心理学报, 2018, 50(10): 1142-1150 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01142

研究报告

抑制对老年人舌尖现象的影响

彭华茂1, 毛晓飞,2,1

1北京师范大学发展心理研究院, 北京 100875

2第二军医大学心理系, 上海200433

Will the deficit in inhibition increase the rates of tip-of-the-tongue among the elderly?

PENG Huamao1, MAO Xiaofei,2,1

1 Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China

2 Department of Psychology, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China

通讯作者: 毛晓飞, E-mail:maoxiaofeipsy@smmu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2017-09-27   网络出版日期: 2018-10-15

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金项目.  31000466

Received: 2017-09-27   Online: 2018-10-15

摘要

抑制不足理论认为老年人抑制能力不足, 易受干扰信息的影响, 阻碍对目标词的检索, 故比年轻人有更多舌尖现象。实验1操纵抑制通达子功能探讨其在老年人舌尖现象中的作用, 采用2(干扰条件:有、无)×2(年龄组:老年、年轻)的混合设计, 相比于无干扰条件, 干扰条件下舌尖现象年龄差异变得更大, 表明老年人舌尖现象和通达功能有关。实验2操纵抑制删除子功能, 采用2(是否激活干扰:是、否)×2(年龄组:老年、年轻)的混合设计, 不激活干扰条件下舌尖现象年龄差异不显著, 而激活干扰条件下舌尖现象年龄差异显著, 舌尖现象随龄增多与删除功能不足有关。通达和删除功能不足是老年人舌尖现象增多的重要原因。

关键词: 舌尖现象 ; 老年人 ; 抑制 ; 通达 ; 删除

Abstract

The tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) refers to when a speaker seems to have accessed a word’s meaning adequately but is unable to complete the sound form or phonological label of the word. Both diary studies that document TOT episodes and experimental methods designed to generate TOT have demonstrated that older adults experience more TOT than young or middle-aged adults. With regard to the aging mechanism, the inhibition deficit theory supposed that older adults are more likely than young adults to fail to retrieve the words due to the activation the irrelevant information, which interfere with the retrieval of the target name. The contents of inhibition include limiting access to irrelevant information (access), deleting information that is no longer relevant (deletion), and restraining the production of dominant responses (restrain). This study consisted of two experimental tasks, which were designed to explore the roles of access and deletion functions respectively in TOT among the elderly.

In experiment 1, a 2 (age group: old and young) × 2 (interferential condition: with/without interference) mixed design was adopted to examine the role of access function in TOT among the old adults. In order to investigate the impact of deletion function, 30 young people (aged 18 to 33 years) and 30 older adults (aged 60 to 79 years) were recruited. Participants in interference condition were asked to not pay attention to the interferential stimuli when performing the TOT task. To examine the role of deletion function in TOT among the elderly, a 2 (age group: old and young) × 2 (activating condition: activate interferential stimuli or not) mixed design was adopted in experiment 2. Thirty young people (aged 19 to 27 years) and 30 older adults (aged 61 to 78 years) were recruited for experiment 2 and they were presented the interferential stimuli before the TOT task in the condition of activating interferential stimuli.

A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data. In experiment 1, the interaction between age and interference condition were significant. Only the old group had significantly higher rates of TOT in the condition with interference than that of those without interference. In order to analyze the role of access function further, we compared the age difference between the 2 conditions, and the age difference in the interference condition was significantly larger. This result indicated that the access function influences the rates of TOT among the old people. In experiment 2, the interaction between age and activating condition was significant. The old group had higher rates of TOT in the condition of activating interferential stimuli, rather than the young group.

The results demonstrated that the deficits in access and deletion functions of older adults may be responsible for the higher rates of TOT, which provided supportive evidence for the inhibition deficit theory. The study implied that intervention on inhibition may be useful in improving the TOT of old adults.

Keywords: tip-of-the-tongue ; the elderly ; inhibition ; access ; deletion

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本文引用格式

彭华茂, 毛晓飞. (2018). 抑制对老年人舌尖现象的影响. 心理学报, 50(10), 1142-1150

PENG Huamao, MAO Xiaofei. (2018). Will the deficit in inhibition increase the rates of tip-of-the-tongue among the elderly?. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(10), 1142-1150

1 问题提出

舌尖现象(The Tip of the Tongue, TOT)是词汇搜索困难中最显著的代表, 指说话者暂时不能提取出某个词, 但认为自己肯定知道该词的意思, 有一种话到嘴边却说不出来的感觉(Brown & McNeill, 1966)。自然情境下和实验室中发生的舌尖现象都是随龄增加的(Burke, MacKay, Wothley, & Wade, 1991; Rastle & Burke, 1996)。此外, 舌尖现象不仅是一种难以避免、令人尴尬的言语表达障碍(Gollan & Brown, 2006), 也是老年人报告出来的28项记忆困难中频率最高的(Sunderland, Watts, Baddeley, & Harris, 1986)。舌尖现象会使老年人在言语表达中遭遇更大的困难, 增加其在人际交往中的受挫感。因此, 研究舌尖现象的老化机制对改善老年人的交流质量有重大意义。

Brown和McNeill (1966)开创了舌尖现象实验研究的先河, 采取低频词汇法向被试呈现词汇的定义, 要求提取与该定义相对应的目标词。例如呈现“An ornamental stoppered glass vessel used for serving wine”, 目标词是“Decanter (酒壶)”。当被试不能说出答案却确定自己知道目标词时, 则可判定为舌尖现象。

