心理学报, 2020, 52(1): 55-65. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00055

研究报告

“追名弃利”:权力动机与社会存在对亲社会行为的影响

王建峰,, 戴冰,

四川应用心理学研究中心, 成都 610500

The pursuit of fame at the expense of profit: The influence of power motive and social presence on prosocial behavior

WANG Jianfeng,, DAI Bing,

Sichuan Research Center for Applied Psychology, Chengdu 610500, China

通讯作者: 王建峰, E-mail: wjfzy1985@163.com 戴冰, E-mail: daibing080402@126.com

收稿日期: 2019-06-19   网络出版日期: 2020-01-25

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金项目.  31700980
四川省社科规划基地项目.  SC16E015
四川应用心理学研究中心项目.  CSXL-162105

Received: 2019-06-19   Online: 2020-01-25

摘要

目前关于权力动机的研究主要关注权力动机的阴暗面, 但是对权力动机的积极面尚不清楚。本研究从公平与合作行为的角度出发, 分别采用最后通牒博弈和公共物品博弈任务, 探讨不同权力动机水平个体在内隐(眼睛线索)或外显(他人在场)社会存在下的亲社会行为是否不同。结果发现, 在眼睛线索或他人在场条件下, 相对于低权力动机者, 高权力动机者表现出更高的公平与合作水平。然而当没有社会存在线索时, 高低权力动机者的亲社会行为没有显著差异。结果提示高权力动机者出于名誉和地位的策略考虑, 也会表现出积极的亲社会行为。

关键词: 权力动机 ; 社会存在 ; 名誉 ; 公平 ; 合作 ; 亲社会行为

Abstract

Power motive often aims at status and superiority and has been associated with antisocial decision-making, dehumanization of others, infidelity, and aggressive behaviors. In light of such findings, it is not surprising that the power motive has acquired a bad reputation. However, there is also a benevolent, prosocial side to power that has not received equal attention. From the beginning, researchers have emphasized the dual nature of power motive: people realize their power motive in either an antisocial or a prosocial direction. Although the stereotypical picture associated with power implicates a kind of offensively aggressive and imperious behavior, such behavior is unlikely to result in sustainable strategic condition beneficial to attaining and maintaining dominance, and cannot typically characterize individuals mainly driven by power motive. Instead of self-serving or egotistical actions, behavioral strategies in a socially preferable manner would advantage power motivated individuals to achieve the ultimate goal. On the contrary, egocentric behavioral strategies can impress other individuals with antisocial characters, such as imprudence and arbitrariness.
Research has shown that social presence (e.g., a subtle cue of being watched) has a significant influence on individuals’ behavior in social dilemmas. Specifically, it has been observed that individuals’ tendency to engage in prosocial behavior increases when acting under conditions of a social presence. With respect to social presence, reputation has been discussed as a critical factor determining individuals’ tendency to contribute to a public good and to behave prosocially. The relevant argument holds that individuals are willing to invest private resources under conditions where they can expect to build a positive reputation that may be beneficial in (future) social interactions involving indirect reciprocity. For example, research has demonstrated the status benefits of selfless behavior. Individuals pursue status by enhancing the apparent value they provide to their group and compete for status not by bullying and intimidating others, but by behaving in ways that suggest high levels of competence, generosity, and commitment to the group. This seemingly selfless behavior leads to them being perceived as more generous in their groups and, in turn, leads to a higher status and a good reputation. Therefore, individuals who sought reputation and status attained them by acting strategically prosocially.
The present work builds on previous research on social presence and reputation and addresses the question of whether the effect of power motive on prosocial behavior is dependent on social presence. In essence, the current work put the assumption to the test that, under conditions where a subtle cue of being watched (study 1) or public situation (study 2) render reputational concerns salient, individuals are more likely to act in fairness (study 1) or cooperation (study 2) if they have a higher level of power motive. In contrast, under anonymous conditions, individuals’ power motive should not be related to fair and cooperative behaviors. The results confirmed our hypothesis that under conditions where a subtle cue of being watched or in a public situation, high power motive individuals, relative to low power motive participants, allocated more money to interactive partners in the ultimatum game and provided higher provision levels of public goods in the public good game. On the contrary, under anonymous conditions, no significant relationship was found between individuals’ power motive and fair and cooperative behaviors.
The results suggest that people with high power motive also exhibit prosocial behaviors in consideration of strategies of reputation and status. The present work demonstrates that power motive can play a critical role in social dilemma situations. Moreover, the findings emphasize that one must take the specificity of a situation into account (particularly, whether social presence as a situational factor influences individuals’ decisions) in order to explain individuals’ behavior in dilemma situations.

Keywords: power motive ; social presence ; reputation ; fairness ; cooperation ; prosocial behavior

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本文引用格式

王建峰, 戴冰. (2020). “追名弃利”:权力动机与社会存在对亲社会行为的影响. 心理学报, 52(1), 55-65

WANG Jianfeng, DAI Bing. (2020). The pursuit of fame at the expense of profit: The influence of power motive and social presence on prosocial behavior. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 52(1), 55-65

1 引言

权力是社会交往的基本要素, 权力动机普遍存在于各类社会性动物群体中, 是社会进化的结果(Boehm & Flack, 2010; Maner & Mead, 2010)。权力动机(power motive)也称权力需要(need for power), 指人们具有的一种影响他人以及周围环境的愿望或驱力, 是促使个体获取影响力的内在动力(Fodor, Wick, & Conroy, 2012; Winter, 1973)。其核心需求是个人要对他人的情感、思维、行动产生影响, 并希望获得名誉、地位和声望(McClelland, 1970; Winter, 1973)。研究者通常将权力动机视为个体的相对稳定的人格特质, 并认为人们获取权力的动机是不同的, 有些人的权力动机比较强烈, 而有些人的权力动机相对较弱。社会交往过程中人们的注意、记忆等低阶认知活动以及社会推理和决策等高阶认知活动以及外显行为等, 都可能受到权力动机的影响(Magee & Langner, 2008; Schultheiss & Hale, 2007; Wang, Liu, & Yan, 2014; Wang, Liu, Yang, Zhang, & Yan, 2017)。权力研究已成为社会、人格和组织心理学研究的焦点之一。正如英国哲学家罗素(Russell, 1938)所言, 物理学中的基础概念是能量, 而社会科学中的基础概念是权力。

当前, 关于权力动机的研究发现, 权力动机既与适应不良, 如攻击、赌博、性不忠、冒险、反社会决策等存在密切关系(Magee & Langner, 2008; McClelland, 1970; Lammers & Stapel, 2011; Lammers, Stoker, Jordan, Pollmann, & Stapel, 2011; Zurbriggen, 2000), 也与积极性社会行为, 如指导和支持他人、代际关怀等相联系(Aydinli, Bender, Chasiotis, Cemalcilar, & van de Vijver, 2014; Chasiotis, Hofer, & Campos, 2006)。高权力动机者的核心需求是影响他人, 获取地位、名誉和威望(McClelland, 1970; Winter, 1973)。为实现这一需求, 他们可以采取反社会的行为方式, 如攻击、不负责任、自私以及不合作等, 但同样可以采取亲社会的方式, 因为亲社会行为也可以带来好的名声和地位的提升。因此, 对权力或影响力的追求, 可以产生或消极或积极的认知和行为结果。尽管谈及权力, 人们更多联想到的是其负面效应, 然而权力起源于维护社会公共利益与公共秩序的需要, 它的产生是为了降低人际互动的成本, 维持和强化人类社会的合作, 促进集体利益的实现(Weber, Kopelman, & Messick, 2004)。研究权力动机的积极效应, 不仅可以拓展人类对权力现象的理解, 丰富人们对权力的认识, 在实践应用方面也有助于引导个体合理追求权力, 对于发展公共利益, 提升公共福祉具有重要的理论价值和现实意义。本研究拟从亲社会行为的角度出发, 来探讨权力动机的积极面。

1.1 权力动机的两面性

“权力导致腐败, 绝对权力绝对导致腐败”。英国思想家阿克顿(Acton & Himmelfarb, 1948)的这句名言指出了权力的黑暗面, 而这与心理学的许多研究发现是一致的。权力动机往往以地位和优势为目标(McClelland, 1970), 与反社会决策(Magee & Langner, 2008)、去人性化(Lammers & Stapel, 2011)、性不忠(Lammers et al., 2011)以及攻击行为(Zurbriggen, 2000)相关。鉴于这些发现, 权力动机获得坏名声并不令人惊讶。

