心理科学进展, 2018, 26(10): 1844-1856 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01844

研究前沿

睡眠与工作:相互作用机制

盛小添, 刘耔含, 张西超,, 郭恒, 笪姝, 周诗怡

心理学国家级实验教学示范中心(北京师范大学), 北京 100875

Sleep and work: The interactive mechanism

SHENG Xiaotian, LIU Zihan, ZHANG Xichao,, GUO Heng, DA Shu, ZHOU Shiyi

Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China

通讯作者: 张西超, E-mail: xchzhang@bnu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2017-09-11   网络出版日期: 2018-10-15

基金资助: *国家社会科学基金项目.  13BGL083

Received: 2017-09-11   Online: 2018-10-15

摘要

睡眠问题在现代社会的职场人士中日益严重, 受到研究者广泛关注。本文基于近年来国内外重要的实证研究, 对工作场所中睡眠问题的界定、测量、影响因素与影响后果进行了系统梳理。总体来看, 研究者主要从睡眠时长、睡眠质量两个维度衡量个体睡眠情况, 并通过客观的仪器记录和主观的自我报告两种方式进行测量。影响个体睡眠情况的因素可分为环境因素、认知因素和行为因素三类, 同时不良的睡眠情况又会对员工的心理层面与行为层面产生消极影响, 引发组织偏离行为和工作事故等。未来的研究可深入探讨睡眠的研究方法, 关注纵向设计与实验室实验等方法, 并着眼于影响睡眠的因素与相关调节变量, 为管理政策的制定提出意见, 同时关注高龄工作者的睡眠问题以及工作-家庭冲突对睡眠的影响。

关键词: 睡眠 ; 工作场所 ; 情绪 ; 工作绩效 ; 干预

Abstract

Sleep-related problems are becoming increasingly severer for workers, which draw great attention from researchers. Based on important empirical researches in recent years, we finish a systematic summary of the conceptualization, measurement, antecedents and consequences of sleep in the workplace. In general, researches measure individual’s sleep from two dimensions including sleep duration and sleep quality. Objective records and subjective reports are both used to collect data. Antecedents of sleep problems can be classified as environmental factors, cognitive factor and behavioral factors. Unsatisfactory sleep also has a negative influence on the psychological state and behaviors of workers, which may lead to workplace deviance and accidents. Future researches can explore deeply the research methods of sleep and pay attention to longitudinal design and experimental design. Also, antecedents and relevant moderators deserve great concern and can be applied for the management policy setting. Besides, sleep problems of aged workers and the impact of work-family conflict on sleep are also meaningful topics.

Keywords: sleep ; workplace ; affect ; job performance ; intervention

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本文引用格式

盛小添, 刘耔含, 张西超, 郭恒, 笪姝, 周诗怡. (2018). 睡眠与工作:相互作用机制. 心理科学进展, 26(10), 1844-1856

SHENG Xiaotian, LIU Zihan, ZHANG Xichao, GUO Heng, DA Shu, ZHOU Shiyi. (2018). Sleep and work: The interactive mechanism. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(10), 1844-1856

1 引言

睡眠是人类得以生存和发展的基本需要之一。但在当今社会, 睡眠问题日趋严重, 睡眠时间少、睡眠质量低已经成为各类人群共同存在的问题。与此同时, 睡眠相关的影响因素研究也引起了极大重视, 一系列研究指出睡眠质量除了受到性别、年龄、睡眠环境、应激事件等客观因素影响之外, 还与个体的生理状况与心理因素密切相关。在生理层面, 基因、睡眠方式、药物摄入与不适身体状况等都可能对睡眠质量造成影响(Genderson et al., 2013)。而在心理层面, 人们对于睡眠的认知与信念会对睡眠质量有着重要影响, 并且较低的睡眠质量会进一步加剧这类信念, 从而形成恶性循环, 影响日间活动(Harvey, Tang, & Browning, 2005)。同时, 情绪唤起也会影响睡眠, 焦虑、抑郁、愤怒等负面情绪都会显著干扰睡眠质量(Pilcher, Ginter, & Sadowsky, 1997)。更为严重的是, 睡眠不佳会致使个体出现躯体不适、心理状态失衡等现象, 甚至导致躯体疾病与心理障碍等严重问题。

这一现象在职场人士中尤为值得关注。有研究表示, 在过去30年中, 全职工作人员工作时间持续上升, 而睡眠时间持续下降(Knutson, Van Cauter, Rathouz, DeLeire, & Lauderdale, 2010)。并且在工作与家庭事务日趋繁忙时, 员工也会更加倾向于牺牲睡眠时间来完成其他任务(Barnes, Wagner, & Ghumman, 2012)。令人担忧的是, 这种睡眠问题对工作场所的不文明行为(Barnes, Schaubroeck, Huth, & Ghumman, 2011)、员工情绪幸福感(Wrzus, Wagner, & Riediger, 2014)以及工作投入表现(Lanaj, Johnson, & Barnes, 2014)等方面都会带来负面影响。因此, 工作场所中的睡眠问题成为了一项极具现实意义的研究课题。

在众多工作场所中的睡眠相关研究中, 自我调节理论(self-regulation theory)始终受到研究者的关注, 成为睡眠问题的首要解释模型。在这一理论框架下, 睡眠不仅是一种休息与放松的方式, 而且能协助参与自我控制资源的恢复过程(Hagger, 2010), 即在睡眠过程中, 我们完成任务所必需的、有限的自我控制资源不断得以修复。睡眠的规律性与充分性在这一过程中均起到不可替代的作用。而这种自我控制资源的恢复则可以进一步解释个体在后续工作中认知、情绪、动机等方面的差异。

纵观以往工作场所中与睡眠相关的研究, 大多受理论模型驱动, 或以睡眠为结果变量, 探讨工作要求等因素对于睡眠的影响; 或以睡眠作为预测变量, 了解其对于个体工作表现的作用; 或以睡眠作为调节或中介变量, 关注它在某一职场现象中的意义。此外, 也存在一部分研究旨在深入研究睡眠测量方法与研究技术。而本研究则旨在综合以往研究, 进行梳理和回顾, 并在此基础上对未来的研究方向进行展望(见图1)。

图1

图1   综述框架


2 睡眠的相关概念

睡眠对于能量保存和神经系统恢复有重要作用, 是人体机能的基本需要(Siegel, 2005)。根据Buysse, Reynolds Iii, Monk, Berman和Kupfer (1989)的定义, 睡眠包含“定量层面, 例如睡眠时长、入睡时长和觉醒次数等”; 还包含“更加主观的层面, 例如睡眠的深度和休息程度(restfulness)。”近年来, 研究者们进一步将睡眠引入组织心理学领域(Barber, Munz, Bagsby, & Powell, 2009; Barnes, 2011, 2012), 从睡眠时长和睡眠质量两个维度来考察其在组织中的作用。

睡眠时长和睡眠质量是两个不同的概念。个体睡眠时长充足, 但是其睡眠质量可能不佳, 例如可能出现睡眠期间经常惊醒等情况; 而个体即使睡眠时长不足, 也可能睡眠较深, 不会惊醒, 睡眠质量高。以往研究表明, 睡眠质量比睡眠时长对个体的影响更大。睡眠质量差的男性会出现过强的皮质醇反应, 影响其应对压力的能力; 但睡眠时长对皮质醇反应没有显著影响(Bassett, Lupis, Gianferante, Rohleder, & Wolf, 2015)。另外, 睡眠质量差会加剧领导的自我损耗, 进而增多其对下属的辱虐管理行为; 但睡眠时长对领导的自我损耗和辱虐管理行为均没有显著影响(Barnes, Lucianetti, Bhave, & Christian, 2015)。Litwiller, Snyder, Taylor和Steele (2017)对152项研究进行元分析, 结果表明睡眠时长和睡眠质量之间相关为.16。相比于睡眠时长, 以往研究也更多采用睡眠质量作为指标; 并且睡眠质量与工作表现等结果变量的相关更强, 效应量更大。

失眠是指难以入睡, 或者清晨早醒后无法入睡(Ohayon, 2002)的现象, 是一种睡眠质量差的体现。虽然失眠往往伴随着睡眠时长的不足, 但不是由客观工作安排造成的(如加班), 而是即使在有充分的时间用于睡眠, 但由于个体自身的原因无法入睡或早醒难再入睡。因此失眠应当归于睡眠质量的考察范围, 前人研究中测量失眠与睡眠质量的方式也类似(Litwiller et al., 2017)。

睡眠问题能够导致个体在工作时产生睡意(sleepiness), 睡意是不充足睡眠造成的主要后果之一(Åkerstedt, Anund, Axelsson, & Kecklund, 2014)。与饥饿和口渴类似, 睡意是人体对睡眠的渴望, 反映的是一种广泛性的、用以维持个体平衡状态的生理需求(Dement & Carskadon, 1982), 并且可能导致人体机能的下降(Horne, 2010)。以往有关睡意的研究大部分关注个体生理层面的变化, 只有少部分研究考察了睡意在工作场所中的影响。其中一些研究者发现, 员工主观体验到的睡意会导致认知功能下降, 使工作场所事故发生率上升, 也使员工更有可能在工作中受伤(Philip & Åkerstedt, 2006; Kling, Mcleod, & Koehoorn, 2010)。除此之外, 更多研究倾向于将睡意作为低睡眠质量与低睡眠时长带来的一种主观体验(Ohayon, 2012), 而非描述睡眠情况的直接指标, 并把它视为将睡眠质量、睡眠时长与其他结果变量相联系的中介变量; 例如, Mullins, Cortina, Drake和Dalal (2014)发现睡眠质量和睡眠时长可以通过白天的睡意来影响工作表现。因此睡意在一定程度上可被视为睡眠问题的后续体现与结果变量, 与睡眠时长等概念存在层级差异。综上, 本文随后将主要围绕睡眠质量、睡眠时长与失眠等工作场所实证研究中的直接指标展开讨论。