抑制不足理论(Inhibition Deficit Theory)认为当个体通过语义线索激活目标词时, 与目标词相关的干扰词干扰了对目标词的检索和提取, 会让个体激活一些和目标词有关但不正确的词汇信息, 这些被激活的信息在抑制功能不足的情况下, 易造成检索路线的偏离, 最终导致更多的舌尖现象(Woodworth, 1938)。该理论得到了一批研究者的支持(Anderson & Bjork, 1994; Brown, 1991; Reason & Lucas, 1984; Schacter, 1999)。Jones等(1987, 1989)研究发现, 干扰词会首先激活与目标词相关的信息, 并进一步激活个体最近加工过的干扰词, 干扰对目标词的检索和提取, 最终导致更多的舌尖现象, 如果被试能抑制住这些干扰词的影响, 可能不会导致舌尖现象增多。Choi和Smith (2005)认为若舌尖现象是由于阻碍效应, 即干扰词阻碍了对正确答案的检索, 进而出现舌尖现象。那么延迟时间再度呈现舌尖问题, 被试就能克服干扰成功解决回忆困境, 结果发现延迟再测的解决率是立即再测的两倍。Reason和Lucas (1984)使用日记法研究舌尖现象发现, 59%的舌尖现象伴随至少一个干扰词。在日常生活中, 特别是固有名词(如人名、地名)的舌尖现象, 干扰词也会不自觉地、反复地活跃在大脑中, 阻碍对目标词的检索(Burke et al., 1991; Cohen & Faulkner, 1986)。

Hasher和Zacks (1988)、Zacks和Hasher (1994, 1997)认为, 老年人抑制功能随龄衰退, 他们激活的无关信息比年轻人更多, 且难以抑制无关信息对当前任务的影响。而抑制的本质是指阻碍与当前任务无关的干扰信息对当前任务的干扰, 包括通达、删除与压抑3种子功能(Lustig, Hasher, & Zacks, 2007)。通达功能是指阻止与当前任务无关的信息进入到注意中心; 删除功能是指从注意中心中删除与当前任务不再相关的信息的能力; 压抑功能是指限制个体心理内部强而优势的反应的能力。在目标词的检索过程中, 如果不能够很好阻止无关信息进入注意中心、从注意中心中删除与当前无关的刺激及压抑心理内部强而优势反应, 就极有可能因为干扰刺激的激活和保持, 阻碍对目标词的检索和提取, 产生舌尖现象。

横断研究、实验室研究均发现抑制和言语老化密切相关。Borella, Ghisletta和De Ribaupierre (2011)使用结构方程模型证实, 抑制能力通过工作记忆能力影响文本加工成绩的年龄差异。此外, Arbuckle和Gold (1993)发现老人在反映删除功能(词语流畅性测验、威斯康辛卡片任务)和压抑功能(Trailmaking测验)的测量任务成绩与偏题言语水平显著相关; Pushkar等(2000)得到类似结果, 发现反映通达(词语流畅性测验)、压抑功能(Stroop测验)的测验成绩和偏题言语关系密切。实验室研究则进一步证实了这一结论, 陈栩茜、张积家和朱云霞(2015)发现在汉语造句任务中, 当需要抑制角色信息时, 老年人的造句成绩显著差于年轻人, 老年人抑制功能不足是造成言语任务变差的重要原因。Yin和Peng (2016)通过操纵抑制的子功能探讨抑制在偏题言语老化中的作用, 发现偏题言语老化与抑制的删除、压抑功能随年龄衰退密切相关。Ayasse和Wingfield (2017)发现竞争信息越多, 被试的句子理解任务成绩越差。Cohen和Gordon-Salant (2017)发现不相关的视听觉干扰越大, 老年人的语音识别成绩就越差。由上述可知言语产生和言语理解能力(文本理解、句子理解、语音识别、偏题言语、造句任务)的老化和抑制功能密切相关。

脑功能层面的研究也提示抑制和舌尖现象老化有关。Shafto和Tyle (2014)指出, 舌尖现象的老化和脑功能的衰退有关, 他们在对人脸图片进行命名时, 相较于成功命名, 老年人出现舌尖现象时在额下回和右额叶中部等脑区出现激活(Shafto, Stamatakis, Tam, & Tyler, 2010)。而抑制功能被认为和大脑右额叶皮层是密切相关的(Aron, Robbins, & Poldrack, 2004), 当抑制功能不足时, 额叶皮层的激活程度会较高(Dempster, 1992; Hartley, 1993; Arbuckle & Gold, 1993)。由此推断, 老年人舌尖现象增多和抑制功能不足有关。

Cross和Burke (2004)指出, 抑制不足的作用在老年人的舌尖现象上更为明显, 抑制发生作用可能包含两个过程:一是干扰词汇在语义系统中广泛的“传播”, 并激活和目标词相关的干扰词汇; 二是由于老年人难以有效地控制激活的干扰信息进入到意识层面, 造成干扰信息反复出现在头脑中。可以看出, 抑制的作用可能发生在语义系统激活阶段, 如果被试能在语义激活阶段抑制住干扰词的影响, 舌尖现象将可能减少。