然而, 权力也有善良、亲社会的一面。McClelland (1970)和Winter (1973)曾强调权力动机具有亲社会和反社会的两面性。权力动机的核心概念强调的是影响他人, 而不是支配他人, 这有着重要的区别(Schultheiss & Köllner, in press)。人们对权力的刻板印象往往是咄咄逼人、盛气凌人的行为。然而, 在哺乳动物尤其是灵长类中, 这种行为不是获得和保持统治地位的可持续策略(de Waal, 1998), 它也不是高权力动机个体的典型特征。先前研究已经表明群体经常惩罚那些通过武力和攻击来获得高地位的成员(Ridgeway & Diekema, 1989)。相反, 高权力动机者往往以更聪明的方式去寻求影响他人。例如, Ditlmannd, Purdie-Vaughns, Dovidio和Naft (2017)发现, 当受压迫的少数群体成员与占多数的群体成员交谈时, 高权力动机促使他们灵活改变自己的沟通策略, 不是一意孤行的坚持己见, 而是以一种温和的社交性沟通风格, 这有助于少数群体成员对他们的沟通对象产生更大的影响。同样, Schultheiss和Brunstein (2002)发现, 企业高层管理者为了保持自己的地位, 更多地采用社会认可的策略, 对同事及下属产生持久的影响, 而不是采取可能适得其反的挑衅和胁迫行为。

1.2 社会存在与亲社会行为

人是社会性的动物, 每个人都难以脱离他人和社会而存在, 我们也善于建立社会联系。在现实生活中, 个体往往很在意别人对自己的评价, 并努力去管理自身在别人心目中的印象。当有他人在场或个体发现自己正被他人观察时, 往往表现出更多的亲社会行为(Bereczkei, Birkas, & Kerekes, 2010; Manesi, van Lange, & Pollet, 2015)。例如, 在公共物品博弈(public good game)中, 当告知被试他们的贡献金额会被公开时, 被试倾向于贡献更多的钱(Hardy & van Vugt, 2006)。相对于匿名情境, 当他人在场时, 被试表现出更强的利他惩罚(Kurzban, DeScioli, & O’Brien, 2007)。甚至是非常隐晦的社会存在线索, 也会对个体的亲社会行为产生影响。例如, 向被试呈现一幅正在直视前方的眼睛或类似眼睛的图片(眼睛线索), 就会使被试更加慷慨, 更倾向于合作, 表现出更多的利他行为(Ekström, 2012; Manesi et al., 2015; Xin, Liu, Yang, & Zhang, 2016)。

在策略性互动过程中, 社会存在线索与名誉和地位紧密相关。大量研究证明, 公开场合下的亲社会行为可以提高助人者在群体中的社会地位, 为他们带来良好的名誉(Anderson & Kilduff, 2009; Wedekind & Milinski, 2000; Willer, 2009)。例如, Anderson和Kilduff (2009)发现, 人们通常不是通过欺凌和恐吓他人来追求地位, 而是通过表现出高水平的能力、慷慨大方和对群体的责任感。关于社会困境问题的研究也表明, 无私行为带来地位的提升。如Hardy和van Vugt (2006)采用公共物品博弈任务发现, 最无私的成员在群体中获得了最高的地位, 并且被其他群体成员优先选为后续游戏的合作伙伴。由于名誉和地位会给人们带来即时或潜在的奖赏, 出于对奖励的期待, 个体会产生一系列亲社会行为。

1.3 本研究目的与假设

以往研究常常将权力动机视为一种“黑暗”人格, 虽然有研究者指出权力动机也具有积极的亲社会一面, 但却很少有实验验证。本研究拟从亲社会行为的角度出发, 来探讨权力动机的积极面。具体而言, 本文将考察不同权力动机水平个体在不同社会情境下(有无社会存在线索)的亲社会行为是否不同, 检验其是否将亲社会行为作为一种追求名誉和地位的策略。为实现这一目的, 研究1以内隐的眼睛线索来操纵社会存在, 实验组被试呈现人眼图片, 而控制组被试呈现花朵图片。同时, 采用最后通牒博弈(ultimatum game)任务, 被试扮演“提议者”角色, 以公平行为(分配给对方的金额)作为亲社会行为的指标。研究2以他人是否在场来操纵社会存在, 采用公共物品博弈任务, 以合作行为(向公共账户的捐资额)作为亲社会行为的指标。本研究关注的重点问题是, 权力动机与社会情境因素如何交互作用, 影响个体的亲社会行为。

由于高权力动机者追求名誉和地位, 而亲社会行为只有被人观察到, 才会带来名誉和地位的奖赏, 因此本研究假设, 在眼睛线索(研究1)或他人在场(研究2)条件下, 相对于低权力动机个体, 高权力动机者会表现出更高的公平行为(研究1)和合作行为(研究2)。然而当没有社会存在线索时, 权力动机与公平或合作行为不相关。

2 研究1:权力动机与眼睛线索对最后通牒博弈中公平行为的影响

2.1 被试与分组

采用G*Power 3.1软件(Faul, Erdfelder, Lang, & Buchner, 2007)来事先确定样本量, 按照中等效应量(f2 = 0.15), 显著性水平α = 0.05, 需要119名被试达到95% (1 - β)的统计检验力。120名成都医学院在校大学生参加了实验, 5人因未理解问卷作答方式或问卷作答不完整被剔除, 最后有效被试115人(男生33人, 女生82人)。被试年龄17~23岁(平均19.77 ± 1.08岁)。所有被试自愿参加实验, 实验结束后获得一定报酬(除5元基本被试费外, 根据被试在任务中分配给自己的金额的10%给予额外奖励)。被试被随机分配到眼睛线索组(共57人, 男生13人, 平均年龄19.56 ± 1.04岁)和花朵线索组(共58人, 男生20人, 平均年龄19.97 ± 1.09岁)。问卷由两张A4纸组成, 封面页呈现社会存在线索, 第二页呈现最后通牒博弈任务。在封面页, 一张眼睛或者花朵图片(图片大小约14 cm × 10 cm)呈现在页面上方(见图1), 下方附有欢迎语“欢迎您参加心理学实验!”。该方法在先前的研究中已多次使用, 并成功诱发了眼睛效应(Carbon & Hesslinger, 2011; Keller & Pfattheicher, 2011; Pfattheicher & Keller, 2015)。

图1

图1   眼睛线索和花朵线索


2.2 测量工具

2.2.1 权力动机测量

采用Sokolowski, Schmalt, Langens和Puca (2000)编制, 焦璨、张敏强、吴利和纪薇 (2010)修订的多元动机网格测验(multi-motive grid, MMG)。该量表综合了自陈量表和主题统觉测验的优势, 采用网格技术的半投射测验, 可同时测评个体的权力动机、成就动机和交往动机。MMG量表共有l4幅图, 每幅图附4~10个不等的陈述语句, 分别代表权力、成就、交往三种动机。测验采用“是”或“否”的迫选方式, 被试通过设想自己为图片中的任意一个角色而引发相应的心理活动, 从而做出适合于描述图片的判断。本研究只关注权力动机中追求权力维度(如“希望获得较高的地位”)的测量, 共包含12道题目, 选“是”得1分, 选“否”得0分, 得分范围为0~12分。本研究的内部一致性信度为0.77。

2.2.2 最后通牒博弈任务

最后通牒博弈是研究公平决策最常用的范式。在该范式下, 一个提议者(proposer)和一个回应者(responder)在完全匿名的条件下对一笔资金进行分配, 由提议者提出分配方案, 回应者有权利选择接受还是拒绝。如果回应者接受这种方案, 则资金按提议进行分配, 如果不接受, 则双方收益均为零(Güth, Schmittberger, & Schwarze, 1982)。本研究采用纸笔形式, 所有被试均扮演“提议者”角色, 和另一陌生人来分配100元钱。实验指导语为:

你好同学, 欢迎参加本次实验!本实验为一个金钱分配游戏, 在隔壁实验室有另一个人与你一起完成本次实验。实验结束后, 会根据你在实验过程中所获金额的一定百分比给予额外奖励。具体任务描述如下:

请你按照下列要求完成一个“分钱游戏”任务。假设你现在有100元钱, 需要和另一个人进行分配。你们两个并不认识, 也不会在之后相遇。其中, 你是分配者, 对方是响应者。你可以决定从这100元中分多少给另一个人, 0到100元都可以。一旦你决定了, 你分出的钱就送到另一个人那里, 另一个人可以接受也可以拒绝你分给他/她的这个钱数。如果他/她接受, 你俩就按你的分配方案分这100元钱, 如果他/她拒绝, 你俩就都得不到钱。

请回答:你会给另一个人多少钱?_____(0~100之间的任意整数)

2.3 研究程序

被试6人一组来到实验室, 每人呆在单独的房间内独立完成问卷调查, 整个实验过程中无互动。首先让被试完成MMG量表(在电脑上作答), 随后随机分配被试到眼睛线索组和花朵线索组, 并完成最后通牒博弈任务调查。调查结束后, 向被试解释实验目的, 并给予致谢和报酬。