3 睡眠的测量方法

在组织行为和职业健康领域, 睡眠的测量方法可以根据数据来源和时间范围来进行分类。数据来源包括客观的仪器记录和主观的自我报告, 时间范围包括单日/一周的短范围测量和一个月以上的长范围测量。

睡眠仪器常用于记录当日的睡眠情况。相比于主观报告, 仪器记录在时间上更加准确。例如, Barnes, Ghumman和Scott (2013)采用脑电设备记录被试睡眠时的脑电波活动, β波和α波分别表示觉醒状态和困倦状态, θ波和Δ波表示睡眠状态, 根据脑电波的变化计算出相应的睡眠时长。但是, 使用脑电设备需要被试到实验室进行睡眠数据的采集, 可操作性较低, 不适用于大样本快速施测。随着便携设备和相关软件的快速发展, 电子手环等活动记录仪可以用于记录睡眠状况。Barber, Taylor, Burton和Bailey (2017)使用活动记录仪来监测个体每天的睡眠情况, 包括睡眠效率(睡眠时间除以躺在床上的时间)、觉醒分钟数和觉醒次数等指标, 均可用于表征睡眠质量。除了得到每天的睡眠数据之外, 还可以将其平均得到每周或更长时间范围的客观睡眠数据。

主观报告常采用Buysse等(1989)开发的匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(Pittsburgh sleep quality index, PSQI)。PSQI利用18道自我评分的题目考察睡眠的7个维度:睡眠质量、入睡时间、睡眠时间、睡眠效率、睡眠障碍、催眠药物和日间功能。每个维度0~3计分, 得分越高表示睡眠质量越差。PSQI信效度良好(刘贤臣等, 1996; 路桃影, 李艳, 夏萍, 张广清, 吴大嵘, 2014), 广泛应用于睡眠相关的研究中。但是PSQI考察的是被试近一个月内的睡眠情况, 随着经验取样法的发展(张银普, 骆南峰, 石伟, 2016), 越来越多的研究聚焦于睡眠的短期波动, 希望获得更加精确的睡眠数据; 且原版PSQI题量较大, 不适于每天施测, 因此Monk等(1994)在此基础上开发了匹兹堡睡眠日记问卷(Pittsburgh sleep diary, PghSD), 分为睡前问卷和醒后问卷两部分。睡前问卷主要考察被试是否进食了影响睡眠的食物和饮品, 例如咖啡、酒精、药物等。醒后问卷主要考察被试前一晚的入睡时间、觉醒分钟数和觉醒次数等。但是, PghSD的题量仍然较大, 并且睡前问卷并没有直接反映被试的睡眠情况。于是, 研究者们根据特定的研究需要, 从原版PSQI中抽取相应题目形成简版PSQI。例如, 有研究者采用PSQI中的5道题来分别测量和计算被试前一晚的睡眠效率、睡眠时间、入睡时间、睡眠质量和休息程度(Barnes et al., 2013; Diestel, Rivkin, & Schmidt, 2015)。除此之外, Jenkins, Stanton, Niemcryk和Rose (1988)编制的睡眠问题问卷更加关注睡眠质量, 共4道题, 采用里克特5点评分, 让被试评定在多大程度上符合以下描述:“入睡困难” “难以保持熟睡(包括清晨过早醒来后睡不着)” “夜里醒来好几次” “醒来后感到疲惫, 没有休息好”。由于该问卷题量少, 并且信效度良好, 所以常被用于日记法研究中(Barber et al., 2017; Barnes, Miller, & Bostock, 2017)。以上问卷均可以在题干前加上特定的时间范围, 例如“昨晚” “近一个月”等, 以用于不同的研究设计。

比较以往研究, 主观报告的睡眠情况更能体现个体的真实感受, 与其他主观报告的变量之间存在更强的效应(Litwiller et al., 2017)。这可能是由于对睡眠的主观感受能够反映个体的自我调节动机, 而客观记录的睡眠只是反映了个体的自我调节能力, 而对于特定结果变量(如工作投入)的影响更多取决于动机的高低(Barber et al., 2017)。除此之外, 相比于一天或一周的短期睡眠情况, 时间范围在一周以上的稳定睡眠情况和压力类变量存在更强的相关(Litwiller et al., 2017), 尤其是阻碍性压力源(French, Allen, & Henderson, 2017)。这可能是由于睡眠情况的波动性较大, 可能个体长期的睡眠质量很差, 但是某几天的睡眠质量较好, 而这种短期的睡眠恢复不足以补充长期压力带来的资源损耗(Sheng, Wang, Hong, Zhu, & Zhang, 2017)。

综上所述, 研究者在探究睡眠与组织中心理/行为变量的关系时, 宜采用主观报告的睡眠指标, 考察被试较长时间内的稳定睡眠质量。当聚焦于睡眠质量的短期变化时, 或者所探究的睡眠前因或后效为短期内经常波动的变量时, 例如每日时间压力(李爱梅, 颜亮, 王笑天, 马学谦, 李方君, 2015)和每日工作投入(陆欣欣, 涂乙冬, 2015), 可采用经验取样法(张银普等, 2016), 每天测量睡眠质量及相关变量, 同时辅以电子手环采集的客观指标反映每日的睡眠时长, 以期获得更加精准的数据。

4 睡眠的影响因素

鉴于睡眠的重要性, 学者们开展了大量研究, 探讨睡眠的影响因素。通过对以往研究进行梳理, 本文认为可以将与工作有关的影响因素分为三类:环境因素、认知因素和行为因素, 其中环境因素又可细分为工作要求、工作资源和工作-家庭冲突等。

4.1 环境因素

工作要求-资源(Job Demands-Resources, JD-R)理论认为, 所有的工作特性都可以被分为工作要求和工作资源(Bakker & Demerouti, 2017)。工作场所中影响睡眠的各类因素, 也可以根据JD-R理论归为工作要求和工作资源。除了单纯的工作环境, 工作-家庭冲突也会影响工作者的睡眠。

工作要求往往对睡眠有负向影响。其中, 倒班制度是对睡眠影响最大的因素之一, 护士等职业的工作节律与人体内生物节律存在冲突(艾杰妮, 管锦群, 2015), 他们均面临着倒班制度带来的睡眠问题(Lajoie, Aronson, Day, & Tranmer, 2015)。美国睡眠医学专业委员将由倒班制度引发的睡眠问题命名为倒班工作睡眠障碍(shift work disorder, SWD), 例如因为工作日程而反复失眠等(AASM, 2001)。倒班制度诱发的典型睡眠问题为入睡困难(Åkerstedt, Nordin, Alfredsson, Westerholm, & Kecklund, 2010)。一项对3637名员工进行为期5年的追踪调查发现, 员工由常规工作制度改为倒班制度后, 入睡困难的症状显著增加; 而从倒班制度转为常规工作制度后, 该症状得到显著缓解。由此可见, 工作本身的特性会影响员工的睡眠(Barnes, Jiang, & Lepak, 2016), 倒班制度即为典型影响因素。除了倒班制外, 高时间压力和工作负荷(Mullins et al., 2014)、恶劣的物理工作要求等(Lallukka, Rahkonen, Lahelma, & Arber, 2010)均会带来睡眠问题。Lallukka等(2010)研究发现, 在危险化学品/噪音环境中工作、长期使用电脑和久坐等, 均会损害睡眠质量。Litwiller等(2017)通过元分析发现, 工作时间能负向预测睡眠时长(Nakashima et al., 2011), 而工作负荷能负向预测睡眠质量。

充足的工作资源往往对睡眠有正向影响。工作掌控感(De Lange et al., 2009)、组织公正、来自领导和同事的支持(Linton et al., 2015)等工作资源均与睡眠质量正相关。相对地, 工作资源不足则有损睡眠质量。例如, 在工作中没有得到同事的支持, 反而受到同事的欺凌, 则会负向影响睡眠质量。Tea Lallukka, Rahkonen和Lahelma (2011)采用纵向研究设计对7332名员工进行调查, 其中有5%的员工表示在工作中受到欺凌, 并且欺凌和睡眠质量呈负相关关系。

除此之外, 工作-家庭冲突也与睡眠有紧密联系(Lallukka et al., 2010)。当工作和家庭生活均占据大量时间时, 个体往往选择牺牲睡眠时间来应对工作和家庭的事务, 以期缓解工作-家庭冲突。因此, 工作-家庭冲突负向预测个体的睡眠时间和睡眠质量(Buxton et al., 2016; Lallukka et al., 2013)。Buxton等(2016)对799名IT员工过去一个月的工作-家庭冲突情况和睡眠情况进行调查, 结果发现, 无论是工作对家庭的影响, 还是家庭对工作的影响, 均会带来睡眠质量的下降。Lallukka等(2013)通过5年的追踪研究发现, 对于女性来说, 家庭对工作的影响对其睡眠的负向预测作用更强, 而在男性中没有发现工作-家庭冲突对睡眠的影响。

4.2 认知因素

持续性的认知(perseverative cognition)对于生理健康有重要的影响(Ottaviani et al., 2016)。对于员工来说, 在工作之外也有可能常常担心工作上的事务, 会在脑海中模拟完成任务的相关场景, 这种持续性的认知过程即为工作反刍。Cropley和Zijlstra (2011)进一步将工作反刍分为两种类型, 一种是伴随着消极情绪, 并且反复认知的状态, 称为情绪反刍; 另一种是员工本身享受工作, 在思考工作相关的事情时是一种积极的状态, 而不伴有消极情绪, 称为问题解决思维。有研究者对59名员工进行了12周的调查, 结果发现未完成的工作任务能引发情绪反刍和问题解决思维, 同时情绪反刍能负向影响周末的睡眠质量, 而问题解决思维对睡眠质量没有直接的影响(Syrek, Weigelt, Peifer, & Antoni, 2017)。Syrek等(2017)进一步分析发现, 问题解决思维能够缓解情绪反刍与睡眠质量之间的负相关关系。

