情绪、态度和行为等在不同的领域之间转移和传递的过程。虚拟工作情境和现实工作情境的并存, 将使不文明行为因种种因素而在这两个相异的工作领域之间发生溢出和反溢出现象。综合而言, 以往研究探讨的不文明行为溢出效应主要基于“情绪的外溢模型(Affect Spillover Model)”, 认为是受害者的情绪外溢导致不文明行为的消极效果从工作领域向家庭领域单向溢出(Ferguson, 2012)。即遭遇不文明行为后所引起的消极情绪状态诱发了个体对消极事件和经历的反复回忆, 在回家后延续了个体的消极情绪体验, 产生溢出效应(Judge & llies, 2004; Williams & Alliger, 1994)。此外, 资源保护理论(COR; Hobfoll, 2001)和努力-修复模型(Effort-Recovery Model; Meijman & Mulder, 1998)也被用于解释因认知和情绪资源损失导致不文明行为向家庭领域的外溢效应(严瑜, 王轶鸣, 2016)。然而, 前人仅考察了不文明行为从工作领域向家庭领域的单向溢出模式, 不文明行为从现实向虚拟工作情境的溢出现象及其内在机制却鲜见探讨。网络在工作中的使用频率和重要性不断攀升, 但涉及沟通双方体验感受的“社会临场感” (Social Presence; Short, Williams & Christie, 1976)对职场网络行为的影响还未有研究关注。因此, 我们着眼于虚拟工作情境, 转换研究视角, 从“社会临场感”这一沟通质量要素入手, 探讨虚拟沟通中的临场感如何影响煽动者与受害者在网络工作情境中的感知体验, 引发不文明行为从现实情境向虚拟情境的溢出现象。

受害者对煽动者的态度和应对方式是影响职场不文明行为演变趋势的关键要素(Anderson & Pearson, 1999), 不文明行为螺旋升级的起点多为受害者的消极报复行为(Cortina & Magley, 2009)。据此, 网络不文明行为是否会因某些较为激烈的回应手段而从虚拟工作情境反溢出到现实工作情境呢?如果会, 那在这一过程中起关键作用的因素又有哪些?有鉴于此, 我们力图从网络不文明行为受害者的角度探讨哪些因素会使其反过来成为面对面不文明行为的施加者, 发生网络不文明行为从网络情境向现实情境的反溢出。在结合已有研究的基础之上, 厘清职场不文明行为的另一种演变趋势:即它不仅会在工作和家庭领域间发生溢出交叉效应和螺旋升级效应, 还可能在现实工作情境和虚拟工作情境之间反复的溢出和螺旋升级。

2 不文明行为从现实工作领域向虚拟工作领域的溢出

虚拟工作情境中往往过度使用缺乏非言语线索的文本消息, 让员工间的沟通互动更无人性化、更加情绪化与低度社会化, 极易滋生网络不文明行为。客观实际表明:职场不文明行为已不再局限于现实工作情境中, 它会因个体和情境因素而发生从现实向虚拟的渗透和溢出。不文明行为的消极后果被证明会因情绪的外溢而间接影响受害者的家庭成员, 呈一种延续性和传递性的影响效果(严瑜, 王轶鸣, 2016)。但有研究者认为, 不仅消极后果会产生外溢效应, 不文明行为本身也会从现实工作领域向网络工作领域溢出, 其中领导和下属作为施受双方, 扮演着不同的角色(Lim & Teo, 2009)。

2.1 领导在不文明行为溢出过程中的主动煽动者角色

在线工作为领导者煽动不文明行为提供了便利因素。首先, 网络工作情境虽已普及, 但毕竟还属于非正式工作场合, 缺乏必要的文明监督规范, 这种“网络的去抑制效应”让领导更可能表现出网络不文明行为(Suler, 2010)。其次, 网络沟通缺少面对面交流的各种非言语线索。诸如肢体语言、语音语调和面部表情等信息可以帮助员工识别判断领导的行为意图, 而这些信息的缺失将使网络工作情境“去人性化”并诱发不文明行为(Patchin & Hinduja, 2006)。最后, 网络的便利性是领导实施网络不文明行为的捷径(Flanagin, Pearce, & Bondad- Brown, 2008)。电子邮件等即时通讯工具让领导能随时随地联系其下属, 使时间和地点无法有效的限制领导施加不文明行为, 增加了网络不文明行为的发生率(Patchin & Hinduja, 2006)。Wright等人(2014)认为, 网络沟通工具在工作中的普遍应用模糊了员工的工作-家庭界线, 员工在周末也需要检查邮箱, 接听工作电话并完成领导安排的任务。这从侧面反映了网络工作情境将员工时刻与其领导、同事联结在一起, 网络互动频率越高, 他们遭受网络不文明行为的可能性也越高。

2.2 下属员工在不文明行为溢出过程中的被动受害者角色

领导者常用电子邮件等网络工具向下属发号施令, 他们通常是网络不文明行为的主动施加者, 其下属则是不幸的被动受害者(Song, 2013)。由于组织地位和权力的差异, 领导在任何情境中都可以毫无保留的说话做事, 但下属员工却必须时刻审查自己的用语和行为是否得当(出于保住工作的目的或单纯为了避免与领导发生冲突和不愉快)。这种差异让下属在感知领导网络语言或行为背后的意图时, 可能产生某些偏差和误解。Miner等人(2017)发现, 对不文明行为的意图感知会因情境不同而发生改变, 即不文明行为的意图模糊性有其边界条件, 受情境特征的影响。在网络工作情境中, 非言语线索的缺乏会强化网络不文明行为的模糊性意图, 让受害者更易将领导的行为意图感知为敌意性的, 诱发其消极体验和情绪 反应。

网络工作情境中的互动常存在时间和空间上的客观分离, 让受害者在感知到敌意时无法向对方寻求即时的澄清或反馈, 且煽动者无法看到受害者的情绪和行为反应(Kowalski & Limber, 2007)。这样一来, 煽动者既无法及时得到有关自己言语行为适当与否的反馈, 也无法根据反馈及时修正或弥补自己的言语行为错误, 网络不文明行为的发生率因此更高。另外, 与面对面不文明行为相比, 员工对于网络不文明行为的控制力更低。他们不太可能关闭网络通讯工具(尤其是依靠网络的在线工作者), 也不能直接忽视领导的邮件(Park et al., 2015); 但现实工作情境中, 员工则可通过回避煽动者及其存在的相应场合以免遭不文明对待。网络工作情境让煽动者能在任何时间和地点实施不文明行为, 员工便陷入随时随地成为不文明行为受害者的危机中。暗示着网络不文明行为可能是一个持续的职场压力源, 会产生累积效应而危及受害者员工的身心健康。

