ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

Advances in Psychological Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (10): 1775-1786.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01775

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How does encoding predict retrieval? Evidence from subsequent memory effects

NIE Aiqing(), LI Mengsi, PAN Ru   

  1. Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, China
  • Received:2018-02-02 Online:2018-10-15 Published:2018-08-27
  • Contact: Aiqing NIE


Within memory research, the relation between encoding and retrieval has been under the spotlight. Research in the past 37 years (1980-present) has demonstrated that there are differences between the neural mechanisms activated by subsequently remembered information and subsequently forgotten information during encoding, which are labeled as subsequent memory effects. Such effects indicate that it’s possible to predict retrieval according to the neural activities during encoding. In the past decade (2008~2017), researchers have opened new paths on subsequent memory effects inspired by previous studies in this field, such as focusing on the influences of processing levels and orientating tasks during encoding, comparing the effects among different retrieval tasks, exploring the similarities and differences among different age groups, and examining the impacts of emotional items and emotional contexts. In this sense, detailed reviews were made from these aspects. Furthermore, we pointed out several possible directions for future studies: (a) integrating previous results, (b) improving theoretical models, (c) exploring more social factors, (d) focusing on individual and group differences, as well as (e) extending applications.

Key words: subsequent memory effects, encoding task, retrieval task, age, emotion