心理科学进展, 2018, 26(11): 2068-2080 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.02068

研究前沿

个人主义上升, 集体主义式微?——全球文化变迁与民众心理变化

黄梓航1,2,3, 敬一鸣1,2,3, 喻丰4, 古若雷1,2,3, 周欣悦5, 张建新3,6, 蔡华俭,1,2,3

1 中国科学院心理研究所行为科学重点实验室, 北京 100101

2 中国科学院心理研究所人格与社会心理研究中心, 北京 100101

3 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049

4 西安交通大学人文社会科学学院, 西安 710049

5 浙江大学管理学院市场营销系, 杭州 310058

6 中国科学院心理研究所心理健康重点实验室, 北京 100101

Increasing individualism and decreasing collectivism? Cultural and psychological change around the globe

HUANG Zihang1,2,3, JING Yiming1,2,3, YU Feng4, GU Ruolei1,2,3, ZHOU Xinyue5, ZHANG Jianxin3,6, CAI Huajian,1,2,3

1 Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

2 Center for Personality and Social Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

4 School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China;

5 Department of Marketing, School of Management, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China

6 Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

通讯作者: 蔡华俭 E-mail: caihj@psych.ac.cn

收稿日期: 2017-12-5   网络出版日期: 2018-11-15

基金资助: * 本文系2017年度国家社会科学基金重大招标项目.  17ZDA324
“中国社会变迁过程中的文化与心理变化”的阶段性成果.  17ZDA324

Received: 2017-12-5   Online: 2018-11-15

摘要

近几十年来, 伴随着全球范围内的经济/社会大发展, 人类社会的文化与民众心理也发生了相应的改变, 其基本趋势是个人主义正日益流行, 传统的集体主义则相对式微。这种变化不仅表现在宏观的社会和文化层面, 也体现在微观的心理与行为层面。本文从文化心理学的角度, 对反映这一趋势的大量实证研究进行了分门别类的整理与介绍, 涉及的领域分别包括社会层面的社会统计指标, 以及心理层面的人称代词使用偏好、命名行为、价值取向、人格特征、性和宗教态度、儿童教养与发展模式、认知方式、情绪体验等。除了一般趋势外, 研究也显示文化变迁和心理变化有其复杂性, 个人主义增强、集体主义衰弱并不是一个必然的、线性的过程; 传统文化的集体主义价值在一定程度上具有延续性, 多元文化共存已成为当前人类社会发展的显著特色。最后, 针对当前文化变迁心理研究的不足, 本文建议未来研究应当更多采用追踪和实验设计、拓展现有研究的领域和范围、深入揭示文化变迁的行为/神经机制以及更多关注变迁过程中的心理适应与应对问题。

关键词: 文化变迁 ; 文化心理学 ; 个人主义 ; 集体主义

Abstract

In this article, we reviewed the large body of research examining the impacts of social change on human psychology and culture. Our review revealed an increasing trend of individualism and, at the meantime, decreasing collectivism. This trend manifests on various societal and individual-level indicators, including relationship structures, first-person pronouns use, naming practices, value preferences, personality, sexual and religious attitudes, child-rearing goals and child development, cognitive styles and emotional experiences. Our review also demonstrated the complexities of cultural and psychological change, including the non-linearity of the change, endurance of traditional culture and emerging multi-cultural society. At the end, we pointed out some limitations of the existing research and highlighted some possible directions of future research.

Keywords: social change ; culture ; cultural change ; individualism ; collectivism

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本文引用格式

黄梓航, 敬一鸣, 喻丰, 古若雷, 周欣悦, 张建新, 蔡华俭. (2018). 个人主义上升, 集体主义式微?——全球文化变迁与民众心理变化. 心理科学进展, 26(11), 2068-2080

HUANG Zihang, JING Yiming, YU Feng, GU Ruolei, ZHOU Xinyue, ZHANG Jianxin, CAI Huajian. (2018). Increasing individualism and decreasing collectivism? Cultural and psychological change around the globe. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(11), 2068-2080

在从我开始长出胡须到胡须开始灰白这样短短的时间跨度之内, 亦即半个世纪之内所发生的急剧变迁, 大大超过平常十代人的时间内所发生的变化。

——斯蒂芬·茨威格《昨日的世界, 一个欧洲人的回忆》

随着近几十年来全球范围内经济的广泛增长、科技的快速进步、全球化的持续进行, 以及与之相伴的广泛的社会变化, 人类文化和心理也发生了并且还在发生着深刻而广泛的改变。过去半个多世纪以来(特别是近20年来), 心理学(特别是文化心理学)对社会历史变迁过程中的文化变迁和心理变化进行了大量研究。虽然人类文化变迁和心理变化非常复杂, 但是有大量采用不同方法、针对不同国家或地区的实证研究从不同的侧面表明:过去人类社会文化变迁的一个基本趋势是个人主义文化正日益盛行, 而传统的集体主义文化则不断式微(Cai, Huang, & Jing, in press)。这种变化同时表现在个体和群体层面。在本文中, 我们将首先对文化的含义及其维度进行简单介绍, 接着对世界范围内揭示个人主义上升、集体主义下降的心理学研究进行全面的梳理与介绍。然后, 我们对文化变迁/心理变化复杂性及其相关研究进行介绍。最后, 我们将分析现有研究的不足, 并指出未来可能的研究方向。