2.3 不文明行为从现实工作情境向虚拟工作情境的溢出——社会临场感的作用

社会临场感(Social Presence)最早出现在心理学和传播学的交叉领域, 指个体在远程沟通中的心理感觉, 或沟通媒介在多大程度上允许个体意识到另一个人在心理上的存在感和投入感(Short, Williams, & Christie, 1976)。它是个体与远程沟通参与者互动时的感知体验以及与对方的“共存感(Co-Presence)”, 高度的社会临场感将帮助沟通双方准确理解彼此的意图和所要表达的内容, 也有利于虚拟工作团队中积极协作行为的展开(Heldal, Roberts, Brathe, & Wolff, 2007)。社会临场感关乎组织成员在网络工作情境中的感知体验、行为表现和对各种行为的反应(Shin, Lee, & Kim, 2015), 是不文明行为从现实情境向虚拟情境溢出的关键因素。当代职场普遍使用的网络沟通工具仍是电子邮件, 已有研究也多考察职场邮件交流中的网络不文明行为(Lim & Teo, 2009; Park et al., 2015; Giumetti et al., 2012, 2013, 2016; Francis et al., 2015; Krishnan, 2016)。邮件内容均为文本形式, 而文字内容通常毫无人情味、没有完整的背景信息、缺乏情境线索和非言语线索(Francis et al., 2015), 极大的降低了沟通双方的社会临场感, 增加了接收者将其感知为网络不文明行为的可能性。

考察电子邮件的特性或许能为不文明行为为何以及如何外溢到虚拟工作情境中提供一些新的见解:即社会临场感是联结面对面不文明行为和网络不文明行为的可能机制。例如, 领导与其下属在网络情境中沟通工作时, 社会临场感的高低可能抑制或促使其实施指向下属的网络不文明行为。具体来说, 当双方的社会临场感水平均较高时, 领导能准确表意, 下属也能准确理解领导者所要表达的信息内容和传达的工作任务。但当领导或下属任何一方的临场感因某些客观原因或沟通媒介的不适性而下降时, 网络不文明行为极可能随之发生。一方面, 领导会因临场感的降低而将电脑这一沟通媒介等同于沟通对象; 另一方面, 下属也会无法准确理解相关信息内容, 而是按自己所处的背景和原有知识经验来感知和理解, 必然产生偏差。此时, 双方沟通的脱节让领导无意中表现的中性行为被下属员工误解为针对自己的不文明行为, 形成面对面不文明行为向网络不文明行为的溢出现象。

另外, 个体在邮件沟通中的情绪评价往往缺乏精确性, 且倾向于将沟通对象的情绪错误地评价为带有敌意性的特征(Kato, 2007)。这增加了受害者对不文明行为伤害意图的确信, 把中性的文字感知为消极的网络不文明语言, 随之影响其心理体验和行为反应。同时, 社会临场感的高低取决于虚拟沟通媒介/工具的特性(Short, Williams, & Christie, 1976), 是网络不文明行为的前因要素。其一, 社会临场感影响个体在网络情境中的亲社会行为表现, 高临场感的虚拟情境中出现亲社会行为的可能性更高(Shin, Lee, & Kim, 2015)。所以当社会临场感较低时, 个体可能表现出与亲社会行为相反的消极行为, 如网络不文明行为。其二, 工作邮件的内容多为文本形式, 会降低沟通双方的临场感(Sipior & Ward, 1999), 可能诱发网络不文明行为。综上, 在虚拟工作情境中, 社会临场感降低将使个体忽视沟通对象的人的属性, 将其看作无生命的文字代码。这种去人性化的网络互动给了个体一种不必表现出友好和礼貌的错觉, 网络不文明行为随之发生。

3 网络不文明行为从虚拟工作情境向现实工作情境的反溢出

不文明行为能否终止消极作用而产生积极螺旋取决于受害者对其不文明行为经历作出的反应(Anderson & Pearson, 1999)。煽动者和受害者的不同互动方式可能致使不文明行为在现实工作情境和虚拟工作情境之间反复溢出。网络不文明行为的发生率高于面对面不文明行为(Patchin & Hinduja, 2006), 但其演变趋势是否与面对面不文明行为相似或相异还有待研究考察。通常, 个体不文明行为经历有感知、归因以及应对三个阶段, 任何一个阶段都可能是影响网络不文明行为演变趋势的重要节点。其中, 受害者对网络不文明行为的感知、责任归因和应对方式是决定其是否会由虚拟工作情境向现实工作情境反溢出的三个关键要素。

3.1 员工个人特质影响网络不文明行为的感知

人格特质反映个体的特定行为倾向, 既是网络不文明行为的前因变量也是其结果的调节变量(Krishnan, 2016; Giumetti et al., 2012)。例如, 大五人格的责任心维度既调节外向性与网络不文明行为间的正向关系, 也调节情绪稳定性和网络不文明行为间的负向关系(Krishnan, 2016); 神经质则正向调节领导网络不文明行为与工作倦怠、缺勤、离职意图等消极后果间的正相关关系(Giumetti et al., 2012)。另外, 情绪管理能力在一定程度上缓冲网络不文明行为的消极效应:这种能力越高的个体, 在遭受负性网络行为后, 消极情绪反应更少, 且更易从这种消极事件中恢复过来; 相反, 情绪管理能力较低的个体则更易陷入网络消极行为所诱发的负性情绪之中(Vranjes, Baillien, Vandebosch, Erreygers, & Witte, 2017)。情绪智力作为管理情绪反应和情绪驱动性行为的关键能力, 可以有效调节职场网络欺凌行为和反生产工作行为间的正向关系(Keskin et al., 2016)。因此, 若个体能有效的释放或消解因遭遇网络不文明行为后所产生的消极情绪并将其进行升华, 便能体验到较少的消极感受并克制负性行为表现。

情绪稳定性是特质性情绪特征, 由具体事件诱发的状态性情绪才是网络不文明行为研究的焦点。情绪状态能诱发员工的情绪性行为, 进一步左右网络不文明行为的发展趋势。Vranjes等人(2017)指出, 情绪作为员工遭受网络不文明行为后产生的首要心理反应, 决定着员工的后续行为表现和心理状态。这一观点既说明了消极情绪可能给个体带来的负面影响, 又澄清了情绪可能作为网络不文明行为消极影响的中介变量或调节变量而产生相应的作用。在情绪后果方面, Yuin (2006)发现, 个体遭遇网络不文明行为后最为突出的两个情绪反应是愤怒(Angry)和挫折(Frustration)。Park等人(2015)采用日记研究法考察个体在一天之内的网络不文明行为经历, 也发现情绪痛苦(Affective distress)和身体痛苦(Physical distress)是网络不文明行为最为显著的消极后果, 且这一影响具有滞后效应, 会破坏员工第二天的工作生活。因此, 不管是作为行为结果还是行为反应的影响因素, 特质性和状态性情绪以及情绪相关能力都是研究网络不文明行为时不得不考虑的关键变量。

3.2 情境因素影响网络不文明行为的归因

有研究者认为, 不文明行为必须在情境(Context)中予以考察, 因为特定的社会情境性质会影响受害者对不文明行为的经历和体验(Hershcovis, Ogunfowora, Reich, Christie, 2017)。现实工作情境和虚拟工作情境作为两个既紧密联结又相互区别的背景环境, 发生在其中的不文明行为也具有相应的情境特征。网络不文明行为是出现在虚拟工作情境中的特殊不文明行为, 虚拟网络社会这一背景因素让其发生更为频繁和难以制止(Krishnan, 2016)。在线工作往往让受害者无处遁行, 只能被动接受不文明行为, 几乎无力回避和阻止其发生; 虚拟工作情境的各种特征也增加了受害者对煽动者意图归因的难度。