2.4 结果

不同线索类型下权力动机得分与分配金额的描述性统计如表1所示。

表1   眼睛与花朵线索条件下权力动机得分与分配金额的平均数和标准差

条件 权力动机 分配金额
眼睛线索 7.74 (3.27) 51.77 (9.71)
花朵线索 8.07 (2.65) 47.34 (8.00)

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独立样本t检验表明, 眼睛线索与花朵线索条件下权力动机得分没有显著差异, t (113) = 0.97, p > 0.40, 说明随机分组是有效的。整体上, 所有被试平均分配给对方的金额为49.54元(SD = 9.12)。分配金额不存在性别差异, 性别与线索类型也不存在交互作用。

为考察权力动机与线索类型对最后通牒博弈中分配金额的影响, 以分配金额为因变量进行多元分层回归分析。第一步, 权力动机和线索类型进入回归方程; 第二步, 两者交互作用进入回归方程, 结果见表2。由表2可知, 线索类型、权力动机与线索类型的交互作用对分配金额有显著的预测作用。对该交互作用进行简单斜率检验(simple slope test), 结果(图2)发现, 在眼睛线索条件下, 高权力动机个体的分配金额显著高于低权力动机个体(β = 0.37, SE = 0.11, t = 3.21, p = 0.002, Cohen’s d = 0.30, 95%CI [0.11, 0.49]); 而在控制组条件下, 高低权力组之间没有显著差异(β = -0.16, SE = 0.14, t = -1.14, p > 0.25, Cohen’s d = 0.11, 95% CI [0.00, 0.25])。

表2   权力动机、线索类型对最后通牒博弈中分配金额的多元分层回归

变量 第一层 第二层
β t β t
权力动机 0.16 1.71 0.11 1.19
线索类型 0.27 2.93** -0.38 -1.56
权力动机×线索类型 0.59 2.86**
F 5.08** 6.34**
R2 0.08 0.15
R2变化 0.06**

注:**p < 0.01, β为标准化回归系数, 花朵线索 = -1, 眼睛线索 = 1

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图2

图2   权力动机、线索类型与分配金额的关系

注:± 1SD分别代表平均数上下一个标准差, 下同。


115名被试在权力动机量表上的平均得分为7.91 (SD = 2.99)。将被试按照平均分划分为高低权力动机组, M(65) = 9.86, SD = 1.09; M(50) = 4.68, SD = 1.97, t (113) = -17.93, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.50。不同分组条件下被试分配金额的描述性统计如表3所示。以权力动机、线索类型为自变量, 分配金额为因变量进行方差分析, 结果发现, 线索类型主效应显著, F(1, 111) = 6.28, p = 0.014, η2p = 0.05, 95%CI [0.01, 0.13], 被试在眼睛线索组的分配金额(M = 51.77, SD = 9.71)显著高于花朵线索组(M = 47.34, SD = 8.00)。权力动机与线索类型交互作用显著, F(1, 111) = 5.86, p = 0.017, η2p = 0.05, 95% CI [0.00, 0.15]。简单效应检验发现, 在眼睛线索条件下, 高权力动机组的分配金额显著高于低权力动机组, F(1, 55) = 7.57, p = 0.007, η2p = 0.12, 95% CI [0.02, 0.26]; 在花朵线索条件下, 高低权力动机组的分配金额没有显著差异, F < 1, p > 0.49。

表3   不同分组条件下被试分配金额(元)的平均数与标准差

不同分组 分配金额
眼睛线索高权力动机组(n = 30) 54.77 (10.74)
眼睛线索低权力动机组(n = 27) 48.44 (7.25)
花朵线索高权力动机组(n = 35) 46.71 (9.28)
花朵线索低权力动机组(n = 23) 48.30 (5.58)

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2.5 讨论

在研究1中, 被试平均分配给对方的金额为49.54元, 这与先前关于最后通牒博弈的大量实验结果相一致, 即提议者的分配金额通常接近总金额的一半(Henrich et al., 2005; Hoffmann & Tee, 2006)。研究显示, 社会存在线索类型影响了个体的公平行为。被试在眼睛线索组的分配金额显著高于控制组。更为重要的是, 研究1发现权力动机与线索类型交互作用影响了个体的公平行为。在眼睛线索条件下, 高权力动机个体的分配金额显著高于低权力动机个体, 而在控制组条件下, 高低权力组之间没有显著差异。

在最后通牒博弈任务中, 高权力动机者比低权力动机者分配给对方的金额更高, 存在三种可能性:第一, 权力动机直接影响了个体的利他动机, 提高了个体的亲社会性; 第二, 权力动机激发了个体对名誉和地位的追求, 进而表现出更多的公平行为; 第三, 权力动机让个体对权力威胁(对方拒绝提议方案)更加敏感。由于仅在眼睛线索条件下权力动机才提升了个体的公平倾向, 因此第一种可能性被排除。但研究1不能排除第三种可能性, 即相对于低权力动机者, 高权力动机者可能更加担忧不公平的分配方案会被对方拒绝。先前大量研究表明, 相对于低权力动机者, 高权力动机者对权力威胁线索更加敏感。例如, Schultheiss和Hale (2007)采用点探测任务发现, 高权力动机者对权力威胁信息(愤怒面孔)表现出注意回避, 而对权力服从信息(惊奇面孔, 反映了面孔发出者对环境缺乏控制)表现出注意偏向。采用fMRI及ERP技术发现, 与低权力动机者相比, 高权力动机者在加工权力威胁线索时表现出更强的前尾状核、脑岛和外侧眶额皮质激活(Schultheiss et al., 2008), 有更大P3/LPP 波幅(Wang et al., 2014; Wang, Liu, & Zheng, 2011), 并且对威胁信息的强度变化更加敏感(Donhauser, Rösch, & Schultheiss, 2015; Wang et al., 2014)。

为了排除权力威胁的可能性, 研究2采用公共物品博弈任务。在该任务中, 小组成员可以选择将个人本金的一部分投资到公共账户(剩余的进入个人账户), 公共账户的资金翻倍后再平均分给小组成员, 以个人的捐资额作为合作水平的指标。公共物品博弈不具有排他性和竞争性, 不做贡献的成员也可以享受公共资源(即不合作可以产生更大的个人利益), 因此不存在权力威胁情况。此外, 研究2中以他人是否在场(外显线索)来操纵社会存在水平。

3 研究2:权力动机与他人在场对公共物品博弈中合作行为的影响

3.1 被试与分组

142名成都医学院在校大学生参加实验, 2人因未正确理解MMG量表作答方式而被剔除, 最终有效被试140人, 其中男生46人, 女生94人。被试年龄17~22岁(平均19.75 ± 1.00岁)。所有被试自愿参加实验, 实验结束后获得一定报酬(除5元基本被试费外, 根据被试在任务中挣得的代币数分发不同价值的奖品)。

随机分配被试到公开情境组(共70人, 男生21人, 平均年龄19.61 ± 1.03岁)和匿名情境组(共70人, 男生25人, 平均年龄19.89 ± 0.96岁)。在公开情境下, 被试4人一组围坐完成公共物品困境任务, 每人将捐资金额登记在记录表上, 并轮流报告。在匿名情境下, 被试4人一组, 在各自独立的房间内写下自己的捐资额, 并告诉被试捐资信息会严格保密。

3.2 测量工具

3.2.1 权力动机测量

同研究1。本研究中该量表的内部一致性信度为0.79。

3.2.2 公共物品困境任务

公共物品困境是研究合作行为最常用的范式之一。请被试从所获得的初始本金中选择一定数额捐献给公共账户, 公共账户中的金额达到一定量后会增值, 再平分给全体成员, 个体的捐献量作为合作水平的指标。本研究采用纸笔形式, 实验指导语为:

你好同学, 欢迎参加本次实验!本实验为一个“公共账户捐资”游戏, 你将与其他三人一起完成本次实验。实验结束后会根据你在游戏中挣得的代币数分发不同价值的奖品。具体任务描述如下:

本次任务中, 你将和其他3名同学组成一个临时小组。小组中的每位成员都有100个代币。该小组拥有一个公共账户, 每个成员可以按照自己的意愿, 将一定数目(0~100)的代币投入到公共账户中。投入到公共账户中的代币将乘以2, 然后再平均分配给每个小组成员。

请回答:你决定贡献多少代币给你所在的小组?____(0~100之间的任意整数)。(①在正式回答前, 有两道测试题来考察被试是否正确理解了任务规则。(1)如果你捐资了55个代币, 其他3人捐资的数目分别是50、55、60, 那么你将从公共账户中得到多少代币?_____(请填入具体数字)(2)如果你捐资了20个代币, 其他3人捐资的数目分别是20、40、60, 那么你将从公共账户中得到多少代币?_____(请填入具体数字))