1 文化的心理学含义与维度

在文化心理学中, 文化一般指的是社会成员间共享的价值、规范、思维方式、行为以及文化产品(Hofstede, 1980; Morling, 2016; Na et al., 2010)。Hofstede (1980)在上个世纪80年代提出了文化价值的4个维度, 包括个人主义/集体主义(Individualism/Collectivism)、权力距离(Power Distance)、不确定性规避(Uncertainty Avoidance)以及刚柔性(Masculinity/Feminity)。其中个人主义/ 集体主义引发了大量的后续研究, 成为文化心理学中应用最广、影响最大的一个文化维度(Greenfield, 2009; Oyserman, Coon & Kemmelmeier, 2002)。文化心理学中和文化变迁相关的绝大多数研究都是在个人主义/集体主义这一框架下展开的。本文对文化变迁/心理变化的探讨也将聚焦于和个人主义/集体主义有关的研究。

关于个人主义/集体主义的含义, 尽管目前存在着许多不同的界定, 一种比较普遍的理解是:个人主义文化强调个体的独立性、独特性以及自由选择, 而集体主义文化强调人的互依性、社会嵌入性(Social Embeddedness)以及对内群体(如家族)的义务与忠诚(Grossmann & Na, 2014; Oyserman et al., 2002)。更多的时候, 大家把个人主义与集体主义理解为一种复杂的文化症候(Cultural Syndrome), 其核心涉及社会的主流价值规范, 其影响或表现则涉及到诸多宏观(如社会结构、社会制度等)或微观(如偏好、态度、认知、决策等)层面的心理和行为(Grossman & Varnum, 2015; Oyserman et al., 2002; Triandis, 1995)。

2 文化变迁和心理变化的基本趋势及相关研究

总体上讲, 过去几十年来世界范围内文化变迁和民众心理变化的一个基本趋势是个人主义崛起和集体主义式微。这个趋势既表现在宏观社会文化指标的变化上, 也表现在个体/群体心理与行为的变化中。下面我们对相关的研究证据分门别类予以介绍。

2.1 宏观社会指标的变化

许多与社会关系(特别是家庭关系)模式有关的社会指标都在一定程度上反映出文化的特点, 包括离婚率、独居率、多代同居率和家庭规模等。一般而言, 离婚率和独居率的上升、多代同居率和家庭规模的下降在一定程度上可以体现出个人主义的上升和集体主义的下降(Triandis, 1995)。据此, 许多研究试图通过对这些指标的考察以揭示社会文化的变化规律。在美国, 一项研究发现, 过去两百年来美国社会的结婚-离婚比、三代与同代同居率之比、平均家庭人数等社会指标都发生了显著且持续的下降(Grossmann & Varnum, 2015)。在日本(Hamamura, 2012)和中国(Huang, Wang, & Cai, 2016), 研究也发现了类似的现象:离婚率持续上升, 家庭规模、多代同居率持续下降。一项最新的研究则调查了全球71个国家和地区, 结果发现这些国家地区在这些社会指标上都存在类似的变化(Santos, Varnum, & Grossmann, 2017)。这些研究共同显示出了全球范围内的个人主义的上升和集体主义的下降。

2.2 第一人称单、复数代词的使用的变化

个人主义强调个体的能动性和独立的自我建构, 而集体主义则更强调个体与他人之间的关系和互依的自我建构(Markus & Kitayama, 1991)。理论上来讲, 前者和单数的第一人称(我, 我的)更相关, 而后者则与复数的第一人称(我们, 我们的)更相关(Kashima & Kashima, 1998; Oyserman & Lee, 2008), 因此两类代词的使用频率经常被用来当作研究个人主义和集体主义取向的工具。在美国, Twenge等人(Twenge, Campbell, & Gentile, 2013)对Google数据库中美国的出版书籍进行了分析, 发现1960到2008年间, 书中第一人称单数的使用频率上升, 而第一人称复数的使用频率则在下降; DeWall等(2011)统计了美国流行歌曲歌词中单复数第一人称代词使用的变化, 也发现了类似趋势。对于中国, Xu和Hamamura (2014)分析了Google数据库里中文书籍里两类代词的使用情况, 结果同样发现, 相对于复数的第一人称代词, 单数第一人称代词使用频率越来越高。Cai和同事研究了中国上世纪70年代以来流行歌曲歌词中两类第一人称代词的变化, 也发现了类似的现象(Cai, Zou, Feng, Liu, & Jing, 2018)。在挪威, 研究发现, 从1984年到2005年, 挪威报纸上第一人称单数代词的使用在增加(Nafstad, Blakar, Carlquist, Phelps, & Rand-Hendriksen, 2007)。国内学者Yu等分析了Google 数据库中9种语言的图书资料, 发现其中8种语言(美国英语, 中文, 法文, 德文, 希伯来文, 西班牙文, 俄文, 意大利文)的图书中第一人称单数代词的使用在增加(除英国英语外) (Yu et al., 2016)。

2.3 命名行为的变化

个人主义的核心特征之一是对独特性的追求(Kim & Markus, 1999; Oyserman et al., 2002; Taras, Steel, & Kirkman, 2012)。不少研究把名字的独特性作为衡量个人主义的一个指标, 父母给孩子起的名字越独特, 则表示父母的个人主义倾向越高。据此, 有研究发现, 在美国, 人们越来越少给自己的孩子使用常见名字, 转而越来越多地使用独特的名字(Grossmann & Varnum, 2015; Twenge, Abebe & Campbell, 2010); 在日本, 研究也发现, 随着年代的变迁, 父母们越来越倾向于给自己的孩子起更为独特的名字(Ogihara et al., 2015), 甚至也更倾向于给他们的宠物用独特的名字命名(Ogihara, 2016); 在中国, Cai等人(Cai et al., 2018)发现, 在1950到2010年间, 中国人名字中低频字越来越多, 表明中国人对独特性的追求也在不断提高。