归因(Attribution)是受害者对行为的意图感知过程, 归因的结果或性质(有意的/无意的、伤害性的/无伤害的)决定了其心理体验(情绪)和应对方式(Wu, Zhang, Chiu, Kwan, & He, 2014)。不文明行为的情绪反应和行为反应是一个链式结构, 情绪反应在不文明行为和应对行为之间起中介作用, 双方的权力和地位会影响受害者应对方式的选择(Porath & Pearson, 2012)。不文明行为演变过程可以总结为:受害者感知到不文明行为的存在, 随即经过认知评价产生相应的情绪反应(通常是消极情绪, 如生气、害怕、伤心等), 并对其情感体验和不当待遇进行回应, 其应对可能针对煽动者也可能针对团队或组织。受害者在决定如何回应不文明遭遇时, 会综合权衡自己与对方的地位权力差距, 审查该行为的合理性(基于双方的地位权力来考虑), 考量自己的应对行为会带来哪些潜在的后果, 自己能否承担等。在此基础上, 员工对网络不文明行为的归因会因其对权力距离的评估而不同, 并左右其应对方式。由于受害者的应对方式决定着网络不文明行为的演变趋势, 且他们在选择应对方式时会衡量行为后果和自身的应对潜力。所以, 组织地位或权力差距在一定程度上制约着不文明行为是否会在不同工作领域之间溢出或反溢出。当受害者想要在现实情境中去报复权力和地位都比自己更高的煽动者时, 若报复行为的代价太大(失业或经济上的损失)或自己的能力处于劣势地位(职位权力低), 则会阻止其不理性的报复行为, 这时网络不文明行为向现实领域的反溢出就不太可能发生。

3.3 积极对抗/消极回避的应对方式影响网络不文明行为的反溢出

网络不文明行为的煽动者多为领导者, 受害者员工会因权力差距或印象管理等因素而犹豫是否要对领导进行打击报复(Meier & Gross, 2015)。但网络不文明行为所诱发的消极情绪是难以轻易释放的, 在是否直面冲突或直接报复等选择上的徘徊更易使受害者对煽动者采取替代性的惩罚和报复措施。所以下属一般更倾向于采取相似的低强度不文明行为对领导实施报复, 而不是更具攻击性的暴力行为(Meier & Gross, 2015)。网络不文明行为的应对方式及其对该行为演变趋势的影响鲜有研究探讨, 需要借鉴面对面不文明行为研究成果推论受害者的应对方式如何影响网络不文明行为向现实情境的反溢出。

Hershcovis等人(2018)基于压力的交互作用模型(The Transactional Model of Stress), 提出了以问题为中心的对抗(Confrontation)和以情感为中心的回避(Avoidance)两种典型的不文明行为应对方式。其中, 对抗的应对方式在某种程度上是一种积极的应对, 可能产生两种截然不同的结果:一是直接报复煽动者, 但可能发生不文明行为的螺旋升级; 二是直接面质煽动者, 使其意识到自己的不当行为, 并向受害者道歉。前者会导致反溢出现象:若受害者认为无法在网络情境中解决此问题, 就会将其消极反应延续到现实工作情境中, 演变成网络不文明行为向现实工作情境的反溢出。后一种结果则可能产生受施双方和解的积极消解效应。与对抗的应对方式相反, 采取回避应对的受害者几乎不会有任何明显的报复态度和反抗行为, 更不会在现实情境中对煽动者进行报复。他们会尽量避免与煽动者在现实情境或虚拟情境中的接触, 将网络不文明行为的消极螺旋指向终止的方向, 因而不太可能导致网络不文明行为向现实的反溢出。因此, 对抗的应对方式将产生有利于职场人际关系的心理宽恕等积极后果, 但也可能促成网络不文明行为从虚拟工作情境向现实工作情境的反溢出。但回避的应对方式会使受害者经历情绪耗竭、自我控制降低等消极后果, 并表现出反生产工作行为(Hershcovis et al., 2018)。

4 不文明行为的另一种演变模式——溢出与反溢出的辩证关系

职场不文明行为应该是一个连续的过程而非单一的事件(Meier & Gross, 2015; Cortina, Kabat- Farr, Magley, Nelson, 2017), 需要加入时间变量以考察其动态演变模式。在这方面, 不文明行为的螺旋演变模型最先得到研究关注。其中螺旋不升级模式指不文明行为双方通过各种方式最终达到和解的状态, 即不文明行为的文明升级; 而螺旋升级模式——即“以牙还牙”的相互报复, 会最终导致不文明行为升级成高强度的暴力行为或攻击行为(Anderson & Pearson, 1999; 严瑜, 李佳丽, 2017)。此外, 不文明行为还存在跨领域的渗透演变模式。渗透模式(Cascading Pattern)多指不文明行为会成为一种不良风气并弥漫整个组织或工作团队, 形成组织不文明氛围(刘嫦娥, 2012)。它潜在地反映了不文明行为消极效应在不同领域间的溢出, 即从工作领域渗透到家庭领域进而扩大其影响范围。面对面不文明行为已被证明存在螺旋升级效应, 且与施受双方的人格特质、权力地位以及组织氛围有关(Anderson & Pearson, 1999; Gallus et al., 2014; Rosen, Koopman, Gabriel, & Johnson, 2016)。阻抑行为(Undermining)研究也发现:员工在工作中遭受阻抑后, 会向家庭成员实施类似的阻抑行为, 这种行为在不同领域间的溢出现象被定义为替代性攻击(Barber, Taylor, Burton, & Bailey, 2017)。那么, 在现实和虚拟工作情境并存的情况下, 不文明行为是否会在不同工作情境间的反复溢出呢?根据消极互惠信念和社会交换理论的基本假设(Wu et al., 2014), 有理由认为, 网络不文明行为也会因各种因素而在虚拟工作情境和现实工作情境间溢出和反溢出, 呈一种外溢性的发展模式(见图1)。

图1

图1   不文明行为在现实工作情境和虚拟工作情境之间的溢出与反溢出假设模型


4.1 现实领域向虚拟领域的溢出

工作邮件中的不文明行为违背了职场网络文明规范, 其敌意性比面对面的不文明行为更隐蔽, 伤害意图更模糊, 对其辨识也更难(Francis et al., 2015)。工作邮件中更易出现不文明行为的原因有三。首先, 电子邮件是工作中最常见的远程交流手段, 使用频率较高。其次, 组织要求高效率工作的压力让员工没有时间过多考虑网络语言和行为的文明与否(Pearson & Porath, 2005)。最后, 邮件交流的文明规范还在发展之中, 没有客观规范的约束让网络工作情境中的语言行为更加随意和逾矩(Francis et al., 2015)。虚拟工作情境由于其非正式性质而缺少文明监督制度, 使个体的行为自控力降低, 更易参与网络不文明行为(Lai & Tsai, 2016)。缺乏行为失范的惩罚制度也促使个体不顾后果的自由表达或采用不当的方式与虚拟工作 情境中的他人进行互动, 表现为职场网络不文明行为。

在办公电子化的现代组织中, 网络约束较为松散, 不文明行为通过邮件等网络通讯工具表现出来, 其传播速度更快且影响范围更广。工作环境的多样化、网络的普及和新技术的使用让原本已形势严峻的不文明行为外溢到虚拟工作领域, 给组织及个体带来了诸多困扰。尽管网络不文明行为仅在近几年来才得到研究关注(Lim & Teo, 2009; Giumetti & Hatfield, 2013; Giumetti et al., 2016), 但其所反映的另一种演变模式早已潜伏在工作环境的特点之中。不文明行为从现实领域向虚拟领域的溢出为研究者提供了全新的视角, 对于这一特殊的溢出现象, 不少研究者已预见了这一发展趋势并呼吁相关研究予以考察。例如, Wright等人(2014)指出, 信息交流技术的出现导致职场发生了翻天覆地的变化, 尽管这为组织和员工提供了削减成本和更便捷的完成工作任务等好处, 但也会带来压力、倦怠和高离职意图等消极影响。鉴于此, 研究者开始探讨职场网络不文明行为的特殊消极效应, 并认为面对面不文明行为正在因为虚拟工作情境的发展而外溢到在线工作活动中(Giumetti et al., 2012)。