3.3 研究程序

被试4人一组来到实验室, 每人首先呆在单独的房间内独立完成MMG量表(在电脑上作答), 随后随机分配被试到公开情境组和匿名情境组, 并完成公共物品困境任务。调查结束后, 向被试解释实验目的, 并给予致谢和报酬。

3.4 结果

不同情境下权力动机得分与捐资金额的描述性统计如表4所示。

表4   公开与匿名情境下权力动机得分与捐资金额的平均数与标准差

条件 权力动机 分配金额
公开情境 6.94 (3.27) 66.16 (22.03)
匿名情境 6.37 (3.28) 50.74 (24.47)

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独立样本t检验表明, 公开情境与匿名情境条件下权力动机得分没有显著差异, t (138) = -1.04, p > 0.30, 说明随机分组是有效的。整体上, 所有被试平均捐资额为58.45元(SD = 24.45)。捐资金额不存在性别差异, 性别与他人在场也不存在交互作用。

为考察权力动机与他人在场对公共物品困境中捐资额的影响, 以捐资金额为因变量进行多元分层回归分析。第一步, 权力动机和他人在场进入回归方程; 第二步, 两者交互作用进入回归方程, 结果见表5。由表5可知, 他人在场、权力动机与他人在场的交互作用对捐资金额有显著的预测作用。对该交互作用进行简单斜率检验(simple slope test), 结果(图3)发现, 在公开情境下, 高权力动机个体的捐资额显著高于低权力动机个体(β = 0.32, SE = 0.11, t = 2.90, p = 0.004, Cohen’s d = 0.25, 95% CI [0.08, 0.41]); 而在匿名情境下, 高低权力组之间没有显著差异(β = -0.14, SE = 0.11, t = -1.28, p > 0.20, Cohen’s d = 0.11, 95% CI [-0.06, 0.27])。

表5   权力动机、他人在场对公共物品困境中捐资金额的多元分层回归

变量 第一层 第二层
β t β t
权力动机 0.09 1.11 0.09 1.15
他人在场 0.31 3.81*** -0.17 -0.93
权力动机×他人在场 0.53 2.96**
F 8.30*** 8.76***
R2 0.11 0.16
R2变化 0.05**

注:**p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, β为标准化回归系数, 匿名情境 = -1, 公开情境 = 1

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图3

图3   权力动机、他人在场与捐资金额的关系


所有被试在权力动机量表上的平均得分为6.65 (SD = 3.28)。将被试按照平均分划分为高低权力动机组, M(76) = 9.20, SD = 1.47; M(64) = 3.63, SD = 1.98, t (138) = -19.08, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.50。不同分组条件下被试捐资金额的描述性统计如表6所示。以权力动机、社会情境为自变量, 捐资金额为因变量进行方差分析, 结果发现, 社会情境主效应显著, F(1, 136) = 13.55, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.09, 95% CI [0.03, 0.17], 被试在公开情境组的捐资金额(M = 66.16, SD = 22.03)显著高于匿名情境组(M = 50.74, SD = 24.47)。权力动机与社会情境交互作用显著, F(1, 136) = 12.03, p = 0.001, η2p = 0.08, 95% CI [0.02, 0.16]。简单效应检验发现, 在公开情境下, 高权力动机组的捐资金额显著高于低权力动机组, F(1, 68) = 12.28, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.15, 95% CI [0.04, 0.28]; 在匿名情境下, 高低权力动机组的捐资金额没有显著差异, F(1, 68) = 1.93, p = 0.17, η2p = 0.02, 95% CI [0.00, 0.13]。

表6   不同分组条件下被试捐资金额(代币)的平均数与标准差

不同分组 捐资金额
公开情境高权力动机组(n = 40) 74.25 (18.62)
公开情境低权力动机组(n = 30) 55.37 (21.85)
匿名情境高权力动机组(n = 36) 47.14 (22.90)
匿名情境低权力动机组(n = 34) 54.56 (25.81)

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3.5 讨论

研究2采用公共物品博弈任务, 以他人是否在场操纵社会存在水平, 考察权力动机与社会情境对合作行为的影响。结果发现, 外显的社会存在线索影响了个人的合作行为, 在他人在场的情况下, 个体表现出更高的合作水平。更重要的是, 权力动机与他人在场存在交互作用, 即在公开情境下, 高权力动机个体的合作水平显著高于低权力动机个体。由于公共物品博弈不具有排他性和竞争性, 高权力动机者即使捐资额少甚至不做任何贡献, 也不会受到他人的排斥和拒绝, 因此该任务情境不包含权力威胁的情形, 高权力动机者不会因为害怕被人拒绝而提高捐资金额。在这样的情况下, 高权力动机者在公开场合比匿名场合表现出更高的合作水平, 显然是因为公开情境下的亲社会行为有利于提升他们的名誉和声望。相反, 在匿名情境下, 亲社会行为与名誉机制相脱离, 高权力动机者表现出一定程度的“搭便车”现象, 即往公共账户的捐资额更少(结果不显著)。

4 总讨论

本研究采用最后通牒博弈和公共物品博弈两个实验任务, 通过内隐线索(眼睛线索)和外显线索(他人在场)操纵社会存在水平, 考察了权力动机与社会情境对公平与合作行为的影响, 检验其是否将亲社会行为作为一种追求名誉和地位的策略。结果发现, 无论在眼睛线索还是他人在场条件下, 相对于低权力动机个体, 高权力动机者会表现出更高的公平倾向和合作水平。然而当没有社会存在线索时, 权力动机与公平或合作行为不相关。

研究显示, 社会存在线索影响了个体的亲社会行为。被试在眼睛线索或公开情境下的分配金额或捐资额显著高于控制组。先前研究发现, 当有他人在场或个体发现自己正被他人观察时, 往往表现出更多的亲社会行为(Bereczkei et al., 2010; Manesi et al., 2015), 即使是像一张眼睛图片这样非常隐晦的社会存在线索, 也能改变个体的行为(Ekström, 2012; Xin et al., 2016)。本研究通过内隐和外显两种方式操纵社会存在水平, 这两种方式各有优缺点。他人在场作为外显的社会存在线索, 极大地影响了个体的决策行为, 但当个体面对真实的观察者时也同时引入了一些混淆因素(如真实情景中的群体关系、面孔吸引力等)。眼睛线索虽然隐晦, 但较放置于真实社会情境中的观察线索, 实验可操作性更大, 且能更好地控制其他混淆因素。另外, 眼睛线索的设置不会引起被试有意识的被观察感觉。Barclay (2013)发现当个体在眼睛线索下做出决定时, 他们其实是意识不到眼睛线索的存在的, 这有效地抑制了被试的要求特征。与先前研究相一致, 本研究发现, 无论是外显的社会存在线索还是内隐的社会存在线索, 皆能改变个体的亲社会行为(Bereczkei et al., 2010; Ekström, 2012; Manesi et al., 2015; Xin et al., 2016)。对于公开场合下个体有更强的亲社会意愿, 研究者认为这与名誉机制有关(Anderson & Kilduff, 2009; Wedekind & Milinski, 2000; Willer, 2009)。名誉伴随着即时或潜在的奖赏, 包括得到他人的回报或帮助、提升个体在群体中的地位, 出于对这些奖励的期待, 导致个体产生一系列亲社会行为。

更为重要的是, 本研究发现权力动机与社会存在交互作用影响了个体的亲社会行为。权力动机往往被视为一种“黑暗”人格, 过去的研究也集中在权力动机的阴暗面。然而, 高权力动机者的核心需求是影响别人, 为了实现对他人的影响力, 高权力动机者既可以采用反社会的行为方式, 也可以采用亲社会的行为方式。由于采取反社会的行为方式(如武力与攻击)往往招致群体的惩罚(Ridgeway & Diekema, 1989), 因此高权力动机者更多采用符合社会规范的方式去影响他人。在群体中展示自己的亲社会性, 如公平、合作、无私、积极帮助他人、对群体负责任等, 就是提升自身影响力的良好方式, 因为亲社会的成员往往获得更好的名誉, 并被群体赋予更高的地位(Hardy & van Vugt, 2006)。因此, 在被他人观察或公开情境下, 高权力动机个体宁肯放弃自己的一部分物质利益, 以公平和合作的形象展示自己, 这种“追名弃利”可以为他们换取更好的名誉或者潜在的更高的地位, 从而更可能去实现自身的影响力。相反, 匿名情境下的亲社会行为并不能为个体带来名誉和地位, 高权力动机者不会出于策略的考虑去表现出亲社会行为。

