ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

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  1. 华中师范大学心理学院
  • 收稿日期:2022-08-02 修回日期:2022-12-26 出版日期:2023-01-14 发布日期:2023-01-14
  • 通讯作者: 范炤
  • 基金资助:

The Gradedness and Richness of Consciousness: Two Pathways toward Decoding Consciousness

CAO Jinjing, QIU Shiming, DING Xianfeng, CHENG Xiaorong, FAN Zhao   

  • Received:2022-08-02 Revised:2022-12-26 Online:2023-01-14 Published:2023-01-14

摘要: 意识的层级性指意识加工模式究竟是遵循“全或无”还是“渐变”机制;意识的丰富性指意识的表征内容究竟是“丰富的”还是“贫乏的”。层级性和丰富性分别从加工质量和加工范围两个角度对意识体验加以探索。它们是解读意识这一人类基本科学问题的两条重要路径——任何有关意识形成机制的理论,都必须对这两个问题做出全面、准确、合理的解释。本文首先对这两个问题的最新研究进展进行了全面梳理和分析,借以厘清相关研究问题中不同观点的争论;其次探讨了两问题间的内在关联,即两者都可以追溯到意识的形成是否必须依赖认知取用的争论上;最后,本文对如何更好推进两问题的研究,以及如何为不同情景中二者的复杂性表现提供统合解释进行了述评和研究展望。

关键词: 意识, 层级性, 丰富性, 认知神经机制, 意识形成机制理论

Abstract: The Gradedness of consciousness refers to whether conscious processing follows an “all-or-none” or “gradual” mode. The Richness of consciousness refers to whether conscious representations are “rich” or “sparse”. Our consciousness experience is explored from these two perspectives, i.e., the quality and the scope of processing, respectively. These two topics represent two important pathways toward decoding one of the basic scientific inquiries of mankind, i.e., Consciousness, in that any theory of consciousness formation must provide comprehensive, accurate, and reasonable explanations to them. In this review article, we first performed a thorough analysis of recent research progress for these two topics, aiming to clarify existing contradictions and ongoing debates between different explanatory views. Next, we indicated that these two research topics are intrinsically connected since each can be traced back to the long-standing disputations on whether cognitive access is necessary for the formation of consciousness. Finally, we carried out detailed analyses and discussions on how to advance the studies of the Gradedness and Richness of consciousness, and on how to provide an integrated interpretation to the complex performance of them under different experimental situations.

Key words: Consciousness, Gradedness, Richness, Cognitive and neural mechanisms, Theory of consciousness formation