2.4 价值取向的变化

个人主义和集体主义作为一种文化复合体, 很多时候表现在社会或个体的价值取向上。通过探讨价值取向的变化可以推知文化的变化。文化价值既可以存在于“头脑外” (比如:各种文化产品), 也可以存在于“头脑内” (比如:个体自我报告的主观价值) (Morling, 2016)。

“头脑外”的研究主要通过考察书籍、电视节目、歌词、报纸等文化产品中所体现出的价值变化继而推知文化的变迁。除了上面描述的Google数据库所衍生出的一系列研究以外(例如, Greenfield, 2013; Zeng & Greenfield, 2015), 对电视节目等文化产品中所出现的文字和所表现的主题的研究同样证实了在全球各地的个人主义价值取向的上升。Uhls和Greenfield (2015)考察了1967年到2007年间美国10~12岁儿童的电视节目, 结果发现这些节目越来越强调个人成就和声名, 而对社群归属感的重视则在下降。Nafstad等人(Nafstad, Blakar, Carlquist, Phelps, & Rand- Hendriksen, 2007)对挪威的1984至2005年间的报纸进行了分析, 结果发现与个人权力相关的词语使用在不断上升, 而与集体义务相关的词语频率却在下降。总之, 这些基于客观的文化产品的研究表明, 全球范围内正经历着个人主义的上升和集体主义的下降。

“头脑内”的研究通常是通过自我报告的问卷来了解个体的主观价值取向。Hamamura (2012)从公开的调查数据和已有的研究中分析了从1950年到2006年间个体报告的个人主义和集体主义倾向在美国和日本的变迁, 在两个国家中都发现了个人主义的上升和集体主义的下降。Yang (1996)通过对过往研究中中国人自我报告的价值观的梳理指出, 许多传统的集体主义价值观正在下降, 包括谦虚、服从、自控等, 而个人主义的价值观, 例如自由、竞争等则在上升。在墨西哥, 研究发现人们越来越认可和崇尚独立(Greenfield & Quiroz, 2013; Manago, 2014), 并且感觉到他们所在的社会越来越重视个人主义的价值观, 例如自主选择、性别平等、宽松的社会规范等。Inglehart和Baker (2000)利用世界价值观调查(World Values Survey)和各国的经济数据, 研究了38个国家的价值观变迁, 结果发现随着经济的发展, 国民的价值观有着从传统变为世俗, 从重视生存变为重视自我表达的倾向。Kashima和同事们(Kashima et al., 2009, 2011)发现, 在中国、日本和澳大利亚, 人们认为未来社会竞争会越来越激烈, 人际间温暖感会越来越低, 从而间接为个人主义的上升、集体主义的下降提供了更多的证据。

总体来说, 现有的关于文化价值变化的研究都较为一致地表明, 个人主义正在上升, 集体主义正在下降。

2.5 人格的变化

集体主义文化有利于与集体主义相关的人格特质的培养, 比如谦虚、同情、顺从等倾向; 而个人主义文化则有利于与个人主义相关的人格特质的培养, 比如独立性、自信、高自我积极性、自我展示等特征。如果文化变迁伴随着个人主义的上升和集体主义的下降, 那么其中个体的人格倾向也会发生相应的变化。自恋就是一种典型的带有个人主义色彩的人格(Brown, Budzek, & Tamborski, 2009)。Twenge和同事们开展了系列研究, 以探讨美国人过去几十年来自恋水平的变化(Twenge, Konrath, Foster, Campbell, & Bushman, 2008; Twenge & Campbell, 2010)。结果发现, 美国人, 尤其是美国青年的自恋水平在过去的几十年中持续上升(但见Trzesniewski, Donnellan, & Robins, 2008; Trzesniewski & Donnellan, 2010; Wetzel, Brown, Hill, Chung, Robins, & Roberts, 2017)。在中国, Cai和同事们(Cai, Kwan, & Sedikides, 2012)使用大样本网络调查数据发现, 年轻、独生、家境富裕、居住在城镇的个体普遍比年纪大、非独生、家境一般、居住在非城镇的个体的自恋水平更高, 这表明, 在过去几十年中, 随着中国经济社会的发展, 人们的自恋水平可能在上升。

除了自恋之外, 已有的研究也关注了其他相关的人格特征, 例如自尊(Twenge, Carter & Campbell, 2017)、自我评价(Twenge, Campbell, & Gentile, 2012; Zhang, Noels, Guan, & Weng, 2017)、外向性(Twenge, 2001)、独特性需求等(Cai et al., 2018)。在这些研究中, 一个普遍的结果是, 与集体主义相关的人格特征正在下降, 例如对社会承认的需求、服从、观点采择等, 而与个人主义相关的特质在上升, 比如自我评价、独特性、男性化等(但见Liu & Xin, 2015)。还有研究发现, 随着社会的发展, 一些人格特质的适应价值也会改变, 和传统的集体主义相适应的特质可能会逐渐变得不再具有适应价值。Chen等分别于1990年、1998年和2002年考察了中国儿童的行为抑制水平(即害羞行为)与他们在学校的表现之间的关系。结果发现, 在1990年, 儿童和成年人都认为害羞是一种积极的特质, 并且行为抑制水平与儿童实际的学校表现、同龄人关系、对学校的适应之间有正相关。到了1998年, 这种相关消失了, 并且在2002年的测量中变为了负相关, 行为抑制水平和同伴排斥、在学表现差、抑郁等问题联系了起来。也就是说, 行为抑制本身可以导致积极的结果, 也可以导致消极的结果, 具体情况则和个体所处的社会文化环境有关。可以想见, 在个人主义上升的文化环境下, 人们越来越强调独立性、自主性, 因此原本有利于维持族群内部关系的行为抑制也就变得不具有原本的适应性了(Chen, Cen, Li, & He, 2005)。