4.2 虚拟领域向现实领域的反溢出

面对面不文明行为的恶化升级机制是受害者及旁观者对不文明行为的认知评价和消极情绪(严瑜, 李佳丽, 2017)。当个体对性质模糊的组织事件进行消极评价并体验到消极情绪时, 受害者的愤怒和旁观者的道德正义情绪会驱使其采取相应的报复措施, 导致不文明行为的恶化升级。在不文明行为这一压力性事件中, 受害者责备他人的评价和愤怒情绪会使不文明行为向更后果严重的消极行为转变。网络不文明行为与面对面不文明行为有着相似的前因和后果(Giumetti et al., 2016), 二者的某些内在过程是相似的, 可以推论, 网络不文明行为会因各种消极后果而发生现实和虚拟的反复溢出效应。网络不文明行为会向现实领域反溢出, 是由于尽管虚拟情境中的不文明行为实施起来更为便捷, 但对受害者而言, 仅在网络工作邮件中反击煽动者已不足以为其心理带来平衡感了。他们需要在现实情境中面质煽动者或以看得见的实际行为对煽动者进行报复才能平复自己的愤怒和不满, 这时网络不文明行为将反溢出到现实工作情境中, 表现为面对面不文明行为。另外, 当虚拟沟通中的情绪误解和信息模糊让煽动者感觉有必要在面对面互动中再次重复网络中的行为时, 也会发生网络不文明行为从虚拟向现实的反溢出。

5 未来研究展望

不文明行为随工作环境性质的改变而出现不同的表现形式, 催生了职场不文明行为的跨情境溢出现象。多种工作情境的并存(现实工作情境和虚拟工作情境)使不文明行为在各情境间交叉出现, 表现为反溢出现象。基于理论推导和实证证据, 提出了职场不文明行为在现实和虚拟工作情境间的溢出和反溢出模型, 为未来研究提供了一个全新的切入视角, 呼吁不文明行为研究考虑特殊的工作情境背景信息。整体而言, 网络不文明行为的研究还处于浅层的现象描述阶段, 大量空白和理论构想还有待未来研究的填补、证实。根据本文的关注点——不文明行为的跨情境溢出和反溢出现象, 拟提出几个可能的未来研究方向, 望能抛砖引玉, 推动网络不文明行为研究的横向拓展和纵向深入。

5.1 社会临场感与职场网络不文明行为的关系

电子邮件因其出现最早和使用频率最高, 已成为员工必备的职场“武器”, 在带来便捷高效等好处的同时, 也衍生了不少新问题。比如, 许多需要面对面沟通解决的工作问题现在都通过一封电子邮件便草率的略过了。邮件文本中有关事件或情境的线索均无从得知, 简单客观的文字陈述使人无法了解问题全貌, 让接收者的消极情绪极易爆发(Williams & Loughlin, 2015)。这时, 社会临场感将发挥关键作用。如前所述, 高社会临场感的沟通媒介(如视频会议)有逼真的现实情境感, 并伴有一定的非言语线索帮助双方准确知晓交流意图, 与现实情境的差异较小(Shen & Khalifa, 2008)。而电子邮件这类低社会临场感的沟通媒介则易出现发送者无意表现出不文明, 接收者却有意将其感知为不文明的沟通脱节情形, 增加感知的网络不文明行为发生率(Lim & Lee- Won, 2016)。社会临场感既影响个体在虚拟情境中的亲社会意图和亲社会行为(Shin, Lee, & Kim, 2015), 也能反向作用于网络消极行为(如职场网络不文明行为)。据此, 社会临场感可能与网络不文明行为负相关, 工作邮件交流中的社会临场感降低会使个体有意无意地表现出职场网络不文明行为, 并影响接收者对这一行为的感知体验。

5.2 职场网络不文明行为对员工人际关系的影响

前人研究不仅探讨了网络不文明行为对个体心理和生理的影响, 也考察了其对工作团队和组织整体的消极作用(Lim & Teo, 2009; Giumetti et al., 2012, 2013; Park et al., 2015; Francis et al., 2015; Williams & Loughlin, 2015)。但这些研究均把受害者看作单一受体并作单独考察, 割裂了网络不文明行为消极后果的交互效应和连锁效应。实际上, 网络不文明行为多发生在两个角色(煽动者和受害者)间, 这种双向的消极互动极可能破坏受施双方间的人际关系以及他们与组织内外其他个体的人际关系(Krishnan, 2016)。人际关系是个体在组织中立足的关键, 关乎个体和组织各方面的健康发展, 也影响着个体对组织的评价和去留意向, 是值得考察的重要结果变量。与领导相比, 下属在组织中处于地位和权力的弱势地位, 直面与领导间的不愉快和冲突代价较大, 所以他们更倾向于采取较为隐蔽的不文明行为来报复领导(Meier & Gross, 2015)。由于电子邮件能作为不文明行为证据而保存, 下属员工将不太可能直接以网络不文明行为来反击领导。但如果在现实工作情境中向领导回以不文明行为, 就既能保护自己不会因出言不逊的证据而被扫地出门, 也间接实现了报复的目的。职场网络不文明行为对领导—下属的职场人际关系有交互性作用, 且下属员工对网络不文明行为的报复性回应可能促使这一行为从虚拟工作情境向现实工作情境反溢出。综上, 未来研究在考察职场网络不文明行为的后果时, 应从交互性的视角出发, 探讨其对施加者—受害者双方人际关系的影响, 并找出其中的作用路径。

5.3 职场网络不文明行为的应对及其向现实领域的反溢出

有关组织社交媒体的研究发现, 社交媒体脸书(Facebook)会放大员工对组织消极事件的情绪反应(Toubiana & Zietsma, 2017)。网络不文明行为同样也以社交媒介为载体, 其影响是否也会因网络媒介的特性而被放大呢? 这可能是网络不文明行为向现实情境反溢出的作用机制之一。Wu等人(2014)指出, 敌意归因偏见和消极互惠信念增强了职场不文明行为和人际偏离间的消极关系, 且二者会影响不文明行为的螺旋升级。即个体特征(如人格和认知风格)会调节不文明行为与其消极后果之间的关系, 也会左右个体对不文明行为的应对方式而间接改变其演变趋势(螺旋升级或螺旋不升级, 在不同情境间溢出或反溢出)。个体对消极事件的反应在一定程度上影响着该事件的演变过程, 尤其是对抗的应对方式(Hershcovis et al., 2018)。网络不文明行为发生在特殊工作领域, 其随境转移的特性更易受到煽动者和受害者各自应对方式的影响。那么, 领导和下属对网络不文明行为的不同应对方式将引发不同的结果。例如, 消极回避会导致人际疏远和职场不文明氛围; 而积极对抗则既可能促进不文明行为的消解或升 华, 也可能致使网络不文明行为向现实工作情境反溢出。