值得注意的是, 近年来经济学领域研究了一种与之相对应的现象:个体出于实现合作以取得更高收入水平的考虑而愿意将自身置于不利境地。例如, Kopányi-Peuker, Offerman和Sloof (2017)在囚徒困境博弈实验中发现, 个体为了实现合作而自愿提供被对手惩罚的机会。同样, Lien和Zheng (2019)在囚徒困境博弈实验中发现个体为了实现合作而自愿选择接受制约。如何解释上述种种自我牺牲(放弃物质、自由等)行为呢?近期有学者将行为生态学领域的高成本信号理论(costly signals theory)引入到心理学领域来解释人类的自我牺牲行为(Grafen, 1990; Griskevicius, Tybur, & van den Bergh, 2010)。根据该理论, 动物(包括人类在内)会选择用高成本的行为来传递某类重要信息, 而这些信息往往意味着高价值。例如, 雄性孔雀又长又大的尾羽虽然导致其更容易被天敌所发现, 以及造成觅食的不便, 但这种高成本的信号向雌性孔雀传递了自身生殖适应的高价值。再比如, 阿拉伯鸫鹛会相互竞争“哨兵”的角色, 该角色负责从树顶观察捕食者, 以警告群体潜在的危险。虽然该角色会让自身处于更大的危险之中, 但正如高成本信号理论所预测的, 作为“哨兵”的时间越长, 该个体在群体中的地位就越高, 也更容易获得交配的机会(Bergstrom & Lachmann, 2001)。在本研究中, 公开的自我牺牲行为(放弃个人利益)不仅表明个体愿意为公共福利做出自我牺牲, 同时也表明个体有能力承担自我牺牲的代价, 这种高成本的行为可以为个体换来潜在的名誉和地位等资源。同样, 囚徒困境博弈实验中个体的自我牺牲(放弃自由)可以向对方传递自身有兴趣寻求合作的信号, 这种高成本行为帮助他们换取之后更高的物质收入。

此外, 在心理神经内分泌学领域中关于睾酮(testosterone)与亲社会行为的研究结果, 也进一步印证了本假设。睾酮属于类固醇类激素, 是主要的雄性激素。大量研究发现, 睾酮与个体的支配性存在正相关(Stanton & Schultheiss, 2009; Vermeersch, T'sjoen, Kaufman, Vincke, & van Houtte, 2010)。Sellers, Mehl和Josephs (2007)指出, 唾液中的睾酮含量具有时间上的稳定性, 可以作为一种指标来预测个体的支配性特征, 并且这一指标具有较高的效度。因此, 可以把睾酮看作是权力动机的荷尔蒙对应物。虽然早期的研究报告了睾酮和攻击性之间的关系(Dabbs, Carr, Frady, & Riad, 1995), 但随后的研究表明, 睾酮并不会增加个体的攻击性本身, 而是提升了个体追求地位的动机(Vongas & Al Hajj, 2017)。新近的一系列研究表明, 给被试外源注射睾酮提升了个体的慷慨(Eisenegger, Naef, Snozzi, Heinrichs, & Fehr, 2010)、合作(van Honk, Montoya, Bos, van Vugt, & Terburg, 2012)和诚实(Wibral, Dohmen, Klingmuller, Weber, & Falk, 2012), 这些都属于亲社会行为, 有利于提高个体的社会地位。

在人们的刻板印象中, 权力动机往往是黑暗的人格特征, 与反社会行为与社会不良相关联。而本研究结果表明, 权力动机本身并无好坏之分, 关键在于如何行使权力动机。权力动机的核心需求是实现自身的影响力, 为此, 高权力动机者往往会根据不同的社会情境而采取不同的策略。在远古时代, 展现自己的捕猎技能和攻击性是实现自身影响力的传统方式。然而在现代社会, 这种策略已然失效。相反, 公开展示自己的无私与慷慨, 往往给个体带来良好的名声和更高的地位, 从而更容易实现自己的权力需求。从这个角度来看, 高权力动机者在公开情境下的亲社会行为并非发自内心的利他行为, 而更可能是一种获取名誉和地位的策略。

本研究存在一定的局限性。首先, 先前有研究(McClelland, 1970)将权力动机分为个人化权力动机(personalized power motive)和社会化权力动机(socialized power motive)。具有个人化权力动机的人, 积极参与社会活动的目的是为表现自己, 满足个人的私利, 权力、地位被他们当成获利的手段。而具有社会化权力动机的人表现为关心社会, 对社会公益和人民福祉有使命感。按照这种区分, 相比社会化权力动机, 个人化权力动机应该更易受到社会情境的影响。在公开情境下, 个人化权力动机的表现或许会从利己行为转为利他行为, 将来的研究需要进一步考察。其次, 关于睾酮的研究发现, 当情境中存在社会挑战和威胁时, 睾酮增加了个体的攻击性和反社会行为, 而当情境中不存在这些挑战或威胁时, 睾酮增加了个体的亲社会行为(Boksem et al., 2013; Inoue et al., 2017)。鉴于睾酮与权力动机的关联性, 未来研究应系统操纵社会情境的威胁水平, 来考察权力动机的不同表现。第三, 本研究用公平与合作行为作为个体亲社会行为的指标, 而亲社会行为指一切自愿使他人获益的行为(Eisenberg, Fabes, & Sprinrad, 1998), 包括助人、分享、谦让、合作、安慰、捐赠、信任等一切积极的、有社会责任感的行为(Lien, Zheng, & Zhuo, 2018)。未来的研究应该拓展本结果到其他亲社会行为类型, 如助人、捐赠、信任等。未来研究也可以进一步考察社会存在线索下权力动机能否减少反社会行为(如撒谎)。第四, 本研究采用最后通牒博弈任务考察个体的公平行为, 在该范式下, 被试的分配行为既可能出于公平因素的考虑, 也可能受担心对方拒绝的影响。将来的研究可以采用独裁者博弈任务(Dictator game), 该任务中回应者只能接受提议者的分配方案, 而没有拒绝提议的权力, 因此可以更单纯地考察个体的公平偏好。最后, 本研究的被试均为在校大学生, 年龄差异小, 且性别比例未能有效平衡, 故研究结论的生态效度相对较弱。

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“Economic man” in cross- cultural perspective: Behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societies

Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28( 6), 795-815.

URL     PMID:16372952      [本文引用: 1]

Researchers from across the social sciences have found consistent deviations from the predictions of the canonical model of self-interest in hundreds of experiments from around the world. This research, however, cannot determine whether the uniformity results from universal patterns of human behavior or from the limited cultural variation available among the university students used in virtually all prior experimental work. To address this, we undertook a cross-cultural study of behavior in ultimatum, public goods, and dictator games in a range of small-scale societies exhibiting a wide variety of economic and cultural conditions. We found, first, that the canonical model - based on self-interest - fails in all of the societies studied. Second, our data reveal substantially more behavioral variability across social groups than has been found in previous research. Third, group-level differences in economic organization and the structure of social interactions explain a substantial portion of the behavioral variation across societies: the higher the degree of market integration and the higher the payoffs to cooperation in everyday life, the greater the level of prosociality expressed in experimental games. Fourth, the available individual-level economic and demographic variables do not consistently explain game behavior, either within or across groups. Fifth, in many cases experimental play appears to reflect the common interactional patterns of everyday life.

Hoffmann R., & Tee J. Y . ( 2006).

Adolescent-adult interactions and culture in the ultimatum game

Journal of Economic Psychology, 27( 1), 98-116.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Inoue Y., Takahashi T., Burriss R. P., Arai S., Hasegawa T., Yamagishi T., & Kiyonari T . ( 2017).

Testosterone promotes either dominance or submissiveness in the Ultimatum Game depending on players’ social rank

Scientific Reports, 7( 1), 5335.

URL     PMID:28706184      [本文引用: 1]

Endogenous testosterone promotes behaviours intended to enhance social dominance. However, recent research suggests that testosterone enhances strategic social behaviour rather than dominance seeking behaviour. This possibility has not been tested in a population whose members are known to vary in social status. Here, we explored the relationship between pre-existing social status and salivary testosterone level among members of a rugby team at a Japanese university, where a strong seniority norm maintains hierarchical relationships. Participants played a series of one-shot Ultimatum Games (UG) both as proposer and responder. Opponents were anonymised but of known seniority. We analysed participants' acquiescence (how much more they offered beyond the lowest offer they would accept). The results showed that, among the most senior participants, higher testosterone was associated with lower acquiescence. Conversely, higher testosterone among the lower-status participants was associated with higher acquiescence. Our results suggest that testosterone may enhance socially dominant behaviour among high-status persons, but strategic submission to seniority among lower-status persons.

Jiao C., Zhang M. Q., Wu L., & Ji W . ( 2010).

