ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (7): 833-844.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00833

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

人际距离影响疼痛共情:朋友启动效应

宋娟; 郭丰波; 张振; 原胜; 金花; 王益文   

  1. (天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074)
  • 收稿日期:2015-07-04 出版日期:2016-07-25 发布日期:2016-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 张振, E-mail: zhangzhenpsy@126.com; 王益文, E-mail: wangeven@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(31371045)、教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划(NCET-11-1065)、教育部人文社科研究基地重大项目(12JJD190004)、天津市三年千人、中青年骨干创新人才培养计划、全国教育科学规划单位资助教育部规划课题 (FBB120553)、天津市“131”第一层次和第三层次创新型人才培养工程(ZX110181)的资助。

Interpersonal distance influences on pain empathy: Friends priming effect

SONG Juan; GUO Fengbo; ZHANG Zhen; YUAN Sheng; JIN Hua; WANG Yiwen   

  1. SONG Juan; GUO Fengbo; ZHANG Zhen; YUAN Sheng; JIN Hua; WANG Yiwen
  • Received:2015-07-04 Online:2016-07-25 Published:2016-07-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Zhen, E-mail: zhangzhenpsy@126.com; WANG Yiwen, E-mail: wangeven@126.com

摘要:

“人类如何体验朋友或陌生人的痛苦?”为了研究人际距离对疼痛共情的影响及其神经机制, 记录了14名健康大学生完成启动范式下疼痛共情任务时的脑电数据, 分析朋友/陌生人启动条件下的ERP成分。研究发现人际距离对共情的早期自动加工(N1)和晚期控制加工(P3)过程都有影响。朋友启动条件下的N1显著小于陌生人启动条件, 说明N1具有情绪分享作用, 与陌生人相比人们在分享朋友的情绪情感时, 由于共情相关神经网络的激活扩散导致了N1成分的减弱。朋友启动条件下的P3显著大于陌生人启动条件。另外, 溯源分析发现在600~700 ms时程内发现朋友启动条件下颞上回存在更强激活。这说明人际距离因素增强了对共情中知觉线索的有意识加工与社会认知评价过程。

关键词: 人际距离, 共情, 疼痛, 事件相关电位, 社会认知

Abstract:

Based on references in the scientific literature, empathy, the capacity to understand, share and evaluate others’ feelings and thoughts, plays a crucial role in human social communication and interaction. It has been proposed to mediate acquisition of appropriate social behaviors such as helping and cooperation. The capacity of empathy varies with personal development and it has its evolutionary significance. Studying the mechanisms and brain activities of empathy and its affecting factors really get a great importance and it is essential to human emotional behaviors. Results from recent neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies suggest that imagining or seeing the pain of others’ body or facial expressions may generate activation of the affective nodes and the sensorimotor nodes in pain matrix. Some fMRI researchers have indicated a relation between interpersonal relationship and empathy. And also, ERP components related to empathy has been found. According to ERP studies, in empathy, there was an early negative potential relating to emotion sharing and a late positive potential relating to social evaluation. So far, there were some studies focused on affecting factors on empathy. Our study mainly concerned the electrophysiology evidence of interpersonal relationship’s effect on empathy to test the meanings of empathy-related ERP components and the brain activation. Our event-related potential study recorded 14 right-handed subjects’ electrophysiology data by using priming paradigm in pain empathy task to investigate the influence of interpersonal relationship and its brain mechanism. The data of friend’s photo priming condition and stranger’s photo priming condition were recorded and compared with each other. Each condition contained two kinds of judgment, that is, pain judgment and no-pain judgment. We also used sLORETA to check out the brain activation of empathy and relationship’s effect on empathy. The study used IRI-C and combined its data to ERP amplitude data to verified neural mechanisms of empathy and the personal capacity by using correlation analysis. The study found that N1 amplitude was decreased in the friend priming condition of pain empathy decision task compared with N1 in the stranger priming condition, which indicated that N1 did have the effect of emotion sharing. Comparing with strangers, the similar neural network activated when people shard the emotion of their friends and made the N1 fall down. P3 amplitude was increased in the friend priming condition of pain empathy decision task compared with P3 in the stranger priming condition, which indicated that interpersonal relationship strengthen the conscious processing of cue perception and social cognitive evaluation in pain empathy. To investigate brain mechanisms of empathy we used software of sLORETA to complete the source analysis of N1 and P3 in the pain task under both two priming conditions. The results showed that pain judgments in both two conditions mainly activated the precentral gyrus, Brodmann 4and there was no significant difference between these two conditions. We found significant difference at 600-700 ms and 700-800 ms for P3 through Brodmann 22. And we also found positive relation between IRI-C and N1 and negative relation between IRI-C and P3. Interpersonal relationship did have effect on empathy either for pain. As showed in ERP results, for pain empathy N1 and P3 were regarded as automatic emotion sharing and controlled cognitive evaluation of pain. The study found that interpersonal relationship affected both the early automatic processing (N1) and the late controlled processing (P3) of empathy. N1 did have the effect of emotion sharing. Comparing with strangers, the similar neural network activated when people shard the emotion of their friends and made the N1 fall down. P3 shows that interpersonal relationship strengthened the conscious processing of cue perception and social cognitive evaluation in pain empathy.

Key words: interpersonal distance, empathy, pain, event-related potential, social cognition