分析可知, 现有关于抑制与言语老化的研究大多侧重分析抑制测验成绩与老年人言语表现的相关关系, 无法做因果推论, 不能阐述清楚抑制在言语老化中的具体作用。而实验室研究很少操纵抑制各子功能, 它们各自在言语老化中的影响如何尚属未知。舌尖现象是老年人最常发生的语言表达困难(Ryan, Meneer, & Trovato, 1994), 对老年人生活中的言语交流有非常不利的影响。但是目前舌尖现象的研究没有操纵抑制各子功能, 难以进行因果推论, 因此抑制功能在老年人舌尖现象中的具体作用机制亟待明晰。

本研究将通过操纵抑制的子功能, 探讨其在老年人舌尖现象中的具体作用, 这不仅有利于阐明抑制和舌尖现象老化的因果关系, 了解舌尖现象老化的心理机制, 还能为改善老年人舌尖现象、提高其生活质量提供依据。此外, 如能证实抑制各子功能在老年人舌尖现象中的具体作用, 对于明晰老年人言语功能的老化机制也具有重要的意义。由于压抑子功能指的是对来自个体心理内部的强优势反应的压制, 难以进行实验操作, 故本研究只考察通达、删除子功能对老年人舌尖现象的影响。本研究拟通过实验室研究验证以下两个假设:

如果老年人因为通达子功能不足而使其舌尖现象增多, 那么在需要较高通达功能的条件下, 老年人比年轻人出现更多舌尖现象; 如果老年人因为删除子功能不足而使其舌尖现象增多, 那么在需要较高删除功能的条件下, 老年人比年轻人出现更多舌尖现象。

2 实验1:通达功能在老年人舌尖现象中的作用

2.1 被试

在北京招募18~33岁的年轻被试30名(男性10名), 平均年龄为22.73 ± 2.89岁, 平均受教育16.27 ± 1.74年, 解词测验18.17 ± 2.07分。在北京各社区招募60~79老年被试30人(男性9名), 平均年龄为68.17 ± 5.63岁, 平均受教育14.63 ± 2.16年, 解词测验17.43 ± 2.01分。被试均以汉语为第一语言, (矫正)视力正常, 无脑部疾病、认知损伤。年轻人受教育水平显著高于老年人, t(58) = 3.23, p < 0.01; 但解词测验得分无显著年龄差异, t(58) = 1.39, p > 0.05。

2.2 实验设计

参照Brown和McNeill (1966)使用的舌尖现象实验任务, 采用2(干扰条件:有、无)×2(年龄组:老年、年轻)的混合设计, 干扰条件为被试内变量, 年龄组为被试间变量, 因变量为舌尖现象比例, 即出现舌尖现象的题目数量/题目总量。干扰条件下, 给被试呈现舌尖现象的诱发问题的同时还将呈现一个干扰刺激, 见图1, 要求被试尽量忽略干扰刺激, 此时被试需要阻止干扰刺激进入到注意中心, 反映的是通达功能。无干扰条件下只呈现诱发问题。如果老年人舌尖现象和通达功能不足有关, 那么老年人更容易受到干扰刺激的影响而出现更多的舌尖现象, 此时舌尖现象比例的年龄差异应该显著大于无干扰条件。

图1

图1   有干扰(左)和无干扰(右)条件下的舌尖现象诱发问题


2.3 测量工具与材料

舌尖现象任务 使用计算机呈现诱发问题, 被试阅读后若知道答案就大声说出答案(目标词); 不知道答案则报告“不知道”; 如处于舌尖状态则报告“舌尖”。完成一题后进入下一题。每个题呈现时间不限, 由被试自己控制答题速度, 要求被试如实作答, 不允许猜测和反复思考。舌尖现象的操作性定义为:暂时说不出答案, 但是认为自己知道, 感觉答案就在嘴边。舌尖现象比例的计算公式为:出现舌尖现象的题目数量/题目总量。

任务材料 由于以往研究被试多为西方人, 使用的问题对中国被试太过陌生, 难以诱发舌尖现象, 很有必要编制适合中国被试的实验材料。

招募年轻被试26人, 老年被试18人进行预实验。参考Nelson和Narens (1980)Schwartz (2010)以及张红亚(2013)选用的常识性问题, 共编制300道题目, 如“宋朝的开国皇帝是谁(赵匡胤)?”, 问题范畴涉及历史、地理知识和生活常识等。

使用问卷方式呈现问题, 要求被试仔细阅读问题后根据其对问题答案的知晓情况进行评分:1代表知道答案并能准确说出, 2代表不知道答案, 3代表正处于舌尖现象。根据被试的作答情况删除完全不能诱发舌尖现象的问题, 即被试完全知道答案或者完全不知道答案的问题, 最后剩下共170道题, 诱发舌尖现象的比例为0.1697 ± 0.094。将170道题随机平分成两组作为干扰组、无干扰组的题目, 两组题诱发舌尖现象比例分别为0.1698 ± 0.094和0.1695 ± 0.093, 差异不显著, t(84) = 0.02, p > 0.05。