2.6 性和宗教行为的变化

个人主义反对过度遵从规范, 强调基于独特性的自我表现。因此, 个人主义的上升会让个体倾向于越来越不愿意被传统和社会规范束缚, 这种趋势在宗教和性行为方面表现最为明显。Twenge和同事们考察了美国人在宗教行为上的变化, 结果发现, 新一代的美国人与他们的上一辈相比, 越来越不那么虔诚了, 信教和参与宗教活动的人越来越少(Twenge, Exline, Grubbs, Sastry, & Campbell, 2015; Twenge, Sherman, Exline, & Grubbs, 2016)。Inglehart和Baker的研究(2000)则发现, 这种世俗化的现象在美国之外的大部分国家中同样存在, 在经济水平较高的国家中尤为明显。Twenge和同事们(Twenge, Sherman, & Wells, 2015)也研究了美国人的性态度, 发现和过去相比, 当今美国人对性行为的态度越来越宽容, 性伴侣更多, 首次发生性行为的平均年龄显著下降(也见Twenge, Sherman, & Wells, 2016)。在中国, 研究也发现以前比较少见的婚前性行为、青少年性行为、同性性行为等越来越多, 人们对这些行为的宽容度也逐渐增强(Parish, Laumann, & Mojola, 2007)。

2.7 儿童教养和发展方面的变化

社会文化变迁也对儿童的养育和发展产生影响(Elder, 1974; Vygotsky, 1978)。在儿童教养过程中, 个人主义所强调的独立和自主作为教养目标越来越受重视。Keller和Lamm (2005)对两代德国家庭(1977/78和2000)养育后代的方式进行了调查, 发现新一代的父母在教育后代时, 更注重培养他们的独立性而非互依性。在中国, 最新的一项研究发现, 在爷爷奶奶眼中, 现在的孩子自主性、好奇心、自我表达的需求越来越高, 而越来越少有服从、害羞等行为; 养育过程中, 父母对孩子的支持和表扬越来越多, 惩罚和批评则越来越少 (Zhou, Yiu, Wu, & Greenfield, 2017)。在土耳其(Kagitcibasi & Ataca, 2005)和墨西哥(Greenfield, Maynard, & Childs, 2003), 研究者们也发现人们越来越注重对自主和独立的培养。还有研究考察了墨西哥和美国儿童的竞争和合作行为的发展(García, Rivera & Greenfield, 2015)。结果发现, 在1970~2010年间, 儿童合作行为越来越少, 而竞争行为则显著上升。这也意味着, 随着社会文化的变迁, 儿童变得更加倾向于个人主义了。

2.8 认知变化

不少研究考察了社会文化变迁对人类获取知识、处理信息和对待新事物的方式的影响。Greenfield和同事(Greenfield, Maynard, & Childs, 2003; Maynard, Greenfield, & Childs, 2015)在墨西哥的少数民族社群中进行了长达几十年的研究。在当地经济从以物易物的方式到以货币为媒介的交换方式的变化过程中, 当地人, 尤其是受到正规教育的儿童和青年人, 在处理抽象信息方面的能力提高了; 而且, 相较于强调模仿的传统学习方式, 他们逐渐变得对诸如试误等的独立学习方法更为适应。这样的变化也反映在他们的文化产品中:他们生产的织物从单调、统一变得富于变化、多姿多彩。Beach (1995)Saxe和Esmonde (2004)对尼泊尔和巴布亚新几内亚居民的调查也得出了类似的结果。在后者的社会中, 随着经济社会的发展, 当地居民用来表示数字的方式逐渐脱离了对身体的依赖(例如以手势指代数字), 变得更为抽象了。Gauvain和Munroe (2009)用镶嵌图形测试考察了现代化程度不同的四个社会(分别是伯利兹、肯尼亚、尼泊尔和美属萨摩亚)中的儿童的表现, 发现当地社会和儿童所属家庭的现代化程度能够预测他们在测试中的表现。换言之, 这些周围环境现代化程度更高的儿童的思维方式更不被上下文所限制, 能在更为抽象的层面上进行信息处理, 体现出个人主义的特征。此外, 这些儿童也更具有创新精神, 愿意主动寻找新的事物。Wang, Leichtman和White (1998)研究了中国人的自传体记忆。他们发现, 新一代个体所拥有的自传体记忆显著多于上代群体, 而他们的集体记忆则相反, 并且这种倾向在独生子女身上更为明显。总而言之, 这些研究说明, 随着社会文化的变迁, 人们在学习上体现出了更强的自主性, 思维变得更加抽象、更少依赖情境, 更加愿意接触新事物, 拥有更多个体记忆。这些也都意味着个人主义的上升。