4.3 行为因素

睡眠卫生(sleep hygiene)是指一系列会对睡眠产生影响的行为(Gellis & Lichstein, 2009), 不良睡眠卫生包括:(1) 不恰当的睡眠时间安排(如, 入睡时间不规律), (2)使用干扰睡眠的产品(如, 咖啡), (3)在临近睡觉时进行激烈或唤醒度高的活动(如, 使用手机), (4)在床上进行睡觉以外的活动(如, 使用电脑处理公务), (5)使睡眠环境不舒适(如, 噪音) (AASM, 2001)。

其中, 夜间使用手机不利于睡眠。手机虽然能及时获得工作相关的信息, 便于沟通交流, 但上床后仍然使用手机处理工作事宜或是进行娱乐活动会导致过度的认知活动, 从而影响人们入睡(Gellis & Lichstein, 2009; Harvey, 2000)。Lanaj等(2013)的研究发现, 睡前使用手机的时间越长, 被试的睡眠时间越短。

5 睡眠对工作场所的影响效果

工作场所中聚焦于睡眠的研究往往还会以睡眠为预测变量, 探讨睡眠状况对于工作场所中各种表现的影响。以往大量研究显示出睡眠问题对于认知、情绪等基础心理过程的消极作用, 不充足和低质量的睡眠可能会伤害感觉记忆和工作记忆(Walker, 2010), 引发抑郁, 同时带来更低的情绪幸福感(Nakata, 2011)。而这些基础心理功能的损伤导致了在员工个体心理层面与行为表现层面更为具体的外显体现, 其中在个体心理层面包括情绪、压力感知等, 在行为表现层面又可细化为任务表现、人际行为和组织偏离行为等。

5.1 睡眠对员工心理层面的影响

工作场所中员工的情绪相关问题在心理学研究, 特别是职业健康心理学中是一个核心变量, 个体的情绪水平在一定程度上会决定其受到工作情境的吸引或排斥, 做出趋近或回避的反应, 促进或瓦解心理和行为(Voronov & Vince, 2012)。拥有睡眠问题的个体常常在面对问题时体验到一种资源匮乏感, 认为自己无法应付来自工作情境的要求, 并带来压力感的上升(Barber, Grawitch, & Munz, 2013)。Barber等(2009)的研究中发现, 只有规律且充足的睡眠才会降低被试的心理压力。Minkel等(2012)通过一项实验室研究探讨了其中机制, 睡眠不足会通过作用于个体的压力感知阈限影响压力水平, 即在睡眠剥夺的条件下, 个体面对低强度压力源时主观压力显著提高。

此外, 睡眠不足还会导致其他消极情绪的出现。Nakata (2011)针对全职员工的研究表明, 自我报告存在睡眠不足问题的个体中抑郁症的流行率显著高于睡眠正常群体。同时睡眠不足的个体在面对低强度压力问题时表现出更高水平的焦虑与愤怒(Minkel et al., 2012)。而睡眠充足的员工在面对情绪问题上则体现出更强的恢复能力。高质量睡眠的个体前一天工作中消极情绪与第二天晨间消极情绪之间的相关显著更低, 消极情绪的溢出效应得到控制, 表明睡眠有助于帮助个体完成情绪上的心理脱离(Sonnentag & Binnewies, 2013)。睡眠对于情绪调节的作用在情绪劳动从业者中得到了较好的体现, 高质量的睡眠能够有效调节情绪劳动带来的心理冲突, 提高劳动者的心理幸福感水平(Diestel et al., 2015)。

5.2 睡眠对员工行为表现的影响

5.2.1 睡眠对角色内绩效的影响

角色内绩效描述的是工作场所中员工完成工作任务的表现, 即其做出的属于工作要求的、并对组织的技术层面有贡献的活动(Borman & Motowidlo, 1997)。由于睡眠质量低与时间匮乏会导致个体的认知功能受到损害, 降低注意能力与记忆水平, 同时影响信息加工过程(Hsieh, Tsai, & Tsai, 2009), 从而使任务完成中所必需的能力受到限制, 工作绩效受到影响。

睡眠是自我控制资源进行不断完成恢复和补充的重要过程, 因此睡眠时间和质量在一定程度上会影响个体完成日间活动的所需资源。大量以自我控制资源作为理论模型的研究显示, 睡眠缺乏会导致个体在晨间就处于资源耗竭的状态, 进而影响白天的工作投入程度, 从而威胁到个体对于工作任务的完成情况(Barber et al., 2013; Diestel et al., 2015; Lanaj et al., 2014)。

与此同时, 不充足或不规律的睡眠会导致个体的资源无法完成较好地恢复, 疲惫感不断积累, 行为反应的灵敏性下降, 导致作业时准确度降低、反应时升高, 影响完成任务的表现(Minkel et al., 2014)。一项针对飞行员的研究表示, 繁重飞行任务带来的睡眠时间减少、睡眠节律混乱会造成飞行员疲劳感上升, 警戒度下降, 使发生飞行事故的可能性显著上升(Caldwell, 2012)。

睡眠对于工作表现的影响不仅存在于普通领域和专业化领域的员工, 而且体现在管理层的行为当中。Barnes, Guarana, Nauman和Kong (2016)的一项研究显示, 经过睡眠剥夺的领导会更少地表现出魅力型领导行为; 同时另一篇研究也指出, 睡眠质量较低会导致管理人员表现出更多的辱虐管理行为, 面对这种辱虐领导的下属则相应表现出更低的工作投入程度, 从而妨碍任务的推进与工作的完成(Barnes, Lucianetti, et al., 2015)。因此, 工作场所中个体的角色内绩效会直接或间接地受到睡眠问题不同程度的影响。

5.2.2 睡眠对工作中人际行为的影响

个体在工作情境中不仅要展示出任务要求内的努力, 而且常常需要做出一些工作正式要求以外的、有利于组织目标实现的人际行为, 例如表现友好、帮助并与他人协作等。而这些更为微妙的能力表现同样与睡眠问题存在联系。

睡眠缺乏可能导致个体在人际交往中对社会信息的感知受到影响。Barnes等(2013)的一项横断研究表明, 睡眠时长能通过工作满意度有效预测个体的组织公民行为。在面对和感知领导方式上, 经过了睡眠剥夺的个体感知到的视频中演讲者的魅力型领导水平处于较低水平, 表明睡眠不足可能影响了领导与员工沟通交流中积极信息的传递与接收(Barnes, Guarana, et al., 2016)。Guarana和Barnes (2017)的另一项研究也表明了睡眠会通过敌意影响领导和下属感知到的关系质量, 这一关系对于领导而言在第一个月最为显著, 对于下属而言不随时间变化。值得注意的是, 研究还发现领导和下属都未意识到这种来自睡眠问题的消极影响。

同时, 睡眠缺乏所导致自我控制资源的缺乏还会带来一些更为消极的人际行为。一项实验室研究表明, 经历了睡眠剥夺的个体面对不平等分配时更有可能发出拒绝行为, 并表现出对他人显著更低的信任感, 并在自我的决策行为中存在更为强烈的侵略性(Anderson & Dickinson, 2010)。相比于正常睡眠的个体, 睡眠不足的被试缺乏资源来抑制自动化的刻板印象与偏见行为(Ghumman & Barnes, 2013), 同时流露出对他人更为明显的敌意, 以及随之而来表现出更多负性的异常人际行为(Christian & Ellis, 2011)。这表明睡眠问题对于员工之间与上下级之间的人际交往行为都存在一定影响, 对营造友好稳定的工作情境也有所制约。

5.2.3 睡眠对组织偏离行为、工作事故的影响

组织偏离行为指的是员工一些对组织生产效率产生严重危害的消极行为, 包括破坏物品、在工作中故意犯错、在组织中有意缺席等反生产行为。低质量、短时间的睡眠一般通过难以恢复的自我控制资源与组织偏离行为发生联系。针对上班期间上网浏览无关内容行为展开的一项研究表明, 睡眠时间较短或睡眠中被中断的被试更易于在上班期间滥用网络, 出现不专注于工作的行为(Wagner, Barnes, Lim, & Ferris, 2012)。Sivertsen等(2009)关注工作情境中缺勤情况的研究也显示, 存在睡眠问题的员工缺勤天数显著高于睡眠情况正常的员工。而睡眠缺乏还会导致道德意识下降(Barnes, Gunia, & Wagner, 2015), 在工作场所中表现出更多的不道德行为(Barnes et al., 2011)与欺骗行为(Welsh, Ellis, Christian, & Mai, 2014), 对组织氛围产生严重的影响。

除组织偏离行为外, 睡眠问题与更为严重的工作事故也存在一定联系。例如, 睡眠时长对于工作期间的受伤事件存在正向预测作用(Lombardi, Folkard, Willetts, & Smith, 2010); 不充足的睡眠往往导致个体无法完全履行工作中要求的安全行为, 从而导致伤害事件的出现(Kao, Spitzmueller, Cigularov, & Wu, 2016)。在一些日夜倒班与长时间工作等特殊性质职业中, 睡眠时长与质量的问题更为突出, 相应也存在更多与睡眠问题有关的工作事故(Vennelle, Engleman, & Douglas, 2010)。睡眠问题影响自我控制资源的恢复与补充, 导致个体无法完成工作相关的规定与要求, 进而可能引发反生产行为与工作事故。

