心理学报, 2018, 50(10): 1071-1082 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01071

研究报告

语义关联的注意捕获——来自线索化范式的证据

王慧媛1, 隋洁,2,3, 张明,4

1长春师范大学心理学系, 长春 130032

2清华大学心理学系, 北京 100084

3 Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK

4苏州大学心理学系, 苏州 215123

Attentional capture is contingent on attentional control setting for semantic meaning: Evidence from modified spatial cueing paradigm

WANG Hui-Yuan1, SUI Jie,2,3, ZHANG Ming,4

1 Department of Psychology, Changchun Normal University, Changchun 130032, China

2 Department of Psychology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

3 Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK

4 Department of Psychology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China

通讯作者: 隋洁, E-mail:jie.sui@gmail.com 张明, E-mail:psyzm@suda.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2017-10-12   网络出版日期: 2018-10-15

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金.  31371025
吉林省教育厅“十三五”社会科学项目.  JJKH20181210SK
长春师范大学人文社会科学基金项目(长师大社科合字[2017] 001号)资助

Received: 2017-10-12   Online: 2018-10-15

摘要

采用线索化范式, 操作性地建立线索和靶子的语义关联, 考察语义关联对注意捕获的影响。实验1采用特征线索意义靶子的形式, 建立某一特定语义水平的注意控制定势, 发现线索靶子语义一致时线索捕获注意, 线索靶子语义不一致时同样的线索失去捕获注意的能力。实验2随机呈现线索颜色和靶子汉字, 建立两种语义概念的注意控制定势, 发现所有的线索都出现了捕获效应, 而不论其在某一具体试次中是否与靶子意义一致。实验3交换了线索与靶子的属性及概念, 采用意义线索特征靶子的形式, 结果与实验1一致。这些结果表明, (1)语义关联的注意捕获符合关联性的无意注意定向假说, 刺激的捕获能力受当前的注意控制定势调节; (2)由语义概念激活的知觉表征在调节空间注意分配上与其自身相比形式相同, 但程度有所下降; (3)知觉特征水平的注意控制定势能够激活与其相应的语义概念, 使其吸引注意并调节空间注意分配; (4)知觉表征和语义概念的激活可能是双向的, 激活后在指导注意转移上表现出相同的特性。

关键词: 语义关联 ; 注意捕获 ; 注意控制定势 ; 线索化范式 ; 语义激活

Abstract

Abstract It has been well documented that attentional capture is contingent on the features of attentional control settings; however, whether and how the semantic contingency between cue and target stimuli modulates spatial attention is poorly understood. Here, we tested this question with strict experiment designs by focusing on pure contingent attentional capture for the semantic meaning of feature attributes or semantic concept cues, and we then examined the nature of attentional control in human visual spatial performance.

A modified spatial cuing paradigm was employed in the current study. In Experiment 1, cues presented in red or green and targets were white Chinese characters “红” (meaning red) or “绿” (meaning green). We had participants discriminate the location of the gap of the target square in different cue-target blocks. Experiments 2 and 3 were identical to Experiment 1, except that in Experiment 2, cue property and target character were randomized, and the task was to discriminate the target as “红” or “绿”; Experiment 3 swapped the cue and target stimuli, where cues were Chinese characters in white and targets were presented in red or green.

The results showed that semantically congruent color cues exclusively captured attention when participants searched for a specific semantic meaning in Experiment 1. In contrast, cuing effects were observed in Experiment 2 in the two-color cue conditions when participants discriminated two Chinese characters, and the effects were independent of the semantic congruency of cue and target. Experiment 3 replicated the results in Experiment 1; cues with semantically congruent Chinese characters captured attention only when participants were required to search for a specific color.

It is concluded that (1) the effects of semantic attentional capture were modulated by attentional control setting, consistent with a contingent attentional orienting hypothesis; (2) the perceptional representation of stimuli activated by semantic concept modulated the processing of stimuli on the location of spatial attention, but the magnitude of the effect decreased; (3) the congruent semantic representation was activated by attentional control setting for perceptional feature and subsequently modulated the allocation of attention; and (4) activation of semantic concept and perceptional representation may be bidirectional and resemble each other in traits of attention shift guidance.