干扰刺激 老年人可能难以抑制语义相关刺激的干扰, 造成舌尖现象老化, 故通过预实验得到和目标词具有语义相似性的干扰刺激。语义相关度是指两个概念之间共享语义特征(方燕红, 张积家, 2013)。两个概念之间共享的语义特征越多,它们相关度就越高。如“猫”与“狗”、“猫”与“蚂蚁”之间都存在语义关联, 三者都属于“动物”的类别, 但“猫”和“狗”的语义相关度比“猫”与“蚂蚁”高。由三名心理学专业硕士生共同设计出3套具有语义相关的错误的干扰刺激, 每个诱发题目均有3个错误的语义干扰刺激(如, 热干面是我国哪个城市的传统美食?答案为武汉, 干扰刺激为长沙、南昌和澳门)。另外招募年轻被试15名, 要求被试阅读题目之后, 分别对给出的3个干扰刺激与正确答案之间的语义相关程度进行1~7评定:1表示语义相关度低, 7表示语义相关度高, 语义相关度评分在1.13~6.40之间, 平均分为3.57 ± 1.27。方燕红和张积家(2013)发现语义相关度高的干扰词有利于检索提取目标词。但如果干扰词和目标词的语义相关度过低则不存在干扰作用。因此我们选择了中等语义相关度的干扰刺激(平均分为3.85)作为干扰词, 此外, 对答案的词频(0.008 ± 0.014)和干扰词的词频(0.023 ± 0.074)进行t检验显示, 差异不显著, t(85) = -1.79, p = 0.075 > 0.05, 表明答案词和干扰词的熟悉度一致。

受教育水平、词汇理解能力被认为是影响舌尖现象年龄差异的可能原因之一(Dahlgren, 1998; Cross & Burke, 2004), 因此后续的数据分析应考虑把教育水平、词汇理解能力等因素作为协变量进行控制。

词汇测验 采用韦氏智力成人量表(城市版)词汇分测验(龚耀先, 1992)考察词汇理解能力。从词汇分测验中随机抽取10个词语, 请被试解释每个词语的含义。每个词的得分在0~2分之间, 总分在0~20分之间, 分数越高表明词汇理解能力越好。

2.4 实验程序

被试先填写基本资料(姓名、年龄、性别、受教育水平等)后进行词汇理解能力测验, 随后接受实验任务。

有、无干扰实验条件的先后顺序在被试间进行平衡。使用计算机(屏幕分辨率为1024×768)呈现实验任务, 字体为60号宋体。有干扰条件下, 舌尖现象诱发问题的上/下位置将随机出现一个斜体的干扰词(Samanez-Larkin, Robertson, Mikels, Carstensen, & Gotlib, 2009; 高悦, 2013), 两种实验条件开始前各有2道练习题, 确保被试了解规则。

无干扰条件下指导语为:请仔细阅读问题后作答(不要猜测), 如明确知道答案, 请大声说出来; 如感觉自己知道答案, 但说不出来或只能说出答案的一部分, 请报告“舌尖现象”; 如完全不知道答案, 请报告“不知道”。干扰条件则在无干扰条件指导语的基础上增加一句:呈现问题时, 屏幕会出现一个斜体词语, 越不注意它, 成绩就越好。

2.5 结果

2.5.1 背景变量分析

进行相关分析, 只发现受教育水平和两种实验条件下的舌尖现象比例相关达到显著(r干扰 = -0.262, p < 0.05, r无干扰 = -0.291, p < 0.05), 下一步分析中只将受教育水平作为协变量进行控制。

2.5.2 实验操作检验

若干扰词起到干扰效应, 本来知道答案的题目可能会出现更高的错误率, 报告错误答案的比例应高于无干扰条件。对被试认为知道答案却报告错误的比例进行t检验发现干扰条件下的错误比例(0.27 ± 0.16)显著高于无干扰条件(0.19 ± 0.10), t(59) = 6.37, p < 0.001, 说明干扰刺激起到干扰作用。

2.5.3 通达功能在老年人舌尖现象中的作用

不同年龄组舌尖现象比例见表1图2。以受教育水平为协变量, 年龄、干扰条件为自变量, 以舌尖现象比例为因变量做2×2两因素重复测量方差分析发现, 协变量作用不显著, F(1,57) = 0.08, p > 0.05; 干扰条件主效应不显著, F(1,57) = 0.06, p > 0.05; 年龄主效应显著, F(1,57) = 11.90, p = 0.001, ηp2 = 0.173; 交互作用显著, F(1,57) = 5.91, p < 0.05, ηp2 = 0.094。

表1   不同条件下各年龄组的舌尖现象比例

年龄组 有干扰 无干扰 激活干扰 不激活干扰
年轻组 0.092 ± 0.059 0.079 ± 0.067 0.118 ± 0.055 0.120 ± 0.053
老年组 0.183 ± 0.087 0.133 ± 0.075 0.174 ± 0.010 0.140 ± 0.079

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图2

图2   不同条件下各年龄组的舌尖现象比例


进行简单效应分析发现, 干扰条件下(F(1,57) = 16.29, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.222)和无干扰条件下(F(1,57) = 5.12, p < 0.05, ηp2 = 0.082)都存在显著年龄差异, 老年人的舌尖现象比例均高于年轻人, 并且在有干扰条件下年龄差异更大。此外, 老年人在干扰条件下舌尖比例显著高于无干扰条件, F(1,58) = 23.49, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.288; 年轻人则无显著差异, F(1,58) = 1.56, p > 0.05。分别计算有、无干扰条件下两组被试舌尖现象比例的差值(干扰条件:0.090 ± 0.097, 无干扰条件:0.053 ± 0.098), t检验发现干扰条件下舌尖现象比例的年龄差异显著大于无干扰条件, t(58) = 2.40, p < 0.05。