2.9 情绪变化

社会文化变迁同样会导致人们情绪体验模式的变化。个人主义的上升和集体主义的下降也可以体现在人们所经常体验到的情绪及其决定因素当中。虽然目前研究结论并不完全一致, 但大部分研究都发现, 在过去的几十年中, 人们体验到的如焦虑、抑郁等负面情绪越来越多。来自美国和中国的研究都发现了类似的现象(Twenge, 2000, 2015; Xin, Zhang, & Liu, 2010; 辛自强, 池丽萍, 2008; 辛自强, 张梅, 何琳, 2012)。比如, 在这两个国家中, 流行歌曲的歌词表达消极情感的词汇越来越多(DeWall, Pond, Campbell, & Twenge, 2011; Huang, Feng, & Cai, 2018)。进一步的研究表明, 这种负面情绪的增多可以归结为个人主义的增加, 在传统意义上的集体主义国家中尤为如此(Hitokoto & Uchida, 2015; Huang, Wang, & Cai, 2016)。对此, 一种解释是个人主义的上升可能会破坏人际关系和降低社会支持, 从而让人们的幸福感下降(Twenge, 2000; Ogihara, Uchida, & Kusumi, 2016; Xin & Xin, 2016); 另一种可能的解释则是, 个人主义的上升让人们更加重视诸如金钱、社会地位和个人形象等方面, 而在企图达成这些目标的过程中产生的负面情绪就造成了幸福感的下降(Deci & Ryan, 2000; Kasser, 2003; Twenge & Kasser, 2013; Twenge, 2015)。还有一种可能性是, 随着个人主义的增高和集体主义的降低, 人们感到自己所在社会的文化承传受到了破坏, 或者个体对所在文化的认同感降低, 而文化本身作为一种适应的手段, 其效用降低了(Ogihara, 2017; Roos, Gelfand, Nau & Lun, 2015)。

此外, 研究发现影响情绪的因素也会发生变化。有研究探讨了对幸福的定义的变迁(Oishi, Graham, Kesebir & Galinha, 2013), 发现以前人们认为幸福更多由外部因素决定(例如运气好、条件好), 而现在则更多由内部因素决定(例如个人成就、经济水平)。还有研究考察了影响负面情绪的因素。一项研究发现, 在上个世纪80、90年代, 芬兰青少年对未来的恐惧主要来自于战争、恐怖主义和环境灾难等外部因素, 而在2007年, 芬兰青少年的恐惧更多来源于个人问题, 例如孤独、学业问题、生活上的失败等(Lindfors, Solantaus, & Rimpela, 2012)。这些发现与个人主义的上升和集体主义的下降的基本趋势是一致的。

3 文化变迁和心理变化的复杂性

从以上综述可以看到, 过去几十年来人类文化和心理变化的一个基本趋势是个人主义的文化症候在日益增强, 而集体主义的文化症候在日益式微。不过, 人类社会的文化变迁与民众心理的变化在基本的变化趋势外也存在相当的复杂性。通过对现存文献的分析, 我们发现这种复杂性主要表现在以下三个方面。

3.1 文化变迁的过程未必是简单线性的

随着经济和社会的发展, 虽然个人主义会不断增强, 但这个变化过程并不是单调线性的。根据Inglehart的现代化理论(Inglehart & Baker, 2000), 经济发展是个人主义增强的主要推动力。那么, 当一个社会的经济发展停滞或倒退时(比如东欧的前社会主义国家), 之前由经济发展导致的文化变化也可能会停滞甚至倒退。社会变迁与人类发展理论(Greenfield, 2009)则认为, 受经济、教育、城市化、科技四个主要因素的推动, 社会将会慢慢地从礼俗社会(Gemeinschaft)发展到法理社会(Gesellschaft); 但是, 一旦推动这种变化的因素减弱消失或发生逆转, 这种变化也可能随之停滞甚至朝着相反的方向发展。现有的研究为这种可能性提供了证据。比如, Park, Twenge和Greenfield (2014)研究发现, 在2008到2010年的金融危机这段时间中, 美国高中生的部分集体主义价值观(例如关心他人)有所提升, 而部分个人主义价值观(例如物质主义)则发生了下降; Bianchi (2014)研究发现, 经济上的衰退会导致在此期间进入工作市场的年轻人的自恋水平降低; Leckelt等(2016)的研究进一步发现, 这种降低的趋势在男性身上表现得更为明显。宏观上, Inglehart和Baker (2000)在前苏联和东欧的许多前社会主义国家也发现了类似的模式, 即经济倒退使得许多传统观念得以再次盛行。

除了经济因素的作用, 文化变迁的过程还会受到其他一些因素的调节, 包括一个国家初始和现有的经济水平(Gao, Qiu, Chiu & Yang, 2015; Xin & Xin, 2017)、国家大小(Chiu, Kwan, Li, Peng & Peng, 2014)、气候变化(Bettinger, Barton, Richerson, Boyd, Wang, & Choi, 2007; Boyd, Richerson & Henrich, 2011)、自然灾害 (Grossmann & Varnum, 2015)、流行病(Fincher & Thornhill, 2012; Hamamura & Park, 2010)、生存方式(Talhelm et al., 2014; Uskul, Kitayama, & Nisbett, 2008)和政治体制的改变(Falomir-Pichastor, Staerklé, Depuiset, & Butera, 2005)等。例如, 流行病学的观点认为, 疾病的流行会导致集体主义的上升; 与此一致, Fincher和Thornhill (2008a, 2008b, 2012)发现, 即便在当代社会, 生物因素的压力依然是影响文化的重要因素。总之, 这些研究表明, 文化变迁并不是一个单调线性的过程, 变化不是匀速单向的, 其进程要受很多因素的影响。

3.2 传统文化在一定程度上具有延续性

既然研究发现世界范围内都有一种个人主义增强、集体主义衰落的趋势, 那是不是意味着一个国家的传统文化慢慢终将消亡呢?现有的研究表明, 虽然传统文化的某些甚至大部分方面都可能衰落, 但每种文化都会有一些独特的文化遗产(Cultural Heritage)传承下来, 例如某些社会习俗、宗教习惯等等。Inglehart和Baker (2000)对全球多个国家的历史和变迁进行了研究, 结果发现, 因为宗教的相似和地理的相近而形成的“文化带”在历经漫长的社会变迁后, 依然有非常鲜明的特色和广泛的影响, 表明宏观上的文化具有很强的生命力和延续性。