现实工作情境中的面对面不文明行为常发生在有旁观者的情况下, 目击者对受害者和煽动者的反应各不相同。他们既可能出于道义原则而报复煽动者和同情/支持受害者, 也可能效仿煽动者的行为而向受害者或其他弱势者施加类似的不文明行为(Reich & Hershcovis, 2015)。网络不文明行为的传染效应(Contagion)研究也涉及了此类行为对旁观者的影响, 但未明确考察旁观者在该行为后续演变过程中的作用(McCarthy, 2014)。网络不文明行为研究迄今未考察旁观者这一重要角色, 原因可能在于网络涉及个人隐私, 仅限于发送者和接收者双方知晓, 旁观者较难目睹这一行为的发生。面对面不文明行为的第三方视角研究认为, 旁观者会影响个体对不文明行为的认知和情感反应。如Schilpzand, Leavitt和Lim (2016)发现, 若受害者目击过另一名团队成员遭受不文明对待, 则不会有过分的自责倾向, 工作压力更低, 也更少表现出工作退出行为。带着好奇心和探索的热情, 在此提出一个开放性问题留待未来研究探讨:旁观者在网络不文明行为的螺旋升级或网络不文明行为在不同工作情境间的溢出和反溢出过程中有何作用?

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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Hershcovis M. S., Ogunfowora B., Reich T. C., & Christie A. M . ( 2017).

Targeted workplace incivility: The roles of belongingness, embarrassment, and power

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38( 7), 1057-1075.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The research to date has largely been unclear about whether a single perpetrator is sufficient to instigate the well-documented negative consequences of workplace incivility. In the current research, we examine the extent to which perceived belongingness and embarrassment mediate the relationship between incivility from a single perpetrator and two important outcomes (job insecurity and somatic symptoms), and the extent to which the perpetrator’s power moderates these relationships. Across two studies using different methods, we find that incidents of single perpetrator incivility are associated with target feelings of isolation and embarrassment, which in turn relate to targets’ perceived job insecurity and somatic symptoms (Studies 1 and 2) both the same day and three days later (Study 2). Moreover, we find that perpetrator power moderates the relationship between incivility and embarrassment, such that targets are more embarrassed when the perpetrator is powerful. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

Judge, T.A., &Ilies, R . ( 2004).

Affect and job satisfaction: A study of their relationship at work and at home

Journal of Applied Psychology, 89( 4), 661-673.

URL     PMID:15327352      [本文引用: 2]

The authors investigated 2 broad issues: (a) across- and within-individual relationships between mood and job satisfaction and (b) spillover in moods experienced at work and at home. Using an experience-sampling methodology, they collected multisource data from a sample of 74 working individuals. Multilevel results revealed that job satisfaction affected positive mood after work and that the spillover of job satisfaction onto positive and negative mood was stronger for employees high in trait-positive and trait-negative affectivity, respectively. Results also revealed that the effect of mood at work on job satisfaction weakened as the time interval between the measurements increased. Finally, positive (negative) moods at work affected positive (negative) moods experienced later at home.

Kato Y., Kato S., & Akahori K . ( 2007).

Effects of emotional cues transmitted in e-mail communication on the emotions experienced by senders and receivers

Computers in Human Behavior,23( 4), 1894-1905.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This paper focuses on communication by e-mail. An experiment was conducted to investigate the influence the degree of emotional cues transmitted during e-mail communication has on the emotions experienced by the senders and receivers. Twenty-two participants of this experiment were divided into two groups based on the degrees of emotional cues transmitted: a High group and a Low group. The emotions experienced in the e-mail communication by the High group were then compared to that of the Low group. The results of this experiment showed a tendency for unpleasant emotions such as anger and anxiety to increase when emotional cues transmitted are low (i.e., the Low group). The findings suggest that low degrees of emotional cues transmitted between senders and receivers in e-mail communication tend to cause some misunderstanding.

Keskin H., AkgÜn A. E., Ayar H., & Kayman Ş. S . ( 2016).

Cyberbullying victimization, counterproductive work behaviours and emotional intelligence at workplace

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 235, 281-287.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

As a new and inquiring concept, cyberbullying has attracted many researchers from a variety of disciplines. However, a specific context of the cyberbullying concept, workplace cyberbullying and its impact on employees’ behaviors has rarely been theoretically reported in the literature. Addressing this particular gap in the literature, we develop a conceptual model encapsulating the relationship between workplace cyberbullying and counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) and the role of employees’ emotional intelligence on this relationship in particular. This study contributes to the literature in three ways. First, the theoretical framework proposed highlights the effects of workplace cyberbullying on employees’ CWBs (i.e. CWB towards people (CWB-P) and CWB towards organization (CWB-O)). Hence the focus is, on distinguishing workplace cyberbullying from other cyberbullying types, and building a theoretical background for the relationship of workplace cyberbullying and CWBs variables. Second, based on Wong and Law'smodel this study aims to assess the possible role of emotional intelligence to eliminate undesirable behaviors at work. Thus we propose that having a high degree of emotional intelligence (EI) gives the employees the ability to handle workplace stressors better. Third, this research integrates organizational behavior literature to the emotional intelligence literature through offering a theoretical framework where employees’ emotional intelligence is a process consisting of 1) others’ emotion appraisal, 2) use of emotion, 3) self-emotion appraisal, and 4) regulation of emotion which allow them to deal with cyberbullying as a negative organizational behavior.

Kowalski, R.M., &Limber, S.P . ( 2007).

Electronic bullying among middle school students

Journal of Adolescent Health Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 41( 6), 22-30.

URL     PMID:18047942      [本文引用: 1]

Electronic communications technologies are affording children and adolescents new means of bullying one another. Referred to as electronic bullying, cyberbullying, or online social cruelty, this phenomenon includes bullying through e-mail, instant messaging, in a chat room, on a website, or through digital messages or images sent to a cell phone. The present study examined the prevalence of electronic bullying among middle school students. A total of 3,767 middle school students in grades 6, 7, and 8 who attend six elementary and middle schools in the southeastern and northwestern United States completed a questionnaire, consisting of the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire and 23 questions developed for this study that examined participants’ experiences with electronic bullying, as both victims and perpetrators. Of the students, 11% that they had been electronically bullied at least once in the last couple of months (victims only); 7% indicated that they were bully/victims; and 4% had electronically bullied someone else at least once in the previous couple of months (bullies only). The most common methods for electronic bullying (as reported by both victims and perpetrators) involved the use of instant messaging, chat rooms, and e-mail. Importantly, close to half of the electronic bully victims reported not knowing the perpetrator’s identity. Electronic bullying represents a problem of significant magnitude. As children’s use of electronic communications technologies is unlikely to wane in coming years, continued attention to electronic bullying is critical. Implications of these findings for youth, parents, and educators are discussed.

Kowalski R. M., Toth A., & Morgan M . ( 2017).

Bullying and cyberbullying in adulthood and the workplace

Journal of Social Psychology, 158( 1), 64-81.