The revised short version of multi-motive grid in mainland China

Studies of Psychology and Behavior, 8( 1), 49-53.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The present study was designed to revise the short version of Multi-Motive Grid developed by Sokolowski, Schmalt, Langens, and Puca. The findings of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that both the original and revised short version of Multi-Motive Grid had the same six dimensions, and the Cronbach&#x02019;s alpha coefficients of the six dimensions of the revised revision were between 0.70 and 0.84. The results suggested that the revised measures had sound psychometrical criterion, and the revised revision was available for assessing the three social motives of management staff at the same time.

[ 焦璨, 张敏强, 吴利, 纪薇 . ( 2010).

多元动机网格测验(MMG-S)中文版的修订报告

心理与行为研究, 8( 1), 49-53.]

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The present study was designed to revise the short version of Multi-Motive Grid developed by Sokolowski, Schmalt, Langens, and Puca. The findings of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that both the original and revised short version of Multi-Motive Grid had the same six dimensions, and the Cronbach&#x02019;s alpha coefficients of the six dimensions of the revised revision were between 0.70 and 0.84. The results suggested that the revised measures had sound psychometrical criterion, and the revised revision was available for assessing the three social motives of management staff at the same time.

Keller J., & Pfattheicher S . ( 2011).

Vigilant self-regulation, cues of being watched and cooperativeness

European Journal of Personality, 25( 5), 363-372.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The present research examined the interplay of individual differences in self-regulatory mechanisms as outlined in regulatory focus theory (promotion-and prevention-focus) and a cue of being watched in the context of cooperative behaviour. Study 1 revealed that the more individuals' habitual self-regulatory orientation is dominated by a vigilant prevention focus, the more likely they are to act cooperatively (i.e. to donate money to natural conservation organizations) when a subtle cue of being watched renders reputational concerns salient. In contrast, when no such cue is provided individuals' habitual vigilant self-regulatory orientation is negatively related to cooperative behaviour. Study 2 replicated the results of the initial study and examined interpersonal sensitivity (empathic concern) as a potential mediator of the observed effects. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Kopányi-Peuker A., Offerman T., & Sloof R . ( 2017).

Fostering cooperation through the enhancement of own vulnerability

Games and Economic Behavior, 101, 273-290.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Kurzban R., DeScioli P., & O'Brien E . ( 2007).

Audience effects on moralistic punishment

Evolution and Human Behavior, 28( 2), 75-84.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract

Punishment has been proposed as being central to two distinctively human phenomena: cooperation in groups and morality. Here we investigate moralistic punishment, a behavior designed to inflict costs on another individual in response to a perceived moral violation. There is currently no consensus on which evolutionary model best accounts for this phenomenon in humans. Models that turn on individuals' cultivating reputations as moralistic punishers clearly predict that psychological systems should be designed to increase punishment in response to information that one's decisions to punish will be known by others. We report two experiments in which we induce participants to commit moral violations and then present third parties with the opportunity to pay to punish wrongdoers. Varying conditions of anonymity, we find that the presence of an audience—even if only the experimenter—causes an increase in moralistic punishment.

Lammers J., & Stapel D. A . ( 2011).

Power increases dehumanization

Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 14( 1), 113-126.

URL     PMID:31905206      [本文引用: 3]

Modern societies are exposed to a myriad of risks ranging from disease to natural hazards and technological disruptions. Exploring how the awareness of risk spreads and how it triggers a diffusion of coping strategies is prominent in the research agenda of various domains. It requires a deep understanding of how individuals perceive risks and communicate about the effectiveness of protective measures, highlighting learning and social interaction as the core mechanisms driving such processes. Methodological approaches that range from purely physics-based diffusion models to data-driven environmental methods rely on agent-based modeling to accommodate context-dependent learning and social interactions in a diffusion process. Mixing agent-based modeling with data-driven machine learning has become popularity. However, little attention has been paid to the role of intelligent learning in risk appraisal and protective decisions, whether used in an individual or a collective process. The differences between collective learning and individual learning have not been sufficiently explored in diffusion modeling in general and in agent-based models of socio-environmental systems in particular. To address this research gap, we explored the implications of intelligent learning on the gradient from individual to collective learning, using an agent-based model enhanced by machine learning. Our simulation experiments showed that individual intelligent judgement about risks and the selection of coping strategies by groups with majority votes were outperformed by leader-based groups and even individuals deciding alone. Social interactions appeared essential for both individual learning and group learning. The choice of how to represent social learning in an agent-based model could be driven by existing cultural and social norms prevalent in a modeled society.

Lammers J., Stoker J. I., Jordan J., Pollmann M. M. H., & Stapel D. A . ( 2011).

Power increases infidelity among men and women

Psychological Science, 22( 9), 1191-1197.

URL     PMID:21771963      [本文引用: 1]

Data from a large survey of 1,561 professionals were used to examine the relationship between power and infidelity and the process underlying this relationship. Results showed that elevated power is positively associated with infidelity because power increases confidence in the ability to attract partners. This association was found for both actual infidelity and intentions to engage in infidelity in the future. Gender did not moderate these results: The relationship between power and infidelity was the same for women as for men, and for the same reason. These findings suggest that the common assumption (and often-found effect) that women are less likely than men to engage in infidelity is, at least partially, a reflection of traditional gender-based differences in power that exist in society.

Lien J. W., & Zheng J . ( 2019).

Self-commitment for cooperation

Working Paper.

URL     PMID:12233488      [本文引用: 1]

&amp;quot;The 1980 U.S. Census revealed a marked acceleration in the suburbanization of blacks during the 1970s. This paper provides a preliminary answer to whether that acceleration continued in the 1980s by examining the 1985 American Housing Survey (National and Metropolitan Samples). These data sets permit racial and socioeconomic status comparisons in overall suburbanization level and in the propensity of recent movers to choose suburban destinations. Blacks continue to exhibit low levels of suburbanization relative to whites, and only a small percentage of blacks originating in central cities move to suburban areas. However, once in the suburbs, blacks tend to remain there at the same rate as whites. Intrametropolitan racial segregation remains strong, although it shows signs of decreasing.&amp;quot; This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 431).

Lien J. W., Zheng J., & Zhuo Y . ( 2018).

The cooperative consequences of contests

Working Paper.

URL     PMID:12233488      [本文引用: 1]

&amp;quot;The 1980 U.S. Census revealed a marked acceleration in the suburbanization of blacks during the 1970s. This paper provides a preliminary answer to whether that acceleration continued in the 1980s by examining the 1985 American Housing Survey (National and Metropolitan Samples). These data sets permit racial and socioeconomic status comparisons in overall suburbanization level and in the propensity of recent movers to choose suburban destinations. Blacks continue to exhibit low levels of suburbanization relative to whites, and only a small percentage of blacks originating in central cities move to suburban areas. However, once in the suburbs, blacks tend to remain there at the same rate as whites. Intrametropolitan racial segregation remains strong, although it shows signs of decreasing.&amp;quot; This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 431).

Magee J. C., & Langner C. A . ( 2008).

How personalized and socialized power motivation facilitate antisocial and prosocial decision-making

Journal of Research in Personality, 42( 6), 1547-1559.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Abstract

In two studies, we investigate the effects of individuals’ power motivation on decision-making. We distinguish between two types of power motivation [McClelland, D. C. (1970). The two faces of power. Journal of International Affairs, 24, 29–47; Winter, D. G. (1973). The power motive. New York: The Free Press] and demonstrate that both types of power motivation facilitate influential decision-making but that each type plays a different role in different contexts. In a conflict context (Study 1), individuals’ personalized (self-serving) power motivation was associated with antisocial decisions, and in a healthcare context (Study 2), individuals socialized (other-serving) power motivation was associated with prosocial decisions. Furthermore, the type of power motivation elicited in each context was associated with less perceived need to deliberate over the relevant policy decision. In separating out the independent effects of each type of power motivation, we are able to explain more variance in decision-making behavior across various contexts than in models using aggregate power motivation (personalized plus socialized).

Maner J. K., & Mead N. L . ( 2010).

The essential tension between leadership and power: When leaders sacrifice group goals for the sake of self-interest

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99( 3), 482-497.

URL     PMID:20649369      [本文引用: 1]

Throughout human history, leaders have been responsible for helping groups attain important goals. Ideally, leaders use their power to steer groups toward desired outcomes. However, leaders can also use their power in the service of self-interest rather than effective leadership. Five experiments identified factors within both the person and the social context that determine whether leaders wield their power to promote group goals versus self-interest. In most cases, leaders behaved in a manner consistent with group goals. However, when their power was tenuous due to instability within the hierarchy, leaders high (but not low) in dominance motivation prioritized their own power over group goals: They withheld valuable information from the group, excluded a highly skilled group member, and prevented a proficient group member from having any influence over a group task. These self-interested actions were eliminated when the group was competing against a rival outgroup. Findings provide important insight into factors that influence the way leaders navigate the essential tension between leadership and power.

Manesi Z., van Lange P. A. M., & Pollet T. V . ( 2015).