3 实验2:删除功能在老年人舌尖现象中的作用

3.1 被试

在北京招募19~27岁的年轻被试共30名(男性11人), 平均年龄为22.47 ± 1.94岁, 平均受教育16.07 ± 1.29年, 解词测验18.67 ± 1.69分。在北京社区招募61~78岁老年被试共30人(男性9人), 平均年龄为68.93 ± 5.42岁, 平均受教育14.20 ± 2.40年, 解词测验15.70 ± 3.50分。实验2被试系重新招募, 均以汉语为第一语言, (矫正)视力正常, 无脑部疾病、认知损伤。两组被试的受教育水平(t(58) = 3.76, p < 0.001)和解词测验得分(t(58) = 4.19, p < 0.001)均存在显著的年龄差异。

3.2 实验设计

采用2(是否激活干扰:是、否)×2(年龄组:老年、年轻)的混合设计, 是否激活干扰信息为被试内变量, 年龄组为被试间变量, 舌尖现象比例为因变量。

由于考察的是删除功能, 所以应事先让被试在头脑中激活干扰信息。在激活干扰信息条件下, 被试先对干扰信息进行学习后再进行舌尖现象任务, 借用实验1中的干扰材料作为干扰信息。不激活干扰信息条件下, 被试直接进行舌尖现象任务。

激活干扰条件下, 为更好的完成舌尖现象任务, 被试需删除注意中心里激活的干扰信息, 需要较好的删除功能。如果老年人出现舌尖现象是由于其删除功能不足, 那么在激活干扰信息条件下, 舌尖现象比例的年龄差异应当显著大于不激活干扰信息条件。

3.3 测量工具与材料

实验2中采用的词汇测验、舌尖现象任务干扰刺激均与实验1相同。

3.4 实验程序

被试进入实验室填写基本资料(姓名、年龄、性别、受教育水平等)后接受词汇理解能力测验, 随后接受正式实验任务。

实验条件的顺序在被试间进行平衡。不激活干扰信息条件, 实验程序类同实验1的无干扰条件。激活干扰信息条件下, 被试在舌尖任务前先对85个干扰词进行学习, 为确保被试认真加工干扰刺激, 主试事先告知被试学习之后将进行再认测验。两种实验条件开始前均各有2道练习题, 以确保被试了解规则。

干扰信息学习任务中使用计算机呈现干扰词, 每个干扰词呈现2秒, 学习完毕后进行30道数字比较任务。再认测验时, 从85个干扰词中随机挑选30个, 要求被试对这30个词汇进行是否学习过的再认判断。如果再认成绩显著高于随机猜测概率, 则说明其对干扰词进行了学习, 再认率 = 正确判断数/总数(黄一帆, 王大华, 肖红蕊, 姜薇, 2014)。

3.5 研究结果

3.5.1 背景变量分析

进行相关分析发现, 受教育水平、解词测验得分和舌尖现象比例相关均不显著, 下一步分析中不将受教育水平、解词测验得分作为协变量控制。

3.5.2 实验操作检验

对被试的再认率进行t检验, 年轻组再认率为0.79 ± 0.14, 显著大于随机猜测率, t(29) = 11.54, p < 0.001; 老年组再认率为0.64 ± 0.19, 显著大于随机猜测率, t(29) = 4.02, p < 0.001。且年轻组再认率显著高于老年组, t(58) = 3.63, p < 0.01, 提示两组被试对干扰刺激均进行了认真的学习。对两种实验条件下被试认为“知道”答案却报告错误答案的比例进行t检验发现, 激活干扰条件下的错误比例(0.30 ± 0.15)显著高于不激活干扰条件(0.23 ± 0.15), t(59) = 5.98, p < 0.001, 说明实验处理有效, 事先进行学习干扰刺激激活了更多干扰信息。

3.5.3 删除功能在老年人舌尖现象中的作用

老年、年轻人的舌尖现象比例见表1图2。以舌尖现象比例为因变量, 年龄、是否激活干扰为自变量, 做2×2两因素重复测量方差分析。结果发现, 是否激活干扰的主效应显著, F(1,58) = 4.41, p < 0.05, ηp2 = 0.071; 年龄主效应显著, F(1,58) = 4.43, p < 0.05, ηp2 = 0.071; 交互作用显著, F(1,58) = 5.32, p < 0.05, ηp2 = 0.084。

进行简单效应分析发现, 激活干扰条件下存在显著年龄差异, F(1,58) = 6.70, p < 0.05, ηp2 = 0.104, 老年人舌尖现象高于年轻人; 不激活干扰条件下年龄差异不显著, F(1,58) = 1.33, p > 0.05。这证实了假设, 激活干扰后舌尖现象比例的年龄差异变大, 显著大于不激活干扰条件。此外, 老年人在激活干扰条件下舌尖比例显著高于不激活条件, F(1,58) = 9.71, p < 0.01, ηp2 = 0.143; 年轻人显著不差异, F(1,58) = 0.02, p > 0.05。

4 讨论

本研究通过两个实验探讨抑制的子功能(通达和删除)在老年人舌尖现象中的作用, 支持抑制不足理论, 并进一步拓展该理论的内容。抑制不足理论认为当个体通过语义线索激活目标词时, 与目标词相关的干扰词会干扰对目标词的提取, 造成检索路线的偏离, 最终导致更多的舌尖现象。但并未阐述干扰词的可能来源以及其是如何造成检索路线偏离的。本研究表明干扰词来自于个体内部和外部, 抑制功能差的老年人可能被来自外部的干扰信息占据注意中心而导致无法提取目标词(即通达功能较弱), 也可能无法从之前激活的信息中转移注意导致目标词汇提取失败(即删除功能较弱)。