URL     PMID:28402201      [本文引用: 1]

Two studies generated profiles of cyberbullying/cyberincivility and traditional bullying/incivility in adults, particularly within the workplace. In Study 1, 20% of 3,699 participants had the majority of cyberbullying victimization and 7.5% had the majority of traditional bullying victimization occur in adulthood, with 30% saying they were bullied at work. Relationships between bullying and negative outcomes were found. Because of the clear evidence of bullying and cyberbullying in the workplace in Study 1, Study 2 addressed the relationship of these constructs to workplace incivility. Workplace face-to-face incivility and bullying were related among 321 participants, as were workplace cyberbullying and cyberincivility. Face-to-face incivility was more common than online incivility, face-to-face bullying, or online bullying, yet all four behaviors were associated with negative outcomes. Differences in intentionality, acceptability, and severity were observed, with workplace face-to-face bullying perceived as the most severe and having the greatest intentionality to harm. These results emphasize the importance of studying bullying among adults, and highlight the conceptual independence of bullying and incivility. Correlates of workplace aggression are discussed using job demands-resources theory.

Krishnan, S. ( 2016).

Electronic warfare: A personality model of cyber incivility

Computers in Human Behavior, 64, 537-546.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

61A personality model of cyber incivility is proposed.61The model is tested with a two-phased online survey of 265 full-time employees.61Effect of extraversion on cyber incivility is dependent on conscientiousness.61Effect of emotional stability on cyber incivility is dependent on conscientiousness.

Lai, C.Y., &Tsai, C.H . ( 2016).

Cyberbullying in the social networking sites: An online disinhibition effect perspective

In Proceedings of the 3rd Multidisciplinary International Social Networks Conference on Social Informatics 2016, Data Science.

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Lazarus, R.S., &Folkman, S . ( 1984).

Stress, Appraisal and Coping

. New York, NY: Springer.

Lim S., Cortina L. M., & Magley V. J . ( 2008).

Personal and workgroup incivility: Impact on work and health outcomes

Journal of Applied Psychology,93( 1), 95-107.

URL     PMID:18211138      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract This article develops a theoretical model of the impact of workplace incivility on employees' occupational and psychological well-being. In Study 1, the authors tested the model on 1,158 employees, finding that satisfaction with work and supervisors, as well as mental health, partially mediated effects of personal incivility on turnover intentions and physical health; this process did not vary by gender. Study 2 cross-validated and extended these results on an independent sample of 271 employees, showing negative effects of workgroup incivility that emerged over and above the impact of personal incivility. In both studies, all results held while controlling for general job stress. Implications for organizational science and practice are discussed. 2008 APA

Lim, V. K.G., &Chin, J.Y . ( 2006).

Cyber incivility at the workplace: What has supervisor's sex got to do with it?

PACIS 2006-10th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems: ICT and Innovation Economy: 1247-1258.

URL    

This study examined the prevalence of cyber incivility as perpetrated by supervisors, its impact on individuals and the organization. Specifically, we examine whether working adults in Singapore experience cyber incivility when interacting with their supervisors via emails at the workplace. We also examine the impact of receiving uncivil emails from supervisors on employees’ work and organizational attitudes. The effect of supervisor’s gender on types of cyber uncivil behaviors were also investigated. Results suggested that male supervisors engaged in different kinds of cyber uncivil behaviors compared to female supervisors. Results of our study provided useful insights for researchers and managers in understanding the frequency and importance of email usage between employees and supervisors, as well as the role of information technology in facilitating cyber rudeness at the workplace.

Lim, S., &Lee, A . ( 2011).

Work and nonwork outcomes of workplace incivility: Does family support help?

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16( 1), 95-111.

URL     PMID:21280947      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract This study extended incivility research beyond the confines of the workplace by exploring the relationships between incivility, work-to-family conflict and family support. Data collected from 180 employees from various organizations in Singapore showed that incivility is not a rare phenomenon in Asian cultures. Employees experienced more incivility from superiors than coworkers or subordinates, and these experiences were related to different outcomes. Coworker-initiated incivility was associated with decreased coworker satisfaction, increased perceptions of unfair treatment, and increased depression. On the other hand, superior-initiated incivility was associated with decreased supervisor satisfaction and increased work-to-family conflict. Results also revealed that employees with high family support showed stronger relationships between workplace incivility and negative outcomes, compared with employees with low family support.

Lim, V. K.G., &Teo, T. S.H . ( 2009).

Mind your E-manners: Impact of cyber incivility on employees' work attitude and behavior

Information and Management, 46( 8), 419-425.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

We examined cyber incivility in the workplace of Singapore and also examined its impact on employee job satisfaction, organizational commitment, quit intention, and workplace deviance. Data were collected from 192 employees. Results of the survey showed that male supervisors engaged in active forms of cyber incivility while female supervisors engaged in passive cyber incivility. Regression analyses also showed that cyber incivility was negatively related to employees' job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Employees who experienced cyber incivility were also more likely to quit their jobs or engaged in deviant behavior against their organization. Thus, cyber incivility has negative consequences on both individuals and organizations. Consequently, it is important that firms educate employees and have appropriate policies to discourage cyber incivility. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lim, Y.S., &Lee-Won, R.J . ( 2016).

When retweets persuade: The persuasive effects of dialogic retweeting and the role of social presence in organizations’ twitter-based communication

Telematics and Informatics, 34( 5), 422-433.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Research has shown that organizations tend to use Twitter primarily in a one-way, monologic manner and fall short of using the platform’s technological affordances to engage the public in dialogue. At the same time, relatively little research has addressed the specific persuasive outcomes that organizations could accrue by using Twitter to communicate with the public in a more dialogic way. We investigated the persuasive effect of an organization’s dialogic retweeting (conceptualized as retweeting of user mentions addressed to the organization) by drawing on the concept of social presence and the theory of reasoned action. In an online experiment conducted with an adult sample of U.S. Twitter users, participants were randomly assigned to view either a fictitious organization’s dialogic retweets or the same organization’s monologic tweets of identical content. We found that the dialogic retweets, when compared to the monologic tweets from the organization, induced a higher level of social presence, which, in turn, led to a higher level of subjective norms, more favorable attitudes toward the behavior advocated by the organization in the messages, and greater intention to adopt the behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

McCarthy, K. ( 2014).

e-Rudeness at Work: The Impact of Rude Email on Employee Performance

(Unpublished master’s thesis). University of California, Irvine, Ann Arbor.

[本文引用: 1]

McCarthy, K.A. ( 2016).

Is rudeness really that common? An exploratory study of incivility at work

Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 26( 4), 364-374. DOI: 10.1080/10919392.2016.1228362

URL    

Currently, most studies of incivility involve surveys and controlled laboratory experiments that focus on examining the associations between incivility and other variables. This method of investigation is important, but insufficient for developing a comprehensive understanding of such a complex and multifaceted construct. The present study explores employees’ perceptions of rude workplace behavior from the perspective of real employees in managerial roles. It investigates the extent to which incivility is a prevalent issue faced by employees at work, examines the perceived impact of incivility on relational and productivity-related outcomes, and, finally, considers the potential differences between face-to-face rudeness and electronic rudeness. A qualitative interview approach is used to explore and analyze employees’ perceptions and investigate what employees think, feel, and say about their experiences with incivility at work.

Meijman T. F. , & Mulder, G.(1998) .

Psychological aspects of workload

In P. J. D. Drenth, H. Thierry, & C. J. de Wolff (Eds.), Handbook of work and organizational psychology (2nd ed.) (pp. 5-34). Hove, England: Psychology Press/Erlbaum (UK) Taylor & Francis.

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Working activities are always productive in more than one respect. Concrete or imaginary objects are converted into a product as a result of working activities and in performing the activities people are altered. The outcome may be positive, ie the task has been

Meier, L.L., &Gross, S . ( 2015).