个体层面的大量研究也表明, 传统文化的某些方面在社会发展过程中依然会有很好的延续。比如, 在日本, 对团结、孝顺、服从权威、尊敬父母、勤奋等传统价值的强调(Caudill, 1973; Flanagan, 1979; Trommsdorff, 1983)并未随着其上世纪后半叶的快速发展而改变, 妈妈和孩子同睡的习俗(Shimizu, Park & Greenfield, 2014)即便在今天依然非常盛行。在中国, 杨国枢等(1991)发现, 在现代化过程中许多传统价值观(比如孝顺、宿命、祖先崇拜等)和现代价值观(自主、自立、独立)不但可以共存, 甚至能够相互加强。其他研究也发现对家庭和朋友的重视(Xu & Hamamura, 2014), 对责任、义务、助人的强调(Zeng & Greenfield, 2015), 以及中庸对个体的适应价值(Yang et al., 2016)在当代中国依然维持了很高的水平。即使在美国, 人们现在依然非常重视家庭生活(Thornton & Young-DeMarco, 2001)和利他的工作价值(Twenge, Campbell, Hoffman & Lance, 2010)。

总之, 个人主义的增强, 并不必然意味着传统文化的消亡; 相反, 传统文化的某些价值和习俗将会在一定程度上延续下去。这也表明, 个人主义和集体主义并不完全是一个维度的两极, 二者在一定程度上具有相对独立性(Kagitcibasi, 1994; Singelis, 1994; Triandis, 1996), 在社会变迁过程中, 并不总是此消彼长(Oyserman, Coon & Kemmelmeier, 2002; Yang, 1996)。

3.3 多元文化并存社会的兴起

传统和现代的并存、本土文化和外来文化的共生, 意味着多元文化社会的出现将不可避免。大量研究表明, 多元文化共存不仅在当今世界广泛流行(Welzel, 2013; Welzel & Dalton, 2016; 但见Twenge, Campbell, & Carter, 2014; Twenge, Campbell, & Freeman, 2012), 并且已经对人们的认知、情感、动机、行为等方面产生了广泛的影响(Bernardo, Rosenthal, & Levy, 2013; Levin et al., 2012)。许多基于个体的研究为此提供了支持。其中一系列的证据来源于大量的文化启动研究(Oyserman & Lee, 2008)。这些文化启动研究表明, 同一个体可以接受并独立表征多种文化(比如个人主义、集体主义); 这些文化可以在不同的情境中被激活, 并导致相应的心理与行为(Novin & Oyserman, 2016; Oyserman, Sorensen, Reber, & Chen, 2009; Oyserman, 2017)。另一个系列的证据来源于最新的文化混搭(Culture Mixing)研究。这些研究发现, 多种文化可以共存于个体, 当它们被同时激活时, 会对个体的心理和行为共同产生影响(Chiu & Cheng, 2007; Hao, Li, Peng, Peng, & Torelli, 2016; Fu, Zhang, Li, & Leung, 2016; Shi, Jing, Luo, & Cai, 2016)。

4 总结与展望

4.1 总结

通过上面的综述, 我们可以发现, 过去几十年来, 全球范围内都存在一种个人主义上升、集体主义下降的趋势。这个趋势同时存在于传统的集体主义和个人主义国家, 同时表现在集体水平和个体水平, 以及各种不同的心理现象和过程中。和传统的集体主义社会相比, 在当今社会, 人们更可能离婚、独居、或拥有小的家庭; 更可能拥有一个独特的名字、使用“我”和“我的”等第一人称单数代词; 更可能拥有个人主义的价值观(比如独立和自主)、更多个人主义的人格特征(比如自恋)、更少的集体主义的人格特征(比如同情); 更可能通过尝试错误的方式学习, 更可能表现出抽象的、非情境化的思维而不是具体的、依赖于情境的思维; 更可能接受新事物、新观念; 拥有更多的私有的而非集体的自我知识; 更可能表现出世俗和非服从的行为; 更可能脱离宗教、做出非常规的性行为; 更可能把自主和独立作为养育孩子的目标; 更可能体验到负性消极情感并把情感寄托于个人因素而非外在环境因素等等。不过, 虽然总体上来看, 全球文化都有个人主义上升和集体主义下降的趋势, 但这种转变不是单向、线性的, 传统文化将在一定程度上和范围里持续存在, 一些对当地环境具有适应性的价值观并不一定会随着社会的发展而消失, 传统文化的某些方面在特定情境下甚至可能出现增强的现象。同时, 多元文化的共存正成为当代人类社会发展的新特点。

值得一提的是, 本文所综述的研究中, 有些是个体水平上的研究(比如, 许多基于自我报告的研究), 有些是基于社会/群体水平的研究(比如, 许多基于文化产品和社会指标的研究)。由于一个水平上得到的发现和得出的规律未必能够推广到另外一个水平(Na et al., 2010), 我们在理解某一特定研究的结果时, 要特别注意该结果是在哪一个水平上获得的, 在对具体研究的结论进行跨水平的推广时需要特别小心。

此外, 还需要指出的是, 本文只是对过去半个多世纪来直接涉及文化或和文化相关的心理与行为的研究进行了整理, 没有涉及不必然和文化变化有联系的研究。比如, 大量研究发现, 过去几十年来, 人类的智力测验分数在持续上升, 研究者称之为“弗林效应” (王爱平, 周黎明, 张厚粲, 2016; Trahan, Stuebing, Fletcher, & Hiscock, 2014)。这些心理和行为变化对理解社会变迁对人类心理和行为的影响也具有重要意义, 给予足够的关注也是必需的。