在实验1中无干扰的自然条件下, 年轻、老年人的舌尖现象比例为7.9%和13.3%, 与前人报告的结果一致。如Choi和Smith (2005)James和Burke (2000)使用一般知识问题得到年轻人舌尖现象比例分别为8%与7.9%, Cross和Burke (2004)使用图片诱发年轻人舌尖现象比例为8.1%。James和Burke (2000)发现老年人舌尖现象比例为13.8%。这些说明本研究舌尖任务问题材料的选择是合理的。

4.1 通达功能对老年人舌尖现象的作用

实验1考察通达功能在老年人舌尖现象中的作用, 干扰条件下被试需要阻止干扰词进入注意中心, 老年人通达功能不足难以抑制干扰词的影响, 进而出现更多的舌尖现象。

实验1的结果表明, 两种实验条件下舌尖现象均有显著年龄差异, 老年人在干扰条件下舌尖比例显著高于无干扰条件, 年轻人则无显著差异, 且老年人的舌尖现象比例均高于年轻人; 此外, 对不同条件下两组被试舌尖现象比例差值进行t检验发现, 老年组的变化值显著大于年轻组, 即施加干扰对老年人舌尖效应的影响更大。这些结果共同说明干扰使老年人出现更多舌尖现象, 而年轻人不受实验操作的影响, 验证了研究假设, 提示通达功能不足是老年人舌尖现象老化的重要原因。研究表明, 舌尖现象是最先进入头脑中的相关单词信息的阻碍造成的(Jones, 1989; Jones & Langford, 1987; Reason & Lucas, 1984; Roediger, 1974; Brown, 1991)。而Meyer和Bock (1992)在被试回答问题时呈现语义相关词汇, 发现相比于其他词汇, 语义相关词汇导致了更多的舌尖现象, 提示语义相关词汇可能是干扰目标词汇通达的重要原因。在实验1中的干扰条件下, 被试需要阻止斜体的干扰词进入注意中心, 年轻人由于通达功能保存完好, 能够有效的阻止干扰词进入注意中心, 而老年人因为通达功能不足的缘故, 难以抑制住干扰词的影响, 进而出现更高的舌尖现象。

Yin和Peng (2016)发现, 通达功能与老年人偏题言语增多无关, 与本研究结果不一致, 这可能与舌尖现象、偏题言语间的差异有关。偏题言语可能受已激活干扰信息的影响, 个体言语表达过多, 难以集中于当前话题、缺乏逻辑连贯性, 而负责抑制已激活信息的是压抑和删除功能。此外, Yin等人选取的任务难度可能偏低, 对老年人通达能力要求不高, 所以出现通达功能不影响老年人偏题言语的结果。而舌尖现象状态下的个体言语表达能力不足, 可能同时受到通达和抑制等功能的影响, 对实验1的操作检验显示干扰刺激起到干扰作用, 任务对通达功能要求高, 故会出现和Yin等人不同的结果。

综上可知, 老年人通达功能不足导致更多舌尖现象, 支持舌尖现象的抑制不足理论。

4.2 删除功能对老年人舌尖现象的作用

实验2探讨删除功能在老年人舌尖现象中的作用, 激活干扰条件下, 被试需要从注意中心中删除那些事先激活的信息, 才能够较好的完成舌尖现象任务。

学者认为, 老年人删除功能不足, 难以删除在检索过程中激活的无关信息, 容易使当前检索任务的偏离正确的方向, 从而产生更多的舌尖现象(Abrams, Trunk, & Merrill, 2007)。对被试成绩进行分析发现, 激活干扰条件下存在显著年龄差异, 老年人舌尖现象高于年轻人, 不激活干扰条件下年龄差异不显著。此外, 老年人在激活干扰条件下舌尖比例显著高于无干扰条件, 而年轻人没有显著差异, 说明激活干扰使老年人出现更多舌尖现象, 而年轻人舌尖现象不受实验操作的影响。这证实了假设, 激活干扰后舌尖现象比例的年龄差异变大, 显著大于不激活干扰条件。

实验操作检验发现年轻组再认率显著高于老年组, 可以理解为学习程度或记忆效果不一致。这可能和老年组较差的记忆功能有关。对干扰词的学习程度直接关系到干扰信息在头脑中激活的程度, 学习越深入, 干扰词在舌尖任务中产生的干扰作用越大。老年组对干扰词的学习程度差, 其激活的干扰信息应少于年轻组, 若老年人删除功能和年轻人一样好, 老年人的舌尖现象应该少于年轻人。实验结果显示激活干扰条件下年轻组舌尖现象比例显著低于老年组。老年人在对干扰词的学习程度较差的情况下仍然出现了更多的舌尖现象, 说明老年人的删除功能确实比年轻人差。这可从侧面证明删除功能不足是舌尖现象老化的重要原因。

为何不激活干扰条件下舌尖现象并没有出现年龄差异?我们对比了实验2(不激活干扰信息条件)和实验1(无干扰条件)的舌尖现象比例, 发现老年人在两个研究中的舌尖现象比例差异不显著(t(58) = 0.38, p > 0.05, 0.140 vs 0.133), 而年轻人舌尖现象比例差异显著(t(58) = 2.62, p < 0.05, 0.120 vs 0.079), 所以实验2中舌尖现象比例年龄差异不显著可能是年轻被试造成的。使用t检验对两实验中年轻被试背景信息进行分析, 发现受教育水平(t(58) = -0.51, p > 0.05, 16.07 vs 16.27)和词汇测验得分(t(58) = 1.03, p > 0.05, 18.67 vs 18.17)上均不存在显著差异。是否和两组年轻被试的知识面不同有关?对两个实验中年轻被试的知道率和不知道率进行t检验, 均未发现显著的差异(知道率:t(58) = 0.20, p > 0.05, 0.615 vs 0.607; 不知道率:t(58) = -0.54, p > 0.05, 0.261 vs 0.283), 表明和年轻被试的知识面无关。不激活干扰条件下舌尖现象年龄差异不显著的原因有待进一步探讨。