6 未来研究展望

6.1 睡眠的研究方法

睡眠的研究从最初的横向设计, 逐渐发展为纵向设计, 随着近年来相关统计方法的发展, 也有越来越多的研究开始采用日记法或经验取样法(张银普等, 2016)来研究睡眠的动态性变化。即在连续两周或更长时间范围内每天调查被试的睡眠状况, 采用多水平模型来对此嵌套数据进行分析, 从而得到更加精准的动态睡眠数据。但是, 对于长期影响造成的心理变量(例如工作倦怠等), 这种短期测量不能很好地反映睡眠的影响。在进行睡眠研究设计时, 应当充分结合其他相关变量的性质来进行适当的选取, 可以遵循“短期睡眠对短期结果变量” “长期睡眠对长期结果变量”的原则。

随着技术的发展, 目前已经有便携设备可用于检测被试每天的睡眠情况。未来的研究应当在被试主观报告的基础上, 结合生理指标等客观数据, 以期更加立体地呈现睡眠状况。

另外, 虽然纵向设计在横向研究的基础上, 有了变量在时间上的变化顺序, 但是依然不能阐明严格的因果关系。未来的研究应当引入更加严谨的实验室研究方法, 探索睡眠的前因变量和结果变量。例如, Barnes, Guarana等(2016)就采用实验研究设计来探讨了睡眠剥夺对魅力型领导的消极影响。研究者操纵了实验组被试的睡眠情况, 晚上每个小时给被试发一次问卷要求被试进行填写, 第二天再让被试到实验室进行和魅力型领导相关的实验任务。在操纵检验时发现实验组的睡眠时间显著少于对照组, 由此说明这种睡眠的操纵方法是有效的。此类实验设计能获得更加具有说服力的睡眠剥夺效应。

6.2 睡眠相关的调节变量

未来研究可以在前人研究基础上进一步探究睡眠相关的调节变量, 具体来说可分为两类:睡眠前因的调节变量和睡眠后效的调节变量。首先, 一些变量能够缓解相关因素对睡眠时长或质量的消极作用。例如, 工作资源能够缓冲工作要求对健康的损害作用(Bakker & Demerouti, 2017)。Pow, King, Stephenson和DeLongis (2017)采用日记法对87名护理人员进行了连续一周的调查, 结果发现, 感知到的社会支持能够减缓工作压力对睡眠质量的消极影响。未来研究可以在工作要求-资源理论的框架下探讨影响睡眠的相关调节变量, 即当外部环境因素难以改变时(如工作负荷高或工作时间长), 组织、领导或个体可以创造或提供哪些工作资源来缓冲工作要求对睡眠带来的消极影响。

另外, 当睡眠不足或质量不佳时会带来自我调节资源的减少, 进而对员工心理和行为表现造成消极影响。因此, 研究可以从补充资源的角度入手, 探究相关调节变量。这种资源可以是生理层面的, 例如, Welsh等(2014)的研究表明, 咖啡因的摄入能够缓解睡眠剥夺与自我损耗之间的消极关系。这种资源也可以是心理层面的, 例如, Lanaj等(2014)的研究表明, 工作控制感能够缓解损耗与工作投入之间的消极关系。

总的来说, 未来研究可以从补充资源的角度, 探究合适的调节变量, 为改善睡眠状况、缓解睡眠问题带来的消极影响提供理论和实证依据。

6.3 睡眠干预

睡眠质量不佳会在认知、情绪和信息加工等多个方面对个体带来消极影响(Mullins et al., 2014), 进而降低角色外工作绩效(Barnes et al., 2013)、增加工作中受伤的风险(Kao et al., 2016)和越轨行为等(Wagner et al., 2012)。研究者和组织管理者应当结合影响睡眠的前因变量和工作场所的实际情况, 开发有效的干预方案, 制定科学的管理政策。

首先, 在个人习惯方面, 应鼓励员工适当增加运动量, 并且减少睡前的手机使用量。研究者对490名员工进行干预 (Hori, Ikenouchi-Sugita, Yoshimura, & Nakamura, 2016)。结果表明, 对于没有锻炼习惯的被试来说, 行走干预能够显著降低入睡所需时间, 并且增加总的睡眠时长。Lanaj等(2014)发现晚上使用手机进行办公会显著降低睡眠时长, 进而降低第二天的工作投入水平 (Barnes & Spreitzer, 2015)。未来的研究应采用因果逻辑更严密的实验或准实验方法, 检验前因变量对睡眠的影响作用, 进而提出可行的睡眠指导意见。

第二, 在干预手段方面, 目前有研究证实, 针对失眠的认知行为疗法(cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, CBT-I, 任志洪等, 2016)和正念训练均有助于改善睡眠状况。研究者发现, 接收6周的线上CBT-I后, 干预组的睡眠效率显著高于安慰剂组和对照组, 并且在干预结束后具有持续性(Espie et al., 2012)。除此之外, 有研究者还发现10周的CBT-I对于改善由失眠带来的消极工作结果(如消极情绪、工作满意度和自我控制)有积极影响 (Barnes et al., 2017)。Hülsheger, Feinholdt和Nübold (2015)验证了正念训练对睡眠的积极作用。未来的研究应结合企业实践的可行性和理论的科学性, 开发出简便经济的睡眠干预工具, 并检验其实际作用。

第三, 不同职业的人群可能面临不同的睡眠问题。例如, 对于护士、保安等倒班制职业, 由于其工作特殊性, 必须在夜间工作, 无法按照人体生物节律进行睡眠。研究者和实践者们应当结合工作实际和科学依据, 设法缓解睡眠问题, 进而减少工作中的疏漏和安全问题。有研究通过调整灯光的颜色和亮度来模拟自然环境的光亮变化(例如, 夜间时段重症加护病房的灯光更加暗淡, 同时去除会抑制褪黑素分泌的蓝光), 从而帮助护士应对倒班制带来的睡眠问题。相比于对照组, 干预组的护士在倒班工作结束后更易入睡, 在睡醒后也感觉休息得更好(Jensen et al., 2016)。未来的研究应当面向不同职业类型和相应睡眠问题, 开发有针对性的干预方式, 实现精准干预。

最后, 在宏观政策方面, Barnes和Drake (2015)认为人们对睡眠危机的忽视已经造成了棘手的公共健康问题, 对公民的身心健康、工作绩效和安全等都有消极影响。有关部门应该结合科学的研究成果制定相应的公共政策, 包括:从国家层面推迟初高中上学的时间、明确上班和下班的界限、让大众意识到电子媒体对睡眠的影响、在人们遇到睡眠问题时提供便利的求助渠道等。未来的研究应结合我国国情, 为公共政策的制定提供指导, 并且检验不同公共政策对睡眠危机的缓解作用。

6.4 关注高龄工作者的睡眠

国务院最新引发的《国家人口发展规划(2016-2030年)》指出我国“劳动年龄人口趋于老化, 到2030年, 45~59岁大龄劳动力占比将达到36%左右(国务院, 2017)”。同时, 随着老龄化程度不断加深, 中国将适时实施渐进式延迟退休年龄政策(人力资源社会保障部, 2017), 届时组织中的年龄层次将更加复杂。研究者们应当关注不同年龄段员工在工作中的需求, 帮助组织建立适合高龄员工(age-friendly)的工作制度和氛围(Zacher, 2017)。

已有研究表明年龄和睡眠质量息息相关。随着年龄的增长, 主观报告的睡眠质量显著下降(Madrid-Valero, Martínez-Selva, Ribeiro do Couto, Sánchez-Romera, & Ordoñana, 2017)。具体而言, 个体年龄增大, 总的睡眠时长、睡眠效率和慢波睡眠均会减少, 而入睡后醒来的次数会增加(Moraes et al., 2014; Ohayon, Carskadon, Guilleminault, & Vitiello, 2004)。除此之外, 随着年龄的增长, 睡眠模式也会发生改变。Ohayon等(2004)对65项研究进行了元分析, 结果表明, 随着年龄的增长, 入睡阶段、睡眠阶段1和阶段2所占的比例均会增加, 而快速眼动睡眠的比例会减少。总之, 年龄越大的员工, 往往面临着更严峻的睡眠问题。

另外, 对于高龄员工来说, 睡眠问题所带来的影响可能具有一定的特异性。例如, Kääriä, Laaksonen, Rahkonen, Lahelma和Leino-Arjas (2012)研究发现, 对于年龄在40岁至60多岁的大龄员工来说, 睡眠问题能够诱发长期的脖颈疼痛。Wrzus等(2014)研究发现, 对于12~20岁的青少年来说, 睡眠时间越短, 第二天的情绪幸福感越低; 而对于20岁以上的成年人来说, 过短或过长的睡眠时间均不利于第二天的情绪幸福感, 并且年龄越大, 这种睡眠时长和情绪幸福感的倒U型关系越强烈。

除此之外, 对于不同的睡眠影响因素, 其重要性程度也可能随着年龄增长而发生变化。有研究者对8067名年龄在50至64岁的高龄员工进行调查, 结果发现对于高龄员工来说, 人岗匹配、工作安全感和职场中的人际关系是最重要的影响因素(Palmer et al., 2017)。Parkes (2016)研究发现, 年龄和工作要求对睡眠质量的影响存在交互作用, 年龄越大, 并且工作要求越高时, 员工的睡眠质量最差。

未来的研究应当关注高龄工作者的睡眠问题。具体来说, 应当通过系统研究来鉴别影响高龄员工睡眠的特异性因素, 以及高龄员工睡眠问题对工作带来的特异性影响。另外, 梳理高龄员工的典型睡眠问题, 提出针对性的干预方案; 或是基于现有的睡眠干预方案, 考察相同的干预方案对于年轻员工和高龄员工是否会有不同的干预效果。总之, 未来研究应该结合中国老龄化社会进程, 帮助高龄工作者更加积极地应对睡眠问题, 同时为组织提供更多可靠建议来缓解高龄工作者的睡眠困扰。