4.2 现有研究的不足和未来可能的方向

尽管文化变迁研究已经取得了丰富成果, 揭示了经济社会发展过程中文化变迁和心理变化的一般规律和一些特点, 但是相对于几十年来跨文化心理学较为成熟的发展, 跨时间的文化心理学研究尚处于起步阶段, 还存在一些明显的不足和局限。

第一, 在方法上, 现有研究主要依赖于横断面设计、少有严格的追踪研究(见综述:Kashima, 2014)。横断设计研究的一个重要不足是无法对文化和心理变迁通常涉及的时间效应(Time Effect, 指时代发展对文化和心理的影响, 覆盖所有年龄的个体)、世代效应(Cohort Effect, 指和特定出生年代相联的效应, 主要影响特定年代出生的人)和年龄效应(Aging Effect, 主要指由个体成长发展所导致的变化)予以有效区分, 因而揭示的变迁效应通常是其中两种或三种的混合; 并且, 横断面设计无法揭示变迁过程中可能的因果关系、心理过程和机制等。未来研究应该尽可能采用跨代的序列追踪设计, 从而使得有可能对上述三种效应进行区分并分别考察其变迁。条件允许的话, 甚至还可以采用准实验或实验设计, 通过自然产生的变迁(比如城镇化)或在实验室启动历史情境从而考察时代变迁对个体的文化观念和心理的影响, 并确定其因果关系。

第二, 虽然现有研究揭示了大量文化心理变迁现象, 但是和大量的跨地域或跨文化间的研究相比, 研究内容和范围依然有很大的拓展空间。比如:现有研究涉及的心理现象和过程依然有限, 还有很多心理现象和过程没有涉及(如道德的变化、归因方式的变化等); 并且, 现有研究绝大多数只是揭示了单变量平均水平的变化, 对于变量间的关系变化则少有研究(如人际关系和幸福感之间关系的变化); 现有的文化变迁研究主要涉及个人主义-集体主义文化维度, 对于其他维度(比如权力距离、文化规范的松-紧程度等, 见Gelfand, Nishii, & Raver, 2006; Hofstede,1980; Triandis, 1995)及相关的文化心理现象的变化关注较少。

第三, 现有研究中虽然有一些涉及全球几十个国家的大规模调查, 但是大部分聚焦在美国等少数几个国家。鉴于不同文化间的差异和各自特定的历史文化, 每个国家和文化的变迁可能都有自己独特的轨迹和特点。比如新近的研究发现, 过去几十年来, 自尊在美国呈上升趋势、在日本则呈下降趋势、而在澳大利亚则呈稳定不变趋势(Hamamura & Septarini, 2017)。因此, 探讨美国以外的其他国家的独特的变迁轨迹, 不仅可以丰富对经济社会变化过程中的文化和心理变化的认识, 更可以了解文化变迁的独特性, 为特定国家的个体和社会发展服务。这一点对于中国尤其显得迫切。中国有悠久的历史, 自新中国成立以来, 特别是上个世纪70年代末改革开放以来, 经济经历了持续近40年的高速发展, 社会的方方面面都发生了翻天覆地的变化; 相应地, 人们的心理和行为也产生了大量的变化。揭示和理解中国巨大社会变迁对中国文化和心理行为的巨大影响及其独特性, 并基于此进行有效应对, 是当今中国面临的一项紧迫任务。

第四, 现有的研究虽然揭示了大量的文化心理变化, 但是对于变化背后的过程和机制则少有深入研究。例如:横向传播(比如全球化带来的外来文化的影响)和纵向传递(比如传统文化在代际间的传播)在文化心理变化过程中的作用如何?人际间的文化(Intersubjective Culture, 又称Perceived Culture)在文化和心理变化过程中起到了怎样的作用?文化和心理变化的神经基础和机制如何?文化变迁如何从个体间的互动最后导致群体文化的变化?多文化视角下不同文化间的互动在文化变迁过程中的作用如何?这些问题都需要更多的关注和研究。

最后, 经济社会的发展、文化心理的变化, 给个体、组织、社会既带来机遇, 更带来挑战。现有研究虽然揭示了大量文化和心理的变化, 但是少有研究探讨个体、组织、社会等各方面该如何应对这些变化。不恰当的应对可能导致个体适应不良、幸福感下降, 组织低效、竞争力低下, 社会发展受阻、人民生活水平下降等问题; 相反, 恰当且及时的应对则可以帮助个体适应变化, 增强组织效率和竞争力, 促进社会发展和创造力等等。对变化的应对无疑应该成为未来研究应该关注的重要方向, 这一点对已经和未来还将继续经历高速、广泛、深入变化的当下中国来说尤为重要。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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Cultural change toward greater individualism in Japan: Analyses of human and dog names. Presented on the 23rd Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, WINC Aichi, Nagoya

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Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 695.

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Are common names becoming less common? The rise in uniqueness and individualism in Japan

Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1490.

URL     PMID:4613833      [本文引用: 1]

We examined whether Japanese culture has become more individualistic by investigating how the practice of naming babies has changed over time. Cultural psychology has revealed substantial cultural variation in human psychology and behavior, emphasizing the mutual construction of socio-cultural environment and mind. However, much of the past research did not account for the fact that culture is changing. Indeed, archival data on behavior (e.g., divorce rates) suggest a rise in individualism in the U.S. and Japan. In addition to archival data, cultural products (which express an individual psyche and behavior outside the head; e.g., advertising) can also reveal cultural change. However, little research has investigated the changes in individualism in East Asia using cultural products. To reveal the dynamic aspects of culture, it is important to present temporal data across cultures. In this study, we examined baby names as a cultural product. If Japanese culture has become more individualistic, parents would be expected to give their children unique names. Using two databases, we calculated the rate of popular baby names between 2004 and 2013. Both databases released the rankings of popular names and their rates within the sample. As Japanese names are generally comprised of both written Chinese characters and their pronunciations, we analyzed these two separately. We found that the rate of popular Chinese characters increased, whereas the rate of popular pronunciations decreased. However, only the rate of popular pronunciations was associated with a previously validated collectivism index. Moreover, we examined the pronunciation variation of common combinations of Chinese characters and the written form variation of common pronunciations. We found that the variation of written forms decreased, whereas the variation of pronunciations increased over time. Taken together, these results showed that parents are giving their children unique names by pairing common Chinese characters with uncommon pronunciations, which indicates an increase in individualism in Japan.