Episodes of incivility between subordinates and supervisors: Examining the role of self-control and time with an interaction-record diary study

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36( 8), 1096-1113.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Summary Scholars have hypothesized that experiencing incivility not only negatively affects well-being, but may even trigger further antisocial behavior. Previous research, however, has focused mainly on the relation between incivility and well-being. Thus, little is known about the behavioral consequences of incivility. With this in mind, we conducted an interaction-record diary study to examine whether supervisor incivility causes retaliatory incivility against the supervisor. Using the self-control strength model as a framework, we further examined whether the target's trait (trait self-control) and state (exhaustion) self-regulatory capacities moderate this effect. In addition, we examined the role of time by testing the duration of the effect. When we analyzed the full data set, we found no support for our hypotheses. However, using a subset of the data in which the subsequent interaction happened on the same day as the prior interaction, our results showed that experiencing incivility predicted incivility in the subsequent interaction, but only when the time lag between the two interactions was short. Furthermore, in line with the assumption that self-regulatory capacities are required to restrain a target from retaliatory responses, the effect was stronger when individuals were exhausted. In contrast to our assumption, trait self-control had no effect on instigated incivility. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Miner K. N., Diaz I., Wooderson R. L., Mcdonald J. N., Smittick A. L., & Lomeli L. C. ( 2017).

A workplace incivility roadmap: Identifying theoretical speedbumps and alternative routes for future research

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 23(3), 320-337.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Ophoff J., Machaka T ., & Stander. A. (2015).

Exploring the impact of cyber incivility in the workplace

Paper presented at Proceedings of Informing Science & IT Education Conference (InSITE) 2015, 493-504.

[本文引用: 1]

Park Y., Fritz C., & Jex S. M . ( 2015).

Daily cyber incivility and distress: The moderating roles of resources at work and home

Journal of Management, 5, 2-46.

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Patchin, J.W., &Hinduja, S . ( 2006).

Bullies move beyond the schoolyard A preliminary look at cyberbullying

Youth Violence & Juvenile Justice,4( 2), 148-169.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Bullying in a school setting is an important social concern that has received increased scholarly attention in recent years. Specifically, its causes and effects have been under investigation by a number of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. A new permutation of bullying, however, has recently arisen and become more common: Techsavvy students are turning to cyberspace to harass their peers. This exploratory article discusses the nature of bullying and its transmutation to the electronic world and the negative repercussions that can befall both its victims and instigators. In addition, findings are reported from a pilot study designed to empirically assess the nature and extent of online bullying. The overall goal of the current work is to illuminate this novel form of deviance stemming from the intersection of communications and computers and to provide a foundational backdrop on which future empirical research can be conducted.

Pearson, C.M., &Porath, C.L . ( 2005).

On the nature, consequences and remedies of workplace incivility: No time for "nice"? Think again

The Academy of Management Executive, 19( 1), 7-18.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Incivility, or employees' lack of regard for one another, is costly to organizations in subtle and pervasive ways. Although uncivil behaviors occur commonly, many organizations fail to recognize them, few understand their harmful effects, and most managers and executives are ill-equipped to deal with them. Over the past eight years, as we have learned about this phenomenon through interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, experiments, and executive forums with more than 2,400 people across the U.S. and Canada, we have found that incivility causes its targets, witnesses, and additional stakeholders to act in ways that erode organizational values and deplete organizational resources. Because of their experiences of workplace incivility, employees decrease work effort, time on the job, productivity, and performance. Where incivility is not curtailed, job satisfaction and organizational loyalty diminish as well. Some employees leave their jobs solely because of the impact of this subtle form of deviance. Most of these consequences occur without organizational awareness. In addition to detailing the nature of incivility and its consequences, we provide keys to recognizing and dealing with habitual instigators, and remedies that are being used effectively by organizations to curtail and correct employee-to-employee incivility.

Porath, C.L., &Pearson, C.M . ( 2010).

The cost of bad behavior

Organizational Dynamics, 39( 1), 64-71.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract While managers are looking everywhere to cut costs and maximize productivity, chances are they are missing a potentially devastating expense: the cost of incivility. As employees exchange seemingly inconsequential inconsiderate words and deeds, productivity plummets and norms are shredded. If employees are behaving badly toward one another, it means that individuals and teams are losing time, effort, energy, focus, creativity, loyalty and commitment. Far from a minor inconvenience, workplace incivility is one of today’s most substantial economic drains on American business. What’s the bottom line? Companies we’ve worked with calculate the tab for incivility in the millions. In fact, just one habitually offensive employee positioned in the top of your organization can suck out millions in lost employees, lost customers and lost productivity. The effects are real and the drag on your company’s profits and productivity are nasty. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Porath, C.L., &Pearson, C.M . ( 2012).

Emotional and behavioral responses to workplace incivility and the impact of hierarchical status

Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42( 1), 326-357.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Using appraisal theory, this research examined targets' emotional responses to workplace incivility, and how these responses impact targets' behavioral responses. Targets who reported greater incivility reported greater anger, fear, and sadness. Targets' anger was associated with more direct aggression against the instigators; targets' fear was associated with indirect aggression against instigators, absenteeism, and exit; and targets' sadness was associated with absenteeism. Status moderated the effects of fear and sadness. Our results underscore the need for organizations to manage civility so that they and their employees can avoid substantial direct and indirect costs associated with workplace incivility. At a broader level, our results suggest the importance of developing greater awareness about the harmful effects of fear and sadness in the workplace.

Reich, T.C., &Hershcovis, M.S . ( 2015).

Observing workplace incivility

Journal of Applied Psychology, 100( 1), 203-215.

URL     PMID:24731181      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Interpersonal mistreatment at work often occurs in the presence of others; however, these "others" are rarely examined in empirical research despite their importance to the context of the negative interaction. We conducted 2 experiments to examine how witnessing incivility affects observer reactions toward instigators and targets. In Study 1, participants (N = 60) worked virtually with an ostensible instigator and target. In Study 2, participants (N = 48) worked in vivo with confederates (hired actors) on a job task. Across these 2 studies, we found that observers of incivility tend to punish instigators while their reactions to targets were generally unaffected. Further, the effect of witnessing incivility was mediated by observers' negative emotional reaction toward the instigator. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

Rosen C. C., Koopman J., Gabriel A. S., & Johnson R. E . ( 2016).

Who strikes back? A daily investigation of when and why incivility begets incivility

Journal of Applied Psychology, 101( 11), 1620-1634.

URL     PMID:27504658      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Incivility at work—low intensity deviant behaviors with an ambiguous intent to harm—has been on the rise, yielding negative consequences for employees’ well-being and companies’ bottom-lines. Although examinations of incivility have gained momentum in organizational research, theory and empirical tests involving dynamic, within-person processes associated with this negative interpersonal behavior are limited. Drawing from ego depletion theory, we test how experiencing incivility precipitates instigating incivility towards others at work via reduced self-control. Using an experience sampling design across two work weeks, we found that experiencing incivility earlier in the day reduced one’s levels of self-control (captured via a performance-based measure of self-control), which in turn resulted in increased instigated incivility later in the day. Moreover, organizational politics—a stable, environmental factor—strengthened the relation between experienced incivility and reduced self-control, whereas construal level—a stable, personal factor—weakened the relation between reduced self-control and instigated incivility. Combined, our results yield multiple theoretical, empirical, and practical implications for the study of incivility at work.

Short J., Williams E., & Christie B . ( 1976).