Butterfly eyespots: Their potential influence on aesthetic preferences and conservation attitudes

PloS One, 10( 11), e0141433.

URL     PMID:26544692      [本文引用: 4]

Research has shown that the mere presence of stimuli that resemble eyes is sufficient to attract attention, elicit aesthetic responses, and can even enhance prosocial behavior. However, it is less clear whether eye-like stimuli could also be used as a tool for nature conservation. Several animal species, including butterflies, develop eye-like markings that are known as eyespots. In the present research, we explored whether the mere display of eyespots on butterfly wings can enhance: (a) liking for a butterfly species, and (b) attitudes and behaviors towards conservation of a butterfly species. Four online experimental studies, involving 613 participants, demonstrated that eyespots significantly increased liking for a butterfly species. Furthermore, eyespots significantly increased positive attitudes towards conservation of a butterfly species (Studies 1, 2 and 4), whereas liking mediated the eyespot effect on conservation attitudes (Study 2). However, we also found some mixed evidence for an association between eyespots and actual conservation behavior (Studies 3 and 4). Overall, these findings suggest that eyespots may increase liking for an animal and sensitize humans to conservation. We discuss possible implications for biodiversity conservation and future research directions.

McClelland D. C . ( 1970).

The two faces of power

Journal of International Affairs, 24( 1), 29-47.

URL     PMID:31848913      [本文引用: 5]

Pakistan has a population of over 200 million with only 75 trained rheumatologists. To address the needs of rheumatology care, it is of paramount importance to train the primary care physician as a first line of defense.

Pfattheicher S., & Keller J . ( 2015).

The watching eyes phenomenon: The role of a sense of being seen and public self-awareness

European Journal of Social Psychology, 45( 5), 560-566.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Ridgeway C., & Diekema D . ( 1989).

Dominance and collective hierarchy formation in male and female task groups

American Sociological Review, 54( 1), 79-93.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Russell B . ( 1938).

Power: A new social analysis

London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.

URL     PMID:30236235      [本文引用: 1]

Cancellation of planned surgery impacts substantially on patients and health systems. This study describes the incidence and reasons for cancellation of inpatient surgery in the UK NHS.

Schultheiss O. C., & Brunstein J. C . ( 2002).

Inhibited power motivation and persuasive communication: A lens model analysis

Journal of Personality, 70( 4), 553-582.

URL     PMID:12095191      [本文引用: 1]

The authors tested the hypothesis that after motive arousal, individuals with an inhibited power motive (IPM) would excel at a persuasive task and explored the behavioral strategies IPM individuals use to that purpose. Sixty-eight participants presented their point of view on a controversial subject to another person. Power motivation and inhibition were both assessed by a picture-story test. Prior to their presentation, half of the participants imaginatively explored the ensuing task. The other half was assigned to a no-imagery control condition. Lens model analysis of videotaped presentations revealed that IPM participants in the imagery condition were judged to be the most persuasive of all participants. This interactive effect of power motivation, inhibition, and imagery condition was accounted for by three behavioral cues: verbal fluency, gesturing, and eyebrow lifts. No comparable effects emerged among no-imagery participants.

Schultheiss O. C., & Hale J. A . ( 2007).

Implicit motives modulate attentional orienting to facial expressions of emotion

Motivation and Emotion, 31( 1), 13-24.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

We conducted two studies (Ns=52 and 60) to test the notion that the incentive salience of facial expressions of emotion (FEE) is a joint function of perceivers’ implicit needs for power and affiliation and the FEE’s meaning as a dominance or affiliation signal. We used a variant of the dot-probe task (Mogg & Bradley, 1999a) to measure attentional orienting. Joy, anger, surprise, and neutral FEEs were presented for 12, 116, and 231 ms with backward masking. Implicit motives were assessed with a Picture Story Exercise. We found that power-motivated individuals orient their attention towards faces signaling low dominance, but away from faces that signal high dominance, and (b) that affiliation-motivated individuals show vigilance for faces signaling low affiliation (rejection) and, to a lesser extent, orient attention towards faces signaling high affiliation (acceptance).

Schultheiss O. C.,& Köllner M. G . (in press). Implicit motives. In O.P. John & R. W. Robins (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (4 ed.). New York: Guilford.

Schultheiss O. C., Wirth M. M., Waugh C. E., Stanton S. J., Meier E. A., & Reuter-Lorenz P . ( 2008).

Exploring the motivational brain: Effects of implicit power motivation on brain activation in response to facial expressions of emotion

Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3( 4), 333-343.

URL     PMID:19015083      [本文引用: 1]

This study tested the hypothesis that implicit power motivation (nPower), in interaction with power incentives, influences activation of brain systems mediating motivation. Twelve individuals low (lowest quartile) and 12 individuals high (highest quartile) in nPower, as assessed per content coding of picture stories, were selected from a larger initial participant pool and participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study during which they viewed high-dominance (angry faces), low-dominance (surprised faces) and control stimuli (neutral faces, gray squares) under oddball-task conditions. Consistent with hypotheses, high-power participants showed stronger activation in response to emotional faces in brain structures involved in emotion and motivation (insula, dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex) than low-power participants.

Sellers J. G., Mehl M. R., & Josephs R. A . ( 2007).

Hormones and personality: Testosterone as a marker of individual differences

Journal of Research in Personality, 41( 1), 126-138.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract

Recently, testosterone (T) has been linked to behaviors that are conceptually related to dominance as a personality characteristic. Although evidence for this association is growing, the psychometric properties of T as an individual difference variable have been largely neglected. For T to be considered a biological marker of dispositional dominance it is critical that it demonstrates high test–retest reliability and good convergent and discriminant validity. Two studies tested the temporal stability of salivary T in humans and the relationship between T and traditional measures of personality. Across both studies, test–retest reliability for T was high and comparable to the short-term stability of questionnaire-based and implicitly assessed personality assessment instruments. In being modestly correlated with self-reported dominance, T showed some evidence of convergent validity. In being statistically independent from conceptually unrelated personality constructs (such as Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience) it showed good evidence of discriminant validity. The findings strengthen the psychometric foundation for using T as a hormonal marker of individual differences.

Sokolowski K., Schmalt H. D., Langens T. A., & Puca R. M . ( 2000).

Assessing achievement, affiliation, and power motives all at once: The Multi-Motive Grid (MMG)

Journal of Personality Assessment, 74( 1), 126-145.

URL     PMID:10779937      [本文引用: 1]

In this article, we introduce the Multi-Motive Grid (MMG), a new diagnostic tool to measure motives with respect to their hope and fear components. The MMG combines features of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) with features of self-report questionnaires. Similar to the TAT, a set of 14 pictures representing a balanced set of achievement-arousing, affiliation-arousing, and power-arousing situations is presented together with a set of statements representing important motivational states. Six motive scores can be calculated: hope of success (HS) and fear of failure (FF) for the achievement motive, hope of affiliation (HA) and fear of rejection (FR) for the affiliation motive, and hope of power (HP) and fear of power (FP) for the power motive. Results of factor analyses suggest a 3-factor solution, with a general fear factor (FF, FR, FP), a factor combining the hope components of achievement and power (HS and HP), and a third factor representing HA, but the 6 a priori factors also reflect a sound structural model. Reliability data show that the internal consistency and retest reliability of the MMG scales satisfy traditional standards. External validity of the MMG has been established in all 3 motive domains. Three separate studies document that (a) individuals high in resultant achievement motivation perform better and report more flow experience, (b) individuals high in resultant power motivation profit more from a leadership training program, and (c) individuals high in resultant affiliation motivation recollect more highly memorable affiliative themes.

Stanton S. J., & Schultheiss O. C . ( 2009).

The hormonal correlates of implicit power motivation

Journal of Research in Personality, 43( 5), 942-949.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract

Attempts to link testosterone to dominance dispositions using self-report measures of dominance have yielded inconsistent findings. Similarly, attempts to link testosterone changes to a situational outcome like winning or losing a dominance contest have yielded inconsistent findings. However, research has consistently shown that an indirect measure of an individual’s dominance disposition, implicit power motivation, is positively related to baseline testosterone levels and, in interaction with situational outcomes, predicts testosterone changes. We propose a hormonal model of implicit power motivation that describes how testosterone levels change as an interactive function of individuals’ implicit power motivation and dominance situations. We also propose that estradiol, and not testosterone, plays a key role in dominance motivation in women.

van Honk J., Montoya E. R., Bos P. A., van Vugt M., & Terburg D . ( 2012).

New evidence on testosterone and cooperation

Nature, 485( 7399), E4-E5.

URL     PMID:22622587      [本文引用: 1]

Vermeersch H., T'sjoen G., Kaufman J. M., Vincke J., & van Houtte M . ( 2010).