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Dramatic political, economic, and social changes in China over the past several decades have been accompanied by much discussion in popular media and among academics of a fundamental transformation in Chinese sexual behavior. Several studies have examined current Chinese sexual behavior but have been limited to particular provinces or cities and have been based on non-random samples. The potential threat of a generalized HIV epidemic in China highlights the dearth of population-based information on current patterns of sexual behavior that could help design better intervention strategies and prevent misguided ones. This article uses data from the first national probability survey of adult sexual behavior in China completed during 1999 000, along with a historical and literature review, to address three key questions: 1) Has there been a revolution in sexual behavior in China? 2) Is China unique compared to other countries in these transformations? 3) What are the implications of these findings for China's risk of a generalized HIV epidemic?

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Abstract Cross-cultural psychologists have mostly contrasted East Asia with the West. However, this study shows that there are major psychological differences within China. We propose that a history of farming rice makes cultures more interdependent, whereas farming wheat makes cultures more independent, and these agricultural legacies continue to affect people in the modern world. We tested 1162 Han Chinese participants in six sites and found that rice-growing southern China is more interdependent and holistic-thinking than the wheat-growing north. To control for confounds like climate, we tested people from neighboring counties along the rice-wheat border and found differences that were just as large. We also find that modernization and pathogen prevalence theories do not fit the data.

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This paper examines change over time in American college students’ scores on the extraversion scales of the Eysenck Personality Inventory and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. The meta-analysis aims to investigate birth cohort as a proxy for the larger sociocultural environment, a previously unexamined influence on personality beyond genetics and family environment. Data collection strategies yielded 59 studies reporting data on 16,846 students. Correlations between extraversion scores and year of data collection were positive and strong (≥0.65) for both men and women and across both measures, suggesting that extraversion has increased over time. The increase is large, between 0.79 and 0.97 standard deviations (SDs) over 20–25 years, explaining between 14 and 19% of the variance in personality over this time.

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It has been proposed that social interdependence fosters holistic cognition, that is, a tendency to attend to the broad perceptual and cognitive field, rather than to a focal object and its properties, and a tendency to reason in terms of relationships and similarities, rather than rules and categories. This hypothesis has been supported mostly by demonstrations showing that East Asians, who are relatively interdependent, reason and perceive in a more holistic fashion than do Westerners. We examined holistic cognitive tendencies in attention, categorization, and reasoning in three types of communities that belong to the same national, geographic, ethnic, and linguistic regions and yet vary in their degree of social interdependence: farming, fishing, and herding communities in Turkey's eastern Black Sea region. As predicted, members of farming and fishing communities, which emphasize harmonious social interdependence, exhibited greater holistic tendencies than members of herding communities, which emphasize individual decision making and foster social independence. Our findings have implications for how ecocultural factors may have lasting consequences on important aspects of cognition.

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ABSTRACT With the dramatic recent changes in Chinese society, Chinese college students’ average levels of loneliness and social support might also have changed across their birth cohorts. The present cross-temporal meta-analysis of 56 studies (N = 21,541) found that Chinese college students’ scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3) increased gradually from 2002 to 2011. The increasing trend in loneliness occurred among both men and women. Another similar meta-analysis of 110 studies (N = 57,420) showed that Chinese college students’ scores on the Social Support Rating Scale decreased from 1999 to 2011, with a slightly larger shift occurring among college men. The increase in loneliness across birth cohorts among Chinese college students was associated with the decline of their perceived social support levels (especially objective social support).

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Although previous literature has revealed the predictive effect of trust on economic development, whether the level of China’s market economy development predicts changes in trust across birth cohorts remains unknown. Study 1, a cross-temporal meta-analysis of 82 studies ( N = 34,151), indicated that Chinese college students’ scores on the Interpersonal Trust Scale (ITS) decreased significantly from 1998 to 2011, and that the decline in interpersonal trust across birth cohorts was negatively associated with and predicated by the marketization index. Study 2 found that the levels of marketization of different provinces in China were negatively associated with the levels of trust in these provinces. The present research first proposed that the marketization process in China may predict or correlate with a trend of declining trust, and then demonstrated the validity of the proposal based on both longitudinal and cross-sectional evidence.

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Abstract Recent research points to Chinese people's elevated tendency to make positive self-evaluations, despite the general claim that East Asians do not self-enhance. We present three studies in support of a novel prediction that sociocultural change in China plays an important role in augmenting self-enhancement. We operationalized self-enhancement primarily in terms of the better-than-average effect (BTAE) and accounted for trait desirability or importance. We found that: (i) compared with Chinese Canadians, Chinese showed a stronger BTAE; (ii) within the Chinese, identification with contemporary Chinese culture uniquely predicted a stronger BTAE; and (iii) priming contemporary (vs. traditional) Chinese culture led to a stronger BTAE. Finally, we provided further evidence that motivation, in part, underlies the rising Chinese BTAE. We conclude by discussing the importance of both socioeconomic and cultural perspectives for understanding how and when of self-enhancement in contemporary China and other societies undergoing social change.

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