Keywords: semantic contingency ; attentional capture ; attentional control setting ; modified spatial cuing paradigm ; semantic activation

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本文引用格式

王慧媛, 隋洁, 张明. (2018). 语义关联的注意捕获——来自线索化范式的证据. 心理学报, 50(10), 1071-1082

WANG Hui-Yuan, SUI Jie, ZHANG Ming. (2018). Attentional capture is contingent on attentional control setting for semantic meaning: Evidence from modified spatial cueing paradigm. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(10), 1071-1082

1 前言

现实世界充斥着大量的信息, 而人类同一时间处理信息的能力有限, 因此需要通过注意选择一部分信息进入更深层次的加工(Broadbent, 1958)。在信息特征方面, 足够显著的刺激能够自动吸引注意(Theeuwes, 1991); 而人类也可以根据自身的需要选择与其目标相一致的信息进入注意, 在当前目标的指导下, 客体间的关联能够决定何种特征吸引注意, 进而调节空间注意的分配(Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992)。Folk等人(1992)使用线索化范式, 考察了无任何提示信息的线索对稍后出现在不同位置的靶子反应的影响。线索和靶子的位置关系主要有两种:线索和靶子出现在同一位置, 为线索有效条件; 线索和靶子出现在不同位置, 为线索无效条件。实验的逻辑是, 对于一种线索, 如果线索无效时的反应慢于线索有效时的反应即出现线索效应, 则认为线索已将注意吸引至其位置。那么当靶子出现在同一位置时, 注意不需转移即可快速反应; 而当靶子出现在其他位置时, 注意必然首先转移至新位置而导致反应时的延长。研究者们把这种线索导向的注意现象叫做注意捕获, 将线索无效和线索有效条件下的反应时之差作为注意捕获量的指标。Folk等发现, 线索是否捕获注意并非由线索本身属性决定, 而是取决于是否与靶子属性一致, 只有与靶子属性一致的线索才具有捕获注意的能力。基于这样的结果, Folk等提出了关联性无意注意定向假说, 并强调注意控制定势在无意注意定向中具有重要作用。这一假说提出后, 得到了众多实验结果的支持(Folk, Remington, & Wright, 1994; Remington, Folk, & McLean, 2001; Eimer & Kiss, 2008; Kiss & Eimer, 2011; Huang, Su, Zhen, & Zhe, 2016), 这其中强调了刺激属性间及与长时记忆表征间的匹配关系(Schmidt, 2014; Reeder, van Zoest, & Peelen, 2015; Giammarco, Paoletti, Guild, & Al-Aidroos, 2014, 2016)。

不难发现, 以Folk为代表支持关联性无意定向假说的证据主要来自于较低水平特征属性的捕获现象, 即线索和靶子皆用某一特征(如颜色、形状、突现等)进行界定, 而较高水平的概念信息对空间注意调节的模式又是怎样的呢?王慧媛(2009)首次考察了基于语义关联的注意捕获问题, 发现当靶子中有“红”字时, 红色线索导致了注意捕获现象; 而在非颜色意义汉字(如“纱”字)的搜索任务中, 同样的红色线索失去了捕获注意的能力。这说明, 对于具有颜色意义的汉字靶子的搜索, 被试已经具备了基于语义信息的注意控制定势, 与当前语义概念一致的特征线索由于符合定势而使注意定向至其位置并调节了空间注意的分配。近期一项研究结果支持了上述观点, 研究者们设计出线索与靶子间多种不同的关联形式, 固定每一种形式下的线索颜色和靶子意义(王慧媛, 张明, 隋洁, 2014)。结果发现, 在不使用任何搜索策略的条件下, 对于同样的红色线索, 在靶子为“红”字时(即语义关联条件)捕获注意, 而在靶子为“纱”字时(即无关联无策略的基线条件)未导致注意捕获现象的出现。这些结果暗示着视觉空间的无意注意转移不仅可以发生在知觉特征水平上, 同样也可以发生在较高级的语义概念水平上。然而, 王慧媛等(2009, 2014)的研究存在一个缺陷, 即只验证了一种颜色特征(红色)调节注意定向的语义关联性, 而无法排除红色在注意分配上可能存在的独特性。有研究表明, 不同的颜色表达着不同的情调信息, 对于中国人红色具有更强烈的兴奋性和喜悦感(黄希庭, 黄巍, 李小融, 1991); 同时, 红色也可能在先天遗传与后天学习中具有某种特殊性而影响个体的心理与行为, 即红色心理效应(Hill & Barton, 2005; 李晓明, 和平, 刘林英, 2016; 张腾霄, 韩布新, 2017)。这些研究结果意味着只选择红色刺激作为实验材料可能有失公允并降低实验的普适性。