The social psychology of telecommunications

Contemporary Sociology, 7( 1), 175-188.

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Shen, K.N., &Khalifa, M . ( 2008).

Design for social presence in online communities: A multi-dimensional approach

Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction, 1( 2), 33-54.

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Sipior, J,C., &Ward, BT. , (1999).

The dark side of employee email

Communications of the ACM, 42( 7), 88-95.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT This article discusses the issue of sexual harassment in a corporate environment through e-mail. E-mail, is an increasingly common form of corporate communication. In this article, the author looks at e-mail as a means of carrying out sexual harassment in the workplace. The regulatory definition of sexual harassment is harassment on the basis of sex is a violation of the law. Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when, submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of an individual's employment. Although email has been viewed as a means of improving personal productivity and organizational responsiveness, these benefits have a dark side for employees and their employers. Anticipating the potential for claims of sexual harassment via e-mail, organizations formulating e-mail policy have two primary concerns: prevent inappropriate use and reduce exposure to liability. Therefore, corporate policy should include statements that restrict use to business only, prohibit inappropriate language and conduct, reserve the right of the organization to monitor communications, and provide guidelines for deletion, backup, and retention of messages.

Song, N. ( 2013).

Cyber incivility in the workplace

HR Professional, 30( 2), 48-50.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

While cyber incivility is becoming increasingly prevalent at the workplace, research on this topic has been largely anecdotal and not theoretically robust. Drawing from research streams on media richness, social presence and emotions, we develop a research model that examines the relationships between medium characteristics (cue multiplicity, feedback immediacy, social presence) and cyber incivility, which in turn affects emotional responses (anger and anxiety). We also examine the relationships between two negative emotions (anger and anxiety) with approach-oriented (revenge, confrontation) and avoidance-oriented (work withdrawal, avoidance) outcomes. This study extends and contributes to the research stream on cyber incivility and misbehaviors by showing that different emotions arising from cyber incivility motivate people to engage in an approach-focused or avoidance-focused response.

Suler, J. ( 2010).

The online disinhibition effect

International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies,2( 2), 184-188.

[本文引用: 1]

Schilpzand P., De Pater I. E., & Erez A . ( 2016).

Workplace incivility: A review of the literature and agenda for future research

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37( 1), 57-88.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT A growing body of research explores workplace incivility, defined as low-intensity deviant workplace behavior with an ambiguous intent to harm. In the 15 years since the theoretical introduction of the workplace incivility construct, research in this domain has taken off, albeit in a variety of directions. We review the extant body of research on workplace incivility and note the multitude of samples, sources, methodologies, and instrumentation used. In this review article, we provide an organized review of the extant body of work that encompasses three distinct types of incivility: experienced, witnessed, and instigated incivility. These three types of incivility serve as the foundation for a series of comprehensive models in which we integrate extant empirical research. In the last part of this review article, we suggest directions for future research that may contribute to this growing body of work. Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Shin Y., Lee B., & Kim J . ( 2015).

Prosocial activists in sns: The impact of isomorphism and social presence on prosocial behaviors

International Journal of Human computer Interaction, 31( 12), 939-958.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

The advent of information and communication technology has made people practice prosocial behavior in social networking services (SNSs) more easily. For this reason, the aim of the study was to identify the social and individual factors that induce prosociality in SNS. The concept of isomorphism for categorizing the characteristics of each social networks was adopted. The study also considered the concept of social presence for representing each individual. The experiment manipulated types of isomorphism (Mimetic, Normative, and Coercive) and degrees of social presence in an experimental SNS context. The study also measured individuals intention and activity of prosocial behavior. The experiment results indicate that mimetic and normative isomorphic conditions induce higher levels of prosocial intention and activity than coercive isomorphic condition. Also, a higher degree of social presence induces a higher level of prosocial intention. More interesting, the impact of mimetic condition is stronger when the social presence is higher.

Toubiana, M., &Zietsma, C . ( 2017).

The message is on the wall? Emotions, social media and the dynamics of institutional complexity

Academy of Management Journal, 60(3).

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Vranjes I., Baillien E., Vandebosch H., Erreygers S., & Witte H. D . ( 2017).

The dark side of working online: Towards a definition and an emotion reaction model of workplace cyberbullying

Computers in Human Behavior, 69, 324-334.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

The introduction of new technologies created avenues for new forms of bullying. Despite an impressive body of research on cyberbullying amongst youngsters, studies in the work context have largely neglected its electronic counterpart. In this study, we define workplace cyberbullying and propose an Emotion Reaction Model of its occurrence. Our model aligns with the main proposition of the Affective Events Theory (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996), that emotions evoked by certain work events may fuel emotion driven behaviors. However, in our model these relationships are further specified combining different literature traditions. Making inferences from the workplace bullying literature, we suggest work stressors to be the work events leading to cyberbullying. Furthermore, building on the literature on cyberbullying amongst youngsters, computer-mediated communication and emotions, we propose discrete emotions of anger, sadness and fear to play a significant role in explaining this stressor-cyberbullying relation. In addition, different moderators (i.e., control appraisal and emotion regulation) of this relationship are suggested and implications of the model are discussed.

Williams, K.J., &Alliger, G.M . ( 1994).

Role stressors, mood spillover, and perceptions of work-family conflict in employed parents

Academy of Management Journal,37( 4), 837-868.

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Several unsettled issues related to the day-to-day experience of work and family roles were investigated through the daily reports of 41 employed parents. Multiple role juggling, task demands, personal control, and goal progress affected mood in work and family roles. Unpleasant moods spilled over from work to family and vice versa, but pleasant moods had little spillover. Mood states, role juggling, and daily levels of role involvement predicted end-of-day ratings of work-family conflict. In particular, daily involvement in family roles, distress experienced during family activities, and family intrusions into work were positively related to perceptions that family interfered with work.

Wright K. B., Abendschein B., Wombacher K., O'Connor M., Hoffman M., Dempsey M., … Shelton A .(2014).

Work-related communication technology use outside of regular work hours and work life conflict

Management Communication Quarterly, 28( 4), 507-530.

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Williams, K.S., & Loughlin C., (2015).

Cyber incivility operationalized in the non-profit sector in Canada

Unpublished manuscript, Sobey School of Business, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, NS.

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Wu L. Z., Zhang H. N., Chiu R. K., Kwan H. K., & He X. G . ( 2014).

Hostile attribution bias and negative reciprocity beliefs exacerbate incivility’s effects on interpersonal deviance

Journal of Business Ethics, 120( 2), 189-199.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating roles of hostile attribution bias and negative reciprocity beliefs in the relationship between workplace incivility, as perceived by employees, and their interpersonal deviance. Data were collected using a three-wave survey research design. Participants included 233 employees from a large manufacturing company in China. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the hypothesized relationships. Our study revealed that hostile attribution bias and negative reciprocity beliefs strengthened the positive relationship between workplace incivility and interpersonal deviance. This relationship was the most positive when both hostile attribution bias and negative reciprocity beliefs were high. The findings provided evidence that directing employees to depress hostile attribution bias and negative reciprocity beliefs may attenuate the effects of workplace incivility on interpersonal deviance. Implications for theory, research, and management practice are discussed.

Yuin, C.J. ( 2006).

Mind your e-manners: Impact of cyber incivility on justice, emotions and individual responses

(Unpublished master’s thesis). National University of Singapore.

[本文引用: 2]

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