6.5 工作, 家庭, 睡眠

员工不仅要在工作中处理繁杂的事务, 还要面对来自家庭的种种责任, 工作和家庭的双重挑战每天都会消耗人们的精力和资源。Barnes等(2012)的研究发现, 员工花在工作和家庭上的时间越长, 其花在睡眠上的时间就越短, 并且当花在工作和家庭上的时间都长时(基于时间的工作-家庭冲突), 睡眠时间是最短的。而当人们牺牲睡眠来应对工作时, 反而会造成工作效率低、完成质量差。未来的研究应当整合睡眠对工作/家庭的影响, 通过科学的研究方法和结果, 让人们意识到睡眠对工作和家庭的重要性。例如, 睡眠质量差会使个体在面对压力时皮质醇水平过高(Minkel et al., 2014), 即对压力更加敏感, 感知到更大的工作压力。而增加的工作压力会溢出到家庭领域, 造成基于压力的工作-家庭冲突, 而工作-家庭冲突又会进一步降低睡眠质量。由此, 可能形成“睡眠-工作-家庭-睡眠”的螺旋下降式恶性循环。睡眠对工作/家庭的影响可能存在多种整合模式, 需要研究者们进一步探究和补充。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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We draw from the Ego Depletion model and research on sleep physiology to predict a relationship between lack of sleep and individuals unethical behavior. Laboratory studies showed that sleep quantity is positively related to self-control resources and negative associated with unethical behavior. In a cross-sectional field study examining unethical behavior in a variety of work settings, low levels of sleep, and low perceived quality of sleep, were both positively related to unethical behavior as rated by the supervisor, and cognitive fatigue mediated the influence of sleep quantity. In an experience sampling field study, we found similar effects within-individuals. We discuss the role of lost sleep in better understanding unethical behavior in organizations.

Barnes C. M., & Spreitzer, G. ( 2015).

Why sleep is a strategic resource

MIT Sloan Management Review, 56( 2), 19-21.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Barnes, Christopher M; Spreitzer, Gretchen M

Barnes C. M., Wagner D. T., & Ghumman S . ( 2012).

Borrowing from sleep to pay work and family: Expanding time-based conflict to the broader nonwork domain

Personnel Psychology, 65( 4), 789-819.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Bassett S. M., Lupis S. B., Gianferante D., Rohleder N., & Wolf J. M . ( 2015).

Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress

Stress, 18( 6), 638-644.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Borman W. C., & Motowidlo, S. J . ( 1997).

Task performance and contextual performance: The meaning for personnel selection research

Human Performance, 10( 2), 99-109.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This article distinguishes between task and contextual activities, and a taxonomy of contextual performance containing elements of organizational citizenship behavior and prosocial organizational behavior is offered. Evidence is presented demonstrating that supervisors weight roughly equally subordinate task and contextual performance when making overall judgments of their performance. This, along with data showing that personality successfully predicts contextual performance, provides an alternative explanation for recent meta-analytic findings that personality correlates moderately with overall performance. Personality may be predicting the contextual component of overall performance. Results from studies using the Hogan Personality Inventory confirm that correlations between personality and contextual criteria are higher than correlations between personality and overall performance. We argue that finding such links between predictors and individual criterion elements significantly advances the science of personnel selection.

Buxton O. M., Lee S., Beverly C., Berkman L. F., Moen P., Kelly E. L., .. Almeida D. M . ( 2016).

Work-family conflict and employee sleep: Evidence from IT workers in the work, family and health study

Sleep, 39( 10), 1911-1918.

[本文引用: 2]

Buysse D. J., Reynolds Iii C. F., Monk T. H., Berman S. R., & Kupfer D. J . ( 1989).

The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research

Psychiatry Research, 28( 2), 193-213.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Caldwell, J. A . ( 2012).

Crew schedules, sleep deprivation, and aviation performance

Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21( 2), 85-89.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Night-time departures, early morning arrivals, and adjusting to several time zones in a matter of days can rattle circadian rhythms, compromise attention and challenge vigilance. And yet, these are the very conditions many pilots face as they contend with a technically challenging job in which potentially hundreds of lives are at stake.

Christian M. S., & Ellis, A. P. J . ( 2011).

Examining the effects of sleep deprivation on workplace deviance: A self-regulatory perspective

Academy of Management Journal, 54( 5), 913-934.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT The causes of workplace deviance are of increasing interest to organizations. We integrate psychological and neurocognitive perspectives to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on workplace deviance. Utilizing self-regulatory resource theories, we argue that sleep deprivation decreases individuals' self-control while increasing hostility, resulting in increased workplace deviance. We test our hypotheses using two samples: one comprised of nurses from a large medical center and another comprised of undergraduate students participating in a lab study. Results from both samples largely converge in supporting our hypotheses.

Cropley M., & Zijlstra, F. R. H . ( 2011).

Work and rumination

In J. Langan-Fox & C. Cooper (Eds.), Handbook of stress in the occupations( pp. 487-502). Northhampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

[本文引用: 1]

De Lange A. H., Kompier M. A. J., Taris T. W., Geurts S. A. E., Beckers D. G. J., Houtman I. L. D., & Bongers P. M . ( 2009).

A hard day’s night: A longitudinal study on the relationships among job demands and job control, sleep quality and fatigue

Journal of Sleep Research, 18( 3), 374-383.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Dement W. C., & Carskadon, M. A . ( 1982).

Current perspectives on daytime sleepiness: The issues

Sleep, 5, S56-S66.

URL     PMID:6760334      [本文引用: 1]

[Article in Czech]

Diestel S., Rivkin W., & Schmidt K. H . ( 2015).

Sleep quality and self-control capacity as protective resources in the daily emotional labor process: Results from two diary studies

Journal of Applied Psychology, 100( 3), 809-827.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Espie C. A., Kyle S. D., Williams C., Ong J. C., Douglas N. J., Hames P., & Brown J. S . ( 2012).

A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of online cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia disorder delivered via an automated media-rich web application

Sleep, 35( 6), 769-781.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

French K. A., Allen T. D., & Henderson T . ( 2017, June).

Work stressors and sleep: A comparison of methodological choices

Paper presented at the Work, Stress, and Health 2017: Contemporary Challenges and Opportunities, Minnesota, USA.

[本文引用: 1]

Gellis L. A., & Lichstein, K. L . ( 2009).

Sleep hygiene practices of good and poor sleepers in the United States: An internet-based study

Behavior Therapy, 40( 1), 1-9.

URL     PMID:19187812      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract This Internet-based investigation assessed the frequency of multiple sleep hygiene practices in 128 good sleepers and 92 poor sleepers (mean age = 41.6, SD = 12.8, 61.8% women). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to measure sleep quality ( 7 = poor sleep). Although sleep hygiene practices were generally good, poor sleepers showed increased cognitive activity in the bed, even after controlling for global indices of depression and anxiety. Poor sleepers also reported statistically significant increases in excessive noise in the bedroom, uncomfortable nighttime temperature, and activities that were exciting, emotional, or demanded high concentration near bedtime. Future studies should further investigate the prevalence of these variables and their potential impact on sleep quality.

Genderson M. R., Rana B. K., Panizzon M. S., Grant M. D., Toomey R., Jacobson K. C., .. Lyons M. J . ( 2013).

Genetic and environmental influences on sleep quality in middle-aged men: A twin study

Journal of Sleep Research, 22( 5), 519-526.

URL     PMID:23509903      [本文引用: 1]

Summary<p>Poor sleep quality is a risk factor for a number of cognitive and physiological age-related disorders. Identifying factors underlying sleep quality are important in understanding the etiology of these age-related health disorders. We investigated the extent to which genes and the environment contribute to subjective sleep quality in middle-aged male twins using the classical twin design. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to measure sleep quality in 1218 middle-aged twin men from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (mean age02=0255.402years; range 51–60; 339 monozygotic twin pairs, 257 dizygotic twin pairs, 26 unpaired twins). The mean PSQI global score was 5.6 [SD02=023.6; range 0–20]. Based on univariate twin models, 34% of variability in the global PSQI score was due to additive genetic effects (heritability) and 66% was attributed to individual-specific environmental factors. Common environment did not contribute to the variability. Similarly, the heritability of poor sleep—a dichotomous measure based on the cut-off of global PSQI>5—was 31%, with no contribution of the common environment. Heritability of six of the seven PSQI component scores (subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, and daytime dysfunction) ranged from 0.15 to 0.31, whereas no genetic influences contributed to the use of sleeping medication. Additive genetic influences contribute to approximately one-third of the variability of global subjective sleep quality. Our results in middle-aged men constitute a first step towards examination of the genetic relationship between sleep and other facets of aging.</p>

Ghumman S., & Barnes, C. M . ( 2013).

Sleep and prejudice: A resource recovery approach

Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43( S2), E166-E178.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Does sleepiness make one more likely to engage in stereotyping? Are people more likely to be prejudiced because of a poor night of sleep? Borrowing from ego depletion theory and research on self-control and prejudice, the present work investigates these questions. We suggest that sleep is a diminishable resource that fuels self-control and is, therefore, necessary for inhibiting prejudice. A series of 3 studies show that sleep did influence prejudice. Furthermore, we found that the relationship between sleep and prejudice was marginally moderated by negative implicit associations, such that this relationship primarily held true for individuals who have high negative implicit associations. These results highlight the critical role that sleep plays in suppressing prejudice.

Guarana C. L., & Barnes, C. M . (2017).

Lack of sleep and the development of leader-follower relationships over time

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 141, 57-73.