针对上述问题, 同一时期的一项研究考察了红色和绿色线索在靶子分别为“RED” (即“红”)和“GREEN” (即“绿”)时的捕获效应(Goodhew, Kendall, Ferber, & Pratt, 2014)。研究者们发现只有与靶子语义一致的颜色线索能够捕获注意, 而当靶子意义改变时, 颜色线索的捕获能力出现了反转。他们指出语义概念能够激发人们保持一定的语义水平的注意定势, 而与这种语义定势相一致的特征属性可将注意吸引至其位置并调节空间注意的分配。这样的结果与王慧媛等(2009, 2014)的结果一致, 支持语义关联的注意捕获假说。相类似的, 有研究发现当对某一概念(如“ROSE” 玫瑰)进行操作时, 与之相关的颜色特征分心物(如红色圆盘)相比于无关颜色特征分心物(如绿色圆盘)会对视觉搜索任务造成更多的干扰(Sun, Shen, Shaw, Cant, & Ferber, 2015)。这表明客体间语义概念关联的差异能够影响视觉空间注意定向, 并且视觉工作记忆内容也会对这一过程产生策略性的调节(Ye, Lu, Zhang, Wang, Tian, & Liu, 2017)。然而Goodhew等(2014)的研究结果在不同颜色线索的捕获量上出现了显著的差异性, 即分别在其语义一致条件下, 绿色线索的捕获量(129 ms)显著高于红色线索的捕获量(37 ms)。这似乎表明绿色特征相对于红色特征具有更强的捕获能力, 在他们实验的特征条件任务下也存在着这样的趋势。以往特征关联的研究中未发现同一特征属性(如颜色)中不同特征值(如红色、绿色)间调节注意定向能力的差异性, 因此关联性注意定向假说不能对此进行解释; 另外, Goodhew等人也未对此进行解释, 同时他们也指出没有证据表明绿色特征在捕获能力上具有优势性。因此我们怀疑其实验中不同颜色特征捕获量的差异性并非来自关联性的注意定向本身, 而是来自其他方面, 如靶子屏中颜色词词长不同导致的视角不同、单一试次中线索颜色不确定而是随机变化等。基于以上问题, 本研究使用线索化范式考察基于语义定势的关联性注意捕获, 并进行更为严格的控制以得到纯净的注意捕 获效应, 进一步探讨人类视觉空间加工的注意控制本质。

2 实验1:特征线索意义靶子形式下单一语义定势的注意捕获

实验1使用红绿两种颜色作为线索, “红”“绿”两种具有颜色意义的汉字作为靶子, 像Folk等(1992)研究固定线索和靶子属性一样, 每一实验条件都确定了当前的线索特征和靶子意义。另外, 由于汉字方块构形的特点, 所有靶子字和非靶字都具有相同的视角, 将视觉因素对靶子反应的影响降到最小。实验假设, 线索颜色和靶子汉字语义一致时, 即线索为红色、靶子为“红”字和线索为绿色、靶子为“绿”字时, 出现线索效应即线索捕获注意; 当线索颜色和靶子汉字语义不一致时, 即线索为红色、靶子为“绿”字和线索为绿色、靶子为“红”字时, 相同的线索失去了捕获注意的能力。

2.1 方法

2.1.1 被试

27名大学本科生和研究生参与了实验, 其中女生21名、男生6名1( 证据表明视觉空间注意不受性别差异影响(Inukai & Kawahara, 2012)。下同。), 19岁至27岁, 平均年龄22.1岁(标准差为2.5)。其中一人为左利手, 其他人为右利手。所有被试母语为汉语; 视力或矫正视力正常, 无色盲色弱; 未参加过同类实验。