总之, 老年人不能有效删除之前激活的干扰信息, 出现更多舌尖现象, 证实了抑制不足理论, 舌尖现象老化可能与老人删除无关干扰信息能力的随龄衰退有关。

在两个实验中, 实验条件下被试认为“知道”答案却报告出错误答案的比例均显著高于控制条件, 说明干扰刺激确实激活了更多错误的干扰信息, 实验任务对抑制功能的要求较高。老年人由于通达、删除能力不足, 阻止无关信息进入注意中心、从注意中心中删除与当前任务无关信息的能力下降, 故会出现更多舌尖现象。

本研究使用实验室研究方法操纵抑制的通达、删除功能, 能够为抑制和老年人舌尖现象间的关系提供因果层面的解释; 同时拓展补充了抑制不足理论的内容, 为老年人舌尖现象的解释提供了更明确的观点, 即阻止无关信息、删除语义相关的干扰刺激的能力下降, 是老年人舌尖现象增多的重要原因。在实践上, 本研究能为改善老年人舌尖现象提供重要依据和启示:(1)在认知干预上, 可以设计专门针对抑制子功能进行训练的方案以期改善老年人通达、删除功能; (2)在日常生活情境中, 可致力于减少老年人言语交流环境中的干扰信息, 谈话中如果涉及话题的转换, 应多强调当下话题。

5 研究不足

本研究证实了抑制的通达、删除功能对老年人舌尖现象的影响, 一定程度填补了该领域的空缺, 但由于目前关于抑制和老年人舌尖现象关系的研究较少, 因此本研究结果尚需进一步研究验证。另外, 虽然证实了通达和删除功能在老年人舌尖现象中有重要作用, 但尚未清楚两者中谁的作用更大, 还需要进一步研究进行确定; 同时, 我们没有操纵压抑功能探讨其在老年人舌尖现象中的作用, 未来的研究可继续探讨这个问题。最后, 本研究为实验室研究, 实验材料不能完全涵盖日常生活中引发舌尖现象的言语问题, 且本研究选择用来诱发舌尖现象的问题涉及文史知识, 要求被试具有一定的教育水平, 故本研究结果在推广时需要谨慎。

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研究旨在考察老年人错误记忆现象及内在原因,并检验模糊痕迹理论对错误记忆年老化机制的解 释。以经典DRM范式为研究起点,对三组被试(年轻人35名、低龄老人28名、高龄老人34名)的记忆成绩进行比较,利用联合再认范式及多项式树型建模的 统计手段,分别从现象学和认知加工机制的角度检验错误记忆的年龄差异是否符合模糊痕迹理论的预期。结果发现:(1)正确记忆与错误记忆均存在显著的年龄差 异,而这两种记忆在不同年龄阶段的老年人中呈现出不同的增龄效应模式:正确记忆随年龄的增长呈不断下降的趋势,而错误记忆水平呈现倒u型发展趋势,即低龄 老年组的虚报率显著高于年轻组和高龄老年组;(2)虚报率的年龄差异主要集中在未学习过但与学习词列有强语义相关的刺激(类型记为R)反应上。对R型刺激 的反应模式进行分析发现,低龄老年人相比年轻人成功提取字面痕迹的概率存在显著下降,而提取要点痕迹的概率保持相对稳定;高龄老年人成功提取要点痕迹的概 率相比低龄老年人显著下降。本研究的结果支持了模糊痕迹理论对个体记忆一般年老化特点的预期及解释..

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研究旨在考察老年人错误记忆现象及内在原因,并检验模糊痕迹理论对错误记忆年老化机制的解 释。以经典DRM范式为研究起点,对三组被试(年轻人35名、低龄老人28名、高龄老人34名)的记忆成绩进行比较,利用联合再认范式及多项式树型建模的 统计手段,分别从现象学和认知加工机制的角度检验错误记忆的年龄差异是否符合模糊痕迹理论的预期。结果发现:(1)正确记忆与错误记忆均存在显著的年龄差 异,而这两种记忆在不同年龄阶段的老年人中呈现出不同的增龄效应模式:正确记忆随年龄的增长呈不断下降的趋势,而错误记忆水平呈现倒u型发展趋势,即低龄 老年组的虚报率显著高于年轻组和高龄老年组;(2)虚报率的年龄差异主要集中在未学习过但与学习词列有强语义相关的刺激(类型记为R)反应上。对R型刺激 的反应模式进行分析发现,低龄老年人相比年轻人成功提取字面痕迹的概率存在显著下降,而提取要点痕迹的概率保持相对稳定;高龄老年人成功提取要点痕迹的概 率相比低龄老年人显著下降。本研究的结果支持了模糊痕迹理论对个体记忆一般年老化特点的预期及解释..

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Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 17( 1), 82-87.