URL    

Drawing from the sleep and emotion regulation model, and attribution theory, we argue that sleep can influence the quality of the relationship between leaders and their followers. Specifically, we examined the effects of lack of sleep on leader-follower relationship development at the beginning of their dyad tenure. We hypothesized that the negative effects of lack of sleep on relationships are mediated by hostility. Results based on 86 new dyads (first three days of their work relationship) showed support for our hypotheses (Study 1). Results based on 40 leaders and 120 followers over three months (five waves) also showed that lack of sleep influences perceptions of relationship quality via hostility for both leaders and followers (Study 2). Moreover, we found that the direct effects of follower lack of sleep affect leader perceptions of relationship quality in the first month of their dyad tenure but decreasingly so over time; the direct effects of a leader lack of sleep on follower perceptions of relationship quality did not vary based on dyad tenure. Results revealed that individuals are not aware of the impact of their own lack of sleep on other people perceptions of relationship quality, suggesting that leaders and followers may be damaging their relationship without realizing it.

Hülsheger U. R., Feinholdt A., & Nübold A . ( 2015).

A low- dose mindfulness intervention and recovery from work: Effects on psychological detachment, sleep quality, and sleep duration

Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 88( 3), 464-489.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Hagger, M. S . ( 2010).

Sleep, self-regulation, self-control and health

Stress and Health, 26( 3), 181-185.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

There is considerable research examining the link between sleep and health-related outcomes. For example, insufficient sleep has been linked to increased psychological stress (Cruess et al., 2003), maladaptive illness outcomes (Perfect, Elkins, Lyle-Lahroud, & Pose, 2010), and lower self-rated health (Steptoe, Peacey, & Wardle, 2006). In addition, there is also a considerable body of research that has implicated insufficient sleep to poorer self-regulatory capacity (Altena, Van Der Werf, Strijers, & Van Someren, 2008) and cognitive functioning (Walker, 2008). This is important from a health perspective because self-regulation has been recognized as an important factor in the uptake and adherence to health-promoting behaviours such as physical activity and following a low-fat diet (Aarts, 2007; Andersson & Conley, 2008; De Ridder & De Wit, 2006; Hagger, Stevenson, Chatzisarantis, Gaspar, Ferreira, & Rave, 2010; Hall & Fong, 2007; Wichianson, Bughi, Unger, Spruijt-Metz, & Nguyen-Rodriguez, 2009) and resisting relapse in behaviours that have deleterious effects to health such as smoking and consuming alcohol above recommended limits (Hagger, Wood, Stiff, & Chatzisarantis, 2009, 2010a).

Harvey, A. G . ( 2000).

Pre-sleep cognitive activity: A comparison of sleep-onset insomniacs and good sleepers

British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39( 3), 275-286.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Harvey A. G., Tang N. K. Y., & Browning L . ( 2005).

Cognitive approaches to insomnia

Clinical Psychology Review, 25( 5), 593-611.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Hori H., Ikenouchi-Sugita A., Yoshimura R., & Nakamura J . ( 2016).

Does subjective sleep quality improve by a walking intervention? A real-world study in a Japanese workplace

BMJ Open, 6( 10), e011055.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Horne J., ( 2010).

Sleepiness as a need for sleep: When is enough, enough?

Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 34( 1), 108-118.

URL     PMID:19643131      [本文引用: 1]

This review considers the relationship between sleep need and sleepiness. In healthy adults, objective measures of sleepiness (e.g. Multiple Sleep Latency Test; Psychomotor Vigilance Test) and subjective indices (e.g. Stanford Sleepiness Scale) often poorly inter-correlate and have been seen as orthogonal dimensions. This is perhaps not surprising as the methodology of these tests is quite different in, for example, their duration, testing environment, whether they are experimenter versus participant-paced, and the understanding and expectancy of participants. It is argued, here, that ‘sleepiness’, the ‘propensity to fall asleep’ and the ‘need for sleep’ are not synonymous, but qualitatively different. They may represent different positions on a dimension ranging from essential to non-essential sleep/sleepiness, and the position on this dimension is detected to varying extents by the different measures. As these tests can detect – and perhaps induce – levels of sleepiness which would be undetectable by, and of little concern to people under everyday situations, they can reveal a sleepiness having the potential to be misinterpreted as sleep debt.

Hsieh S., Tsai C.-Y., & Tsai L.-L . ( 2009).

Error correction maintains post-error adjustments after one night of total sleep deprivation

Journal of Sleep Research, 18( 2), 159-166.

URL     PMID:19645961      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Previous behavioral and electrophysiologic evidence indicates that one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) impairs error monitoring, including error detection, error correction, and posterror adjustments (PEAs). This study examined the hypothesis that error correction, manifesting as an overtly expressed self-generated performance feedback to errors, can effectively prevent TSD-induced impairment in the PEAs. Sixteen healthy right-handed adults (seven women and nine men) aged 19-23 years were instructed to respond to a target arrow flanked by four distracted arrows and to correct their errors immediately after committing errors. Task performance and electroencephalogram (EEG) data were collected after normal sleep (NS) and after one night of TSD in a counterbalanced repeated-measures design. With the demand of error correction, the participants maintained the same level of PEAs in reducing the error rate for trial N + 1 after TSD as after NS. Corrective behavior further affected the PEAs for trial N + 1 in the omission rate and response speed, which decreased and speeded up following corrected errors, particularly after TSD. These results show that error correction effectively maintains posterror reduction in both committed and omitted errors after TSD. A cerebral mechanism might be involved in the effect of error correction as EEG beta (17-24 Hz) activity was increased after erroneous responses compared to after correct responses. The practical application of error correction to increasing work safety, which can be jeopardized by repeated errors, is suggested for workers who are involved in monotonous but attention-demanding monitoring tasks.

Jenkins C. D., Stanton B.-A., Niemcryk S. J., & Rose R. M . ( 1988).

A scale for the estimation of sleep problems in clinical research

Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 41( 4), 313-321.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Jensen H. I., Markvart J., Holst R., Thomsen T. D., Larsen J. W., Eg D. M., & Nielsen L. S . ( 2016).

Shift work and quality of sleep: Effect of working in designed dynamic light

International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 89( 1), 49-61.

URL     PMID:4700071      [本文引用: 1]

Purpose To examine the effect of designed dynamic light on staff’s quality of sleep with regard to sleep efficiency, level of melatonin in saliva, and subjective perceptions of quality of sleep. Methods An intervention group working in designed dynamic light was compared with a control group working in ordinary institutional light at two comparable intensive care units (ICUs). The study included examining (1) melatonin profiles obtained from saliva samples, (2) quality of sleep in terms of sleep efficiency, number of awakenings and subjective assessment of sleep through the use of sleep monitors and sleep diaries, and (3) subjective perceptions of well-being, health, and sleep quality using a questionnaire. Light conditions were measured at both locations. Results A total of 113 nurses (8802%) participated. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding personal characteristics, and no significant differences in total sleep efficiency or melatonin level were found. The intervention group felt more rested (OR 2.03, p 02=020.003) and assessed their condition on awakening as better than the control group (OR 2.35, p 02=020.001). Intervention-ICU nurses received far more light both during day and evening shifts compared to the control-ICU. Conclusions The study found no significant differences in monitored sleep efficiency and melatonin level. Nurses from the intervention-ICU subjectively assessed their sleep as more effective than participants from the control-ICU.

Kääriä S., Laaksonen M., Rahkonen O., Lahelma E., & Leino-Arjas P . ( 2012).

Risk factors of chronic neck pain: A prospective study among middle-aged employees

European Journal of Pain, 16( 6), 911-920.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Kao K. Y., Spitzmueller C., Cigularov K., & Wu H . ( 2016).

Linking insomnia to workplace injuries: A moderated mediation model of supervisor safety priority and safety behavior

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 21( 1), 91-104.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Kling R. N., Mcleod C. B., & Koehoorn M . ( 2010).

Sleep problems and workplace injuries in Canada

Sleep, 33( 5), 611-618.

URL     PMID:20469803      [本文引用: 1]

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between sleep problems and risk of work injuries among Canadian workers and to identify working groups most at risk for injuries. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Canada Participants: Working-age respondents (15-64 years of age) who worked part or full-time in the last 12 months (n = 69,584). INTERVENTIONS: None. METHODS: This study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) Cycle 1.1 2000-2001. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: The main indicator of sleep problems was reporting trouble going to sleep or staying asleep. Stratified logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of sleep problems and work injury after adjusting for potential confounders and for the survey design. Trouble sleeping most of the time was significantly associated with work injury in both men (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.01-1.55) and women (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.25-1.91). The multivariate stratified analysis found that men in trades and transportation jobs (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.09-2.08), women in processing and manufacturing jobs (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.11-5.47), and women who work rotating shifts (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.11-2.64) were at the highest increased risk for work injury associated with trouble sleeping. CONCLUSIONS: Trouble sleeping was associated with an increased risk of work injury. The number of injuries attributable to sleep problems was higher for women compared to men. While most job classes and shift types showed an increased risk of injury, some groups such as women in processing and manufacturing and those who work rotating shifts warrant further investigation and attention for intervention.

Knutson K. L., van Cauter E., Rathouz P. J., DeLeire T., & Lauderdale D. S . ( 2010).

Trends in the prevalence of short sleepers in the USA: 1975-2006

Sleep, 33( 1), 37-45.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Lajoie P., Aronson K. J., Day A., & Tranmer J . ( 2015).

A cross-sectional study of shift work, sleep quality and cardiometabolic risk in female hospital employees

BMJ Open, 5( 3), e007327.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Lallukka T., Arber S., Laaksonen M., Lahelma E., Partonen T., & Rahkonen O . ( 2013).

Work-family conflicts and subsequent sleep medication among women and men: A longitudinal registry linkage study

Social Science & Medicine, 79, 66-75.

[本文引用: 2]

Lallukka T., Rahkonen O., & Lahelma E . ( 2011).