2.1.2 实验设备与材料

使用22英寸彩色显示器呈现刺激, 屏幕分辨率为1024×768, 刷新频率为85 Hz。实验程序采用E-prime编制, 在Windows XP操作系统上运行。

实验有3种基本刺激屏:注视屏、线索屏和靶子屏(见图1)。注视屏中央呈现一个注视加号(0.48°×0.48°, 在其0°、90°、180°和270°位置上分别呈现一个方框(1.53°×1.53°), 每个方框中央距屏幕中央4.4°。中央注视加号为白色, 外周方框为灰色(RGB: 128 128 128), 背景为黑色。在线索屏中, 所有外周方框的四边由细(0.14°)变粗(0.43°), 同时一个方框由原来的灰色变为红色(RGB: 255 0 0)或绿色(RGB: 0 255 0)。靶子屏的构成是在注视屏的每个外周方框中呈现一个白色汉字(0.86°×0.86°), 其中一个字是靶子。靶子是“红”字或“绿”字, 当靶子为“红”字时, 另外3个非靶汉字分别是“纠”、“纤”和“约”; 当靶子为“绿”字时, 另外3个非靶汉字分别是“绳”、“编”和“绩”。每一试次中, 4个汉字出现的位置随机。另外, 每个外周方框都出现一个缺口, 位置左右随机, 但一定有两个在左边, 两个在右边。

图1

图1   实验1流程图

注:首先呈现注视屏500 ms, 然后呈现线索屏100 ms。存在两种颜色线索, 分别为红色和绿色, 线索位置随机。随后再次呈现注视屏100 ms, 最后呈现靶子屏1000 ms。靶子为白色的“红”字或“绿”字, 4个汉字位置随机。根据线索与靶子的组合情况, 实验共有4种条件, 对于每种条件线索颜色和靶子汉字均已确定。实验采用Block设计, 被试的任务是既快又准地判断当前Block内特定靶子字所在方框缺口的位置, 缺口左右随机。


2.1.3 实验程序与设计

被试在暗室中单独进行实验, 了解指导语后坐在一张舒适的椅子上, 眼睛水平距显示器74 cm。如图1所示, 首先呈现注视屏(包括中央注视加号和4个外周方框)500 ms, 然后呈现线索屏100 ms。线索屏消失后, 再次呈现注视屏100 ms, 最后呈现靶子屏1000 ms。靶子有25%的可能性出现在线索位置上(即线索有效), 另外75%则不会出现在线索位置上(即线索无效)。靶子屏中4个汉字(包括靶子)出现的位置随机。根据线索与靶子的组合情况, 一共有4种实验条件:线索为红色、靶子为“红”字的语义一致条件; 线索为红色、靶子为“绿”字的语义不一致条件; 线索为绿色、靶子为“红”字的语义不一致条件; 线索为绿色、靶子为“绿”字的语义一致条件。实验采用Block设计, 4种实验条件间顺序随机, 即线索和靶子的结合只在Block间变化, 每一Block内的线索属性和靶子身份都已确定, 被试只对特定靶子字进行反应。在实验前, 被试已经知道了对于线索屏的安排, 但是在实验中, 要求被试忽视与实验任务无关的线索屏。被试的任务是既快又准地判断当前Block内特定靶子字所在方框的缺口位置, 如果缺口在左边, 则用左手食指按贴有“左”字标签的“Z”键; 如果缺口在右边, 则用右手食指按贴有“右”字标签的“M”键。如果靶子出现后2000 ms内没有反应, 则这一试次视为错误。在一次按键或2000 ms后, 距离下一试次呈现1400 ms到1600 ms随机的空屏。

实验采用2×2×2被试内设计, 自变量分别为线索有效性(线索有效和线索无效)、线索和靶子间的语义一致性(语义一致和语义不一致)及靶子身份(“红”字和“绿”字)。根据线索与靶子的组合情况, 实验共有4种条件, 对于每种条件线索颜色和靶子字均已确定; 每个条件包括12个练习试次和128个正式试次; 每种条件正式试次分成4个试次组, 两个试次组间进行休息, 休息时间由被试掌握。实验约为40分钟。