URL     PMID:20081165      [本文引用: 1]

Tip-of-the-tongue states (TOTs) are judgments of the likelihood of imminent retrieval for items currently not recalled. In the present study, the relation of emotion to the experience of TOTs is explored. Emotion-inducing questions (e.g.), “What is the term for ritual suicide in Japan?”) were embedded among neutral questions (e.g., “What is the capital of Denmark?”). Participants attempted to recall the answers and, if unsuccessful, were asked if they were in a TOT and given a recognition test. For unrecalled items, there were significantly more TOTs for the emotional items than for the neutral items, even though the recognition performance was identical. There were more TOTs for questions that followed emotional questions than TOTs for questions that followed neutral questions, suggesting the emotional arousal lasts beyond the specific question. These findings suggest that emotional cues increase the likelihood of TOTs. These data are consistent with a metacognitive view of TOTs.

Shafto M.A., &Tyler L.K .( 2014).

Language in the aging brain: The network dynamics of cognitive decline and preservation

Science, 346( 6209), 583-587.

URL     PMID:25359966      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Language is a crucial and complex lifelong faculty, underpinned by dynamic interactions within and between specialized brain networks. Whereas normal aging impairs specific aspects of language production, most core language processes are robust to brain aging. We review recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence showing that language systems remain largely stable across the life span and that both younger and older adults depend on dynamic neural responses to linguistic demands. Although some aspects of network dynamics change with age, there is no consistent evidence that core language processes are underpinned by different neural networks in younger and older adults. Copyright 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Shafto M. A., Stamatakis E. A., Tam P. P., & Tyler L. K . ( 2010).

Word retrieval failures in old age: the relationship between structure and function

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22( 7), 1530-1540.

URL     PMID:19642890      [本文引用: 1]

A common complaint of normal aging is the increase in word-finding failures such as tip-of-the-tongue states (TOTs). Behavioral research identifies TOTs as phonological retrieval failures, and recent findings [Shafto, M. A., Burke, D. M., Stamatakis, E. A., Tam, P., & Tyler, L. K. On the tip-of-the-tongue: Neural correlates of increased word-finding failures in normal aging. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 2060–2070, 2007] link age-related increases in TOTs to atrophy in left insula, a region implicated in phonological production. Here, younger and older adults performed a picture naming task in the fMRI scanner. During successful naming, left insula activity was not affected by age or gray matter integrity. Age differences only emerged during TOTs, with younger but not older adults generating a “boost” of activity during TOTs compared to successful naming. Older adults also had less activity than younger adults during TOTs compared to “don't know” responses, and across all participants, less TOT activity was affiliated with lower gray matter density. For older adults, lower levels of activity during TOTs accompanied higher TOT rates, supporting the role of an age-related neural mechanism impacting older more than younger adults. Results support a neural account of word retrieval in old age wherein, despite widespread age-related atrophy, word production processes are not universally impacted by age. However, atrophy undermines older adults' ability to modulate neural responses needed to overcome retrieval failures.

Sunderland A., Watts K., Baddeley A. D., & Harris J. E . ( 1986).

Subjective memory assessment and test performance in the elderly

Journal of Gerontology,41( 3), 376-384.

URL     PMID:3700988      [本文引用: 1]

The everyday memory of a group of elderly adults was assessed using techniques developed for use with younger head-injured people (Sunderland et al., 1983). The participants completed a memory questionnaire and a daily checklist; their spouses gave their assessment using a separate questionnaire. These subjective methods showed only moderate agreement, and the questionnaire had low test-retest reliability. It appears that these methods of subjective memory assessment have little validity when used with normal elderly adults. Two positive findings did emerge: As in previous studies, a story recall test was the strongest predictor of reported memory performance; and despite a universal belief among elderly adults that their memory had deteriorated with age, very few of them felt that they were at all handicapped by forgetfulness in everyday life.

Woodworth R.S .( 1938).

Experimental psychology

. New York: Holt.

[本文引用: 1]

Yin S.F, &Peng H.M . ( 2016).

The role of inhibition in age-related off-topic verbosity: Not access but deletion and restraint functions

Frontiers in Psychology, 7( 65), 1-11.

[本文引用: 2]

Zacks R. T., &Hasher L . (1994).

Directed ignoring: Inhibitory regulation of working memory. In: D. Dagenbach,., & T. H. Carr (Eds.), Inhibitory processes in attention, memory, and language (pp. 241-264)

San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Zacks R., &Hasher L . ( 1997).

Cognitive gerontology and attentional inhibition: A reply to Burke and McDowd

The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences,52( 6), 274-283.

URL     PMID:9403516      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Our response to the Burke and McDowd critiques (in this issue) begins with a history of the origins of the inhibitory deficit view and of its development since 1988 as well as with an account of some particularly useful findings and of our preferred mode of theory building, which is nonformal and empirically driven. Against this background, we find many points of agreement with Burke and McDowd but also many points of disagreement. For example, we agree with Burke that many aspects of language comprehension and production are age invariant, but we disagree that all such findings count against our viewpoint. Likewise, we readily acknowledge the problems in measuring inhibition that McDowd so clearly documents, but do not feel that this is a fatal problem as long as the inhibitory deficit view continues to be viable within the basic attentional literature, continues to permit the integration of a large body of existing data, and continues to generate new predictions.

Zhang H.Y . ( 2013).

The condition of questions that used in TOT research and the effect of emotion on TOT. ( Unpublished master thesis)

Henan University, China.

[本文引用: 1]

[ 张红亚 . ( 2013).

舌尖现象研究的选题条件和情绪对舌尖现象的影响(硕士学位论文)

河南大学.]

[本文引用: 1]

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