Gender ideology, same-sex peer group affiliation and the relationship between testosterone and dominance in adolescent boys and girls

Journal of Biosocial Science, 42( 4), 463-475.

URL     PMID:20444319      [本文引用: 1]

Although the role of testosterone in the aetiology of social dominance is often suggested, surprisingly few studies have addressed the relationship between sex steroid hormones and dominance as a personality trait. In this paper, the relationship between testosterone and dominance is studied in a sample of adolescent boys and girls, taking into account the moderating role of gender ideology and same-sex peer group orientation. A direct association between free testosterone (FT) and dominance was found in girls but not in boys. In boys, masculine ideology moderated the relationship between FT and dominance, while in girls the relationship between FT and dominance was moderated by same-sex peer group affiliation.

, Vongas J. G., & Al Hajj R . ( 2017).

The effects of competition and implicit power motive on men's testosterone, emotion recognition, and aggression

Hormones and Behavior, 92, 57-71.

URL     PMID:28455183      [本文引用: 1]

A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. We investigated the effects of competition on men's testosterone levels and assessed whether androgen reactivity was associated with subsequent emotion recognition and reactive and proactive aggression. We also explored whether personalized power (p Power) moderated these relationships. In Study 1, 84 males competed on a number tracing task and interpreted emotions from facial expressions. In Study 2, 72 males competed on the same task and were assessed on proactive and reactive aggression. In both studies, contrary to the biosocial model of status (Mazur, 1985), winners' testosterone levels decreased significantly while losers' levels increased, albeit not significantly. Personalized power moderated the effect of competition outcome on testosterone change in both studies. Using the aggregate sample, we found that the effect of decreased testosterone levels among winners (compared to losers) was significant for individuals low in p Power but not for those with medium or high p Power. Testosterone change was positively related to emotion recognition, but unrelated to either aggression subtype. The testosterone-mediated relationship between winning and losing and emotion recognition was moderated by p Power. In addition, p Power moderated the direct (i.e., non-testosterone mediated) path between competition outcome and emotion recognition and both types of aggression: high p-Power winners were more accurate at deciphering others' emotions than high p-Power losers. Finally, among high p-Power men, winners aggressed more proactively than losers, whereas losers aggressed more reactively than winners. Collectively, these studies highlight the importance of implicit power motivation in modulating hormonal, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes arising from human competition.

Wang J. F., Liu L., Yang Q. W., Zhang J. P., & Yan J. H . ( 2017).

The implicit need for power predicts recognition memory for anger faces: An electrophysiological study

Personality and Individual Differences, 109, 207-214.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Wang J. F., Liu L., & Yan J. H . ( 2014).

Implicit power motive effects on the ERP processing of emotional intensity in anger faces

Journal of Research in Personality, 50, 90-97.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Research has shown that anger faces represent a potent motivational incentive for individuals with high implicit power motive (nPower). However, it is well known that anger expressions can vary in intensity, ranging from mild anger to rage. To examine nPower-relevant emotional intensity processing in anger faces, an ERP oddball task with facial stimuli was utilized, with neutral expressions as the standard and targets varying on anger intensity (50%, 100%, or 150% emotive). Thirty-one college students participated in the experiment (15 low and 16 high nPower persons determined by the Picture Story Exercise, PSE). In comparison with low nPower persons, higher percentage of correct responses was observed for high nPower persons when both groups discriminated low-intensity (50% intensity) anger faces from neutral faces. ERPs between 100% and 150% anger expressions revealed that high-intensity (150%) anger expressions elicited larger P3a and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes relative to prototypical (100% intensity) anger expressions for power-motivated individuals. Conversely, low nPower participants showed no differences at both P3a and LPP components. These findings demonstrate that persons with high nPower are sensitive to intensity changes in anger faces and their sensitivity increases with the intensity of anger faces. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Wang J. F., Liu L., & Zheng Y . ( 2011).

Effects of implicit power motive on the processing of anger faces: An event- related potential study

Journal of Research in Personality, 45( 5), 441-447.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Implicit motives are one form of motivation that regulates cognitive and emotional processing. In this study, we investigated the impact of implicit power motive (nPower) on the processing of anger faces. Event-related potentials were recorded while high- and low-nPower individuals performed a face version of an emotion Stroop task comprised of anger and neutral faces. It was found that nPower does not modify early perceptual and attentional components (P2 and N2), but a later component is affected. Indeed, power-motivated participants showed enhanced P3/LPPs (Late positive potentials) amplitude compared to low-nPower subjects, in response to anger stimuli. These findings demonstrate that anger faces have greater salience for high-nPower individuals and are subject to a more salient, conscious processing. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Weber J. M., Kopelman S., & Messick D. M . ( 2004).

A conceptual review of decision making in social dilemmas: Applying a logic of appropriateness

Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8( 3), 281-307.

URL     PMID:15454350      [本文引用: 1]

Despite decades of experimental social dilemma research, &amp;quot;theoretical integration has proven elusive&amp;quot; (Smithson &amp;amp; Foddy, 1999, p. 14). To advance a theory of decision making in social dilemmas, this article provides a conceptual review of the literature that applies a &amp;quot;logic of appropriateness&amp;quot; (March, 1994) framework. The appropriateness framework suggests that people making decisions ask themselves (explicitly or implicitly), &amp;quot;What does a person like me do in a situation like this? &amp;quot; This question identifies 3 significant factors: recognition and classification of the kind of situation encountered, the identity of the individual making the decision, and the application of rules or heuristics in guiding behavioral choice. In contrast with dominant rational choice models, the appropriateness framework proposed accommodates the inherently social nature of social dilemmas, and the role of rule and heuristic based processing. Implications for the interpretation of past findings and the direction of future research are discussed.

Wedekind C., & Milinski M . ( 2000).

Cooperation through image scoring in humans

Science, 288( 5467), 850-852.

URL     PMID:10797005      [本文引用: 2]

The &amp;quot;tragedy of the commons,&amp;quot; that is, the selfish exploitation of resources in the public domain, is a reason for many of our everyday social conflicts. However, humans are often more helpful to others than evolutionary theory would predict, unless indirect reciprocity takes place and is based on image scoring (which reflects the way an individual is viewed by a group), as recently shown by game theorists. We tested this idea under conditions that control for confounding factors. Donations were more frequent to receivers who had been generous to others in earlier interactions. This shows that image scoring promotes cooperative behavior in situations where direct reciprocity is unlikely.

Wibral M., Dohmen T., Klingmüller D., Weber B., & Falk A . ( 2012).

Testosterone administration reduces lying in men

PloS One, 7( 10), e46774.

URL     PMID:23071635      [本文引用: 1]

Lying is a pervasive phenomenon with important social and economic implications. However, despite substantial interest in the prevalence and determinants of lying, little is known about its biological foundations. Here we study a potential hormonal influence, focusing on the steroid hormone testosterone, which has been shown to play an important role in social behavior. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 91 healthy men (24.32±2.73 years) received a transdermal administration of 50 mg of testosterone (n=46) or a placebo (n=45). Subsequently, subjects participated in a simple task, in which their payoff depended on the self-reported outcome of a die-roll. Subjects could increase their payoff by lying without fear of being caught. Our results show that testosterone administration substantially decreases lying in men. Self-serving lying occurred in both groups, however, reported payoffs were significantly lower in the testosterone group (p&amp;lt;0.01). Our results contribute to the recent debate on the effect of testosterone on prosocial behavior and its underlying channels.

Willer R . ( 2009).

Groups reward individual sacrifice: The status solution to the collective action problem

American Sociological Review, 74( 1), 23-43.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Winter D. G. ( 1973). The power motive. New York: Free Press.

[本文引用: 3]

Xin Z. Q., Liu Y. H., Yang Z. X., & Zhang H. C . ( 2016).

Effects of minimal social cues on trust in the investment game

Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 19( 3), 235-243.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Zurbriggen E. L . ( 2000).

Social motives and cognitive power- sex associations: Predictors of aggressive sexual behavior

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78( 3), 559-581.

URL     PMID:10743881      [本文引用: 2]

The present study investigated whether implicit social motives and cognitive power-sex associations would predict self-reports of aggressive sexual behavior. Participants wrote stories in response to Thematic Apperception Test pictures, which were scored for power and affiliation-intimacy motives. They also completed a lexical-decision priming task that provided an index of the strength of the cognitive association between the concepts of &amp;quot;power&amp;quot; and &amp;quot;sexuality.&amp;quot; For men, high levels of power motivation and strong power-sex associations predicted more frequent aggression. There was also an interaction: Power motivation was unrelated to aggression for men with the weakest power-sex associations. For women, high levels of affiliation-intimacy motivation were associated with more frequent aggression. Strong power-sex associations were also predictive for women but only when affiliation-intimacy motivation was high.

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