Workplace bullying and subsequent sleep problems - the Helsinki Health Study

Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 37( 3), 204-212.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Objective The associations between workplace bullying and subsequent sleep problems are poorly understood. This study aims to address this evidence gap. Methods We used the Helsinki Health Study questionnaire survey data at baseline in 2000-2002 and follow-up in 2007 (N=7332). The 4-item Jenkins sleep questionnaire was used in both surveys. Two measures of workplace bullying asked whether the respondent had (i) reported being bullied and (ii) observed bullying. Logistic regression models were fitted, adjusting for age, childhood bullying, education, working conditions, obesity, common mental disorders, limiting long-standing illness, and baseline sleep problems. Results At baseline, 5% of women and men reported being currently bullied. Additionally, 9% of women and 7% of men had frequently observed bullying at their workplace. Adjusted for age, reporting bullying was associated with sleep problems at follow-up among women [odds ratio (OR) 1.69,95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.30-2.20] and men (OR 3.17,95% CI 1.85-5.43). Also, reporting earlier bullying was associated with sleep problems among both women (OR 1.47,95% CI 1.26-1.72) and men (OR 1.58,95% CI 1.06-2.36). Separate adjustments for covariates had some effects on the associations. After full adjustment for childhood bullying and baseline sociodemographic factors, working conditions, health, and sleep problems, the associations reduced. Similarly, adjusted for age, observing bullying was associated with sleep problems among women (OR 2.00,95% CI 1.61-2.48) and men (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.23-3.39). Conclusions Workplace bullying is associated with sleep problems, but associations attenuate after factors related to the social environment, work, and health are simultaneously taken into account.

Lallukka T., Rahkonen O., Lahelma E., & Arber S . ( 2010).

Sleep complaints in middle-aged women and men: The contribution of working conditions and work-family conflicts

Journal of Sleep Research, 19( 3), 466-477.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Lanaj K., Johnson R. E., & Barnes C. M . ( 2014).

Beginning the workday yet already depleted? Consequences of late- night smartphone use and sleep

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 124( 1), 11-23.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Smartphones have become a prevalent technology as they provide employees with instant access to work-related information and communications outside of the office. Despite these advantages, there may be some costs of smartphone use for work at night. Drawing from ego depletion theory, we examined whether smartphone use depletes employees regulatory resources and impairs their engagement at work the following day. Across two studies using experience sampling methodology, we found that smartphone use for work at night increased depletion the next morning via its effects on sleep. Morning depletion in turn diminished daily work engagement. The indirect effects of smartphone use on depletion and engagement the next day were incremental to the effects of other electronic devices (e.g., computer, tablet, and television use). We also found some support that the negative effects of morning depletion on daily work engagement may be buffered by job control, such that depletion impairs work engagement only for employees who experience low job control.

Linton S. J., Kecklund G., Franklin K. A., Leissner L. C., Sivertsen B., Lindberg E., .. Hall C . ( 2015).

The effect of the work environment on future sleep disturbances: A systematic review

Sleep Medicine Reviews, 23, 10-19.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Litwiller B., Snyder L. A., Taylor W. D., & Steele L. M . ( 2017).

The relationship between sleep and work: A meta- analysis

Journal of Applied Psychology, 102( 4), 682-699.

URL     PMID:27893255      [本文引用: 5]

Sleep has tremendous importance to organizations as a predictor of employee performance, safety, health, and attitudes. Moreover, sleep is a malleable behavior that may be improved by individual and organizational changes. Despite sleep consequential and modifiable nature, little consensus exists regarding its conceptualization or role in causal models of organizational antecedents and consequences. To fill this gap in theoretical knowledge, this study calculated meta-analytic correlations and tested a meta-analytic path model with data obtained from 99 primary studies of sleep among workers in organizations. Meta-analytic correlation identified sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep quantity as associated with a number of forms of job demands, job control, and job support. Each sleep variable was also associated with a number of individual characteristics, health outcomes, and attitudinal outcomes. Small to moderate relationships were found between the three sleep variables themselves. As a result, a meta-analytic path model was tested that identified all three sleep variables as mediators of the effects of job demands, job control, and job support on important outcomes, like depression, physical strain, job satisfaction, and work-family conflict. The implications of these findings for intervening in organizations and advancing future sleep research are discussed.

Lombardi D. A., Folkard S., Willetts J. L., & Smith G. S . ( 2010).

Daily sleep, weekly working hours, and risk of work-related injury: US National Health Interview Survey (2004-2008)

Chronobiology International, 27( 5), 1013-1030.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Madrid-Valero J. J., Martínez-Selva J. M., Ribeiro do Couto B., Sánchez-Romera J. F., & Ordoñana J. R . ( 2017).

Age and gender effects on the prevalence of poor sleep quality in the adult population

Gaceta Sanitaria, 31( 1), 18-22.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Minkel J. D., Banks S., Htaik O., Moreta M. C., Jones C. W., McGlinchey E. L., .. Dinges D. F . ( 2012).

Sleep deprivation and stressors: Evidence for elevated negative affect in response to mild stressors when sleep deprived

Emotion, 12( 5), 1015-1020.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Minkel J. D., Moreta M., Muto J., Htaik O., Jones C., Basner M., & Dinges D . ( 2014).

Sleep deprivation potentiates HPA axis stress reactivity in healthy adults

Health Psychology, 33( 11), 1430-1434.

URL     PMID:24818608      [本文引用: 2]

This article describes an experiment that was designed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on physiological stress responses in healthy adults.Twenty-six participants, ages 22-49, completed a 3-night laboratory experiment with randomization to one night of sleep-deprivation or a normal-sleep control condition. After a night of baseline sleep, 12 participants were sleep deprived and 14 were not. After the sleep manipulation, each participant completed the Trier Social Stress Test, a task that requires delivering a speech and performing difficult arithmetic in front of a stern, three-person panel. The stressor was administered from 5:00 p.m.-5:30 p.m. and saliva samples were collected 20 and 5 min before (baseline) and 5, 20, and 40 min after the stressor. Samples were assayed for cortisol (a biomarker for the HPA axis) and alpha-amylase (a putative biomarker for the sympatho-adrenal medullar system).Sleep deprivation was associated with higher cortisol levels at baseline (p < .0001) and an amplified cortisol response to the stressor relative to control participants (pinteraction = 0.0039). Alpha-amylase showed a significant main effect of the stressor (p = .0026), but there was no effect of sleep loss at baseline or in response to the stressor.Sleep deprivation is associated with both elevated resting cortisol release and with an exaggerated cortisol response to a stressor indicative of elevated HPA axis responses in healthy adults. Individual differences in the magnitude of this response may represent a risk factor for psychological and physical health consequences associated with heightened cortisol exposure.

Monk T. H., Reynolds C. F., Kupfer D. J., Buysse D. J., Coble P. A., Hayes A. J., .. Ritenour A. M . ( 1994).

The pittsburgh sleep diary

Journal of Sleep Research, 3( 2), 111-120.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Moraes W., Piovezan R., Poyares D., Bittencourt L. R., Santos-Silva R., & Tufik S . ( 2014).

Effects of aging on sleep structure throughout adulthood: A population-based study

Sleep Medicine, 15( 4), 401-409.

URL     PMID:24657204      [本文引用: 1]

Sleep structure and duration underwent significant alterations throughout the aging process in the general population. There was an important correlation between age, sleep respiratory parameters and PLM index. In addition, men and women showed similar trends but with different effect sizes.

Mullins H. M., Cortina J. M., Drake C. L., & Dalal R. S . ( 2014).

Sleepiness at work: A review and framework of how the physiology of sleepiness impacts the workplace

Journal of Applied Psychology, 99( 6), 1096-1112.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Nakashima M., Morikawa Y., Sakurai M., Nakamura K., Miura K., Ishizaki M., .. Nakagawa H . ( 2011).

Association between long working hours and sleep problems in white-collar workers

Journal of Sleep Research, 20, 110-116.

URL     PMID:20561174      [本文引用: 1]

The purpose of this study is to examine the association between long work hours and sleep disturbance among white-collar workers. We evaluated 1510 male white-collar full-time employees, between the ages of 18 and 59 years, using a comprehensive sleep quality questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All subjects worked in a light metal products factory in Japan. The mean number of monthly overtime work hours was determined using data from the previous 6 months from timecard records. Subjects were divided into five groups based on quintiles of the mean number of monthly overtime work hours: &lt;26 h month0908081; 09090626 but &lt;40; 09090640 but &lt;50; 09090650 but &lt;63; and &gt;63. Leisure time physical activity, drinking habits just before sleep, presence of family/partner and health status were used as confounding factors in the multiple regression model. The prevalence of short sleep hours, impairment of sleep efficiency and daytime dysfunction among seven components of PSQI increased, in a dose090009response relationship, with overtime work hours. The prevalence of high global score (&gt;5.5 points) was highest in workers with overtime hours 09090650 h week0908081. The odds ratios after adjustment for confounding factors for high global score using less than 26 h as a reference group were 1.67 for workers with 09090650 h and &lt;63 h, and 1.87 for workers with 63 h and more. To conclude, the present results suggest that long work hours correlate with reduced sleep quality in a dose090009response manner.

Nakata A., ( 2011).

Work hours, sleep sufficiency, and prevalence of depression among full-time employees: A community-based cross-sectional study

Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72( 5), 605-614.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Ohayon, M. M . ( 2002).

Epidemiology of insomnia: What we know and what we still need to learn

Sleep Medicine Reviews, 6( 2), 97-111.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Ohayon, M. M . ( 2012).

Determining the level of sleepiness in the American population and its correlates

Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46( 4), 422-427.

URL     PMID:22297274      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence, to determine the risk factors and to evaluate the impacts of excessive sleepiness in the general population. METHOD: It is a cross-sectional telephone study using a representative sample consisting of 8937 non-institutionalized individuals aged 18 or over living in Texas, New York and California. They represented a total of 62.8 million inhabitants. The participation rate was 85.6% in California, 81.3% in New York and 83.2% in Texas. Interviews were managed by the Sleep-EVAL expert system. The questionnaire included questions on sleeping habits, life habits, health, DSM-IV mental disorders, DSM-IV and ICSD sleep disorders. RESULTS: As many as 19.5% of the sample reported having moderate excessive sleepiness and 11.0% reported severe excessive sleepiness. Moderate excessive sleepiness was comparable between men and women but severe excessive sleepiness was higher in women (8.6% vs. 13.0%). Factors associated with moderate excessive sleepiness were sleeping 6 h or less per main sleep episode (OR:2.0); OSAS (OR:2.0); insomnia disorder (OR:2.4); Restless Legs Syndrome (OR: 1.8) major depressive disorder (OR: 1.7); anxiety disorder (OR:1.5) and use of tricyclic antidepressant (OR: 2.1) presence of heart disease (OR: 1.5), cancer (1.8) and chronic pain (1.3). Factors associated with severe excessive sleepiness were similar with the addition of being a woman (OR:1.5), alcohol dependence (OR: 1.4), bipolar disorder (OR: 2.1), use of over-the-counter sleeping pills (OR: 2.5), narcotic analgesics (OR: 3.4), Antidepressants (other than SSRI or tricyclic) and presence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (OR:1.6). Sleepy individuals were twice as likely than non-sleepy participants to have had accidents while they were at the wheel of a vehicle during the previous year. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive sleepiness is highly prevalent in the American population. It was strongly associated with insufficient sleep and various sleep disorders as well as mental and organic diseases. Copyright 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ohayon M. M., Carskadon M. A., Guilleminault C., & Vitiello M. V . ( 2004).

Meta-analysis of quantitative sleep parameters from childhood to old age in healthy individuals: Developing normative sleep values across the human lifespan

Sleep, 27( 7), 1255-1273.

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Ottaviani C., Thayer J. F., Verkuil B., Lonigro A., Medea B., Couyoumdjian A., & Brosschot J. F . ( 2016).

Physiological concomitants of perseverative cognition: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Psychological Bulletin, 142( 3), 231-259.

URL     PMID:26689087      [本文引用: 1]

Rumination about the past and worries about the future (perseverative cognition) are extremely common, although pervasive and distressing, dysfunctional cognitive processes. Perseverative cognition is not only implicated in psychological health, contributing to mood worsening and psychopathology but, due to its ability to elicit prolonged physiological activity, is also considered to play a role in somatic health. Although there is emerging evidence that such negative and persistent thoughts have consequences on the body, this association has not yet been quantified. The aim of this study was to meta-analyze available studies on the physiological concomitants of perseverative cognition in healthy subjects. Separate meta-analyses were performed on each examined physiological parameter. Sixty studies were eligible for the analyses. Associations emerged between perseverative cognition and higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) (g = .45) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (g = .51) in experimental studies, and higher heart rate (HR) (g = .28 and g = .20) and cortisol (g = .36 and g = .32), and lower heart rate variability (HRV) (g = .15 and g = .27) in experimental and correlational studies, respectively. Significant moderators were sex, ethnicity, type of induction used to elicit perseverative cognition, assessment of state versus trait perseverative cognition, focus on worry or rumination, duration of physiological assessment, and quality of the studies. With the exception of blood pressure, results were not influenced by publication bias. Results show that perseverative cognition affects cardiovascular, autonomic, and endocrine nervous system activity, suggesting a pathogenic pathway to long-term disease outcomes and clarifying the still unexplained relationship between chronic stress and health vulnerability. (PsycINFO Database Record

Palmer K. T., D’Angelo S., Harris E. C., Linaker C., Sayer A. A., Gale C. R., .. Coggon D . ( 2017).

Sleep disturbance and the older worker: Findings from the Health and Employment after Fifty study

Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 43( 2), 136-145.

[本文引用: 1]

Parkes, K. R . ( 2016).

Age and work environment characteristics in relation to sleep: Additive, interactive and curvilinear effects

Applied Ergonomics, 54, 41-50.

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Pilcher J. J., Ginter D. R., & Sadowsky B . ( 1997).

Sleep quality versus sleep quantity: Relationships between sleep and measures of health, well-being and sleepiness in college students

Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 42( 6), 583-596.

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Philip P., & Åkerstedt, T. ( 2006).

Transport and industrial safety, how are they affected by sleepiness and sleep restriction?

Sleep Medicine Reviews, 10( 5), 347-356.

URL     PMID:16920370      [本文引用: 1]

This review shows that impaired/shortened sleep is a major cause of accidents in industry and transport. The reason is either sleep pathology, voluntary (non-pathological) sleep reduction, or activity during the circadian low. Night or morning work is a prominent factor with regard to the latter two. However, the link between sleep restriction (or shift work) and safety is much better established in the transport industry than in other industrial areas. The reason is that driving a vehicle is a task with continuous demand for attention and immediate punishment for lapses, whereas industrial work in most cases does not have the same demands. Still, there are effects and the consequences may be far-reaching.

Pow J., King D. B., Stephenson E., & DeLongis A . ( 2017).

Does social support buffer the effects of occupational stress on sleep quality among paramedics? A daily diary study

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22( 1), 71-85.

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Sheng X., Wang Y., Hong W., Zhu Z., & Zhang X . ( 2017).

The curvilinear relationship between daily time pressure and work engagement: The role of psychological capital and sleep

International Journal of Stress Management. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/str0000085

[本文引用: 1]

Siegel, J. M . ( 2005).

Clues to the functions of mammalian sleep

Nature, 437( 7063), 1264-1271.

URL     PMID:16251951      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The functions of mammalian sleep remain unclear. Most theories suggest a role for non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in energy conservation and in nervous system recuperation. Theories of REM sleep have suggested a role for this state in periodic brain activation during sleep, in localized recuperative processes and in emotional regulation. Across mammals, the amount and nature of sleep are correlated with age, body size and ecological variables, such as whether the animals live in a terrestrial or an aquatic environment, their diet and the safety of their sleeping site. Sleep may be an efficient time for the completion of a number of functions, but variations in sleep expression indicate that these functions may differ across species.

Sivertsen B., Øverland S., Pallesen S., Bjorvatn B., Nordhus I. H., MÆLand J. G., & Mykletun A . ( 2009).

Insomnia and long sleep duration are risk factors for later work disability. The Hordaland Health Study

Journal of Sleep Research, 18( 1), 122-128.

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Sonnentag S., & Binnewies, C. ( 2013).

Daily affect spillover from work to home: Detachment from work and sleep as moderators

Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83( 2), 198-208.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

61We examine affect spillover from work to home, using a diary design.61We test day-level moderators and extend the time frame until the next morning.61Results show that spillover of positive and negative affect occurs.61Psychological detachment from work during non-work time attenuates spillover.61Sleep quality attenuates spillover of negative affect.

Syrek C. J., Weigelt O., Peifer C., & Antoni C. H . ( 2017).

Zeigarnik's sleepless nights: How unfinished tasks at the end of the week impair employee sleep on the weekend through rumination

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22( 2), 225-238.

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Vennelle M., Engleman H. M., & Douglas N. J . ( 2010).

Sleepiness and sleep-related accidents in commercial bus drivers

Sleep and Breathing, 14( 1), 39-42.

URL     PMID:19588178      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Professional drivers are at high risk of sleepiness due to a combination of factors including shift work and obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), and sleepiness in professional drivers is highly dangerous. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness and accident rates in bus drivers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Drivers employed at bus depots within 30 miles of Edinburgh were given a sleep questionnaire. One thousand eight hundred fifty-four drivers were approached, and 677 (37%; 25 female) completed questionnaires with a 97% response rate among the 456 given directly to drivers by the researcher. RESULTS: Of the responding drivers, 133 (20% of total, 19% of researcher-delivered questionnaires) reported an Epworth sleepiness score >10. Eight percent of drivers reported falling asleep at the wheel at least once/month, and 7% having an accident, and 18% a near-miss accident due to sleepiness while working. DISCUSSION: This study shows a concerningly high rate of sleepiness and sleep-related accidents among bus drivers. Screening for OSAHS among commercial drivers needs to be seriously evaluated with some urgency.

Voronov M., & Vince, R. ( 2012).

Integrating emotions into the analysis of institutional work

Academy of Management Review, 37( 1), 58-81.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

We argue for the importance of including analyses of emotional and unconscious processes in the study of institutional work. We develop a framework that integrates emotions and their connection to domination, and we offer a typology of interactions between the emotional and cognitive antecedents of institutional maintenance, disruption,and creation. We conclude by discussing the implications of paying closer attention to emotions for future institutional research, including questions regarding reproduction versus change, intentionality, and rationality.

Wagner D. T., Barnes C. M., Lim V. K. G., & Ferris D. L . ( 2012).

Lost sleep and cyberloafing: Evidence from the laboratory and a daylight saving time quasi-experiment

Journal of Applied Psychology, 97( 5), 1068-1076.

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Walker, M. P . ( 2010).

Sleep, memory and emotion

Progress in Brain Research, 185, 49-68.

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Welsh D. T., Ellis A. P., Christian M. S., & Mai K. M . ( 2014).

Building a self-regulatory model of sleep deprivation and deception: The role of caffeine and social influence

Journal of Applied Psychology, 99( 6), 1268-1277.

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Wrzus C., Wagner G. G., & Riediger M . ( 2014).

Feeling good when sleeping in? Day-to-day associations between sleep duration and affective well-being differ from youth to old age

Emotion, 14( 3), 624-628.

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Zacher H., ( 2017). Ronald J. Burke, Cary L. Cooper, and Alexander-Stamatios G. Antoniou.

The multi-generational and aging workforce: Challenges and opportunities

Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2015, 448 pages, $160, hardcover. Personnel Psychology, 70( 3), 717-719.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

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