2.2 结果与分析

删除反应错误的试次, 删除反应时不到200 ms或超过2000 ms的试次, 删除每个被试反应时平均数上下3个标准差外的试次, 一共删除了6.9%的数据。表1呈现了每一条件结合下正确反应的平均反应时及错误率。

表1   实验1中线索有效性、线索靶子语义一致性和靶子身份间各处理下的平均反应时及错误率(标准差)

因变量指标/线索有效性 “红”字靶子 “绿”字靶子
语义一致 语义不一致 语义一致 语义不一致
反应时(ms) 线索无效 816.5 (83.9) 784.6 (86.7) 840.3 (80.2) 827.9 (73.7)
线索有效 768.3 (83.8) 772.2 (69.3) 806.5 (70.1) 822.8 (84.2)
错误率(%) 线索无效 6.5 (4.9) 5.6 (4.2) 8.1 (7.3) 8.6 (9.1)
线索有效 5.3 (5.7) 5.4 (4.7) 5.7 (4.9) 7.1 (5.7)

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对于反应时的重复测量方差分析表明线索有效性主效应显著, F(1,26) = 15.29, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.37, 出现在线索位置靶子的反应(792.5 ms)总体快于非线索位置靶子的反应(817.3 ms)。更为重要的是, 线索有效性和语义一致性间存在交互作用, F (1,26) = 14.92, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.37。进一步分析表明, 语义一致条件下, 线索无效条件下的反应(828.3 ms)慢于线索有效条件下的反应(787.5 ms), F (1,26) = 24.51, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.49, 即出现了注意捕获现象; 语义不一致条件下, 线索无效条件下的反应(805.8 ms)与线索有效条件下的反应(797.1 ms)无差异, F (1,26) = 1.51, p = 0.23,即未出现注意捕获现象(见图2)。同时, 线索靶子语义一致性主效应不显著, F (1,26) = 1.05, p = 0.32。靶子身份的主效应显著, F (1,26) = 24.81, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.49, 对于“红”字的反应(785.4 ms)快于对“绿”字的反应(824.4 ms), 这可能是源于前者无论在字频(0.04504)还是在使用度(511)上均显著高于后者(0.01027和101) (北京语言学院语言教学研究所, 1986)。但是靶子身份与其他因素均未出现交互作用, Fs (1,26) < 2.59, ps > 0.12, 这说明虽然不同汉字靶子的绝对反应时有差异, 但并不对各种条件下的注意捕获现象造成影响。

图2

图2   实验1中线索有效性和线索靶子语义一致性的交互作用

注:当线索靶子语义一致时, 线索无效条件下的反应时大于线索有效条件下的反应时; 当线索靶子语义不一致时, 线索无效条件下的反应时与线索有效条件下的反应时无差异。***表示p < 0.001, 下同


另外, 对于错误率的重复测量方差分析表明所有主效应和交互作用均不显著, Fs (1,26) < 3.57, ps > 0.07, 表明不存在速度与准确性的权衡, 基于反应时的分析有效。

2.3 讨论

实验1通过操纵线索颜色和靶子意义间的语义一致性, 考察基于语义水平的注意控制定势对特征线索调节的注意分配的指导。结果发现, 当线索特征和靶子意义一致时线索捕获注意, 而当线索特征和靶子意义不一致时, 同样的线索失去了捕获注意的能力。这样的结果说明, 符合语义水平注意控制定势的特征线索能够将注意吸引至其位置, 并对随后出现的靶子的反应产生了影响。另外, 实验1中颜色线索的捕获效应一致, 未发现某一颜色在关联性注意捕获中有任何的特殊性, 说明Goodhew等(2014)实验中发现的绿色线索捕获注意的优势性并非来自关联性的注意定向, 在我们严格控制实验操作之后, 这种颜色指导注意的特殊性消失。

可见, 实验1的结果有力地支持了基于语义定势的关联性注意捕获的存在, 特征属性能够根据当前的语义水平注意控制定势调节其对注意分配的调控情况。那么我们可以假设, 当调整语义水平的注意控制定势时, 特征线索捕获注意的能力将相应改变, 实验2将对这一假设进行验证。

3 实验2:特征线索意义靶子形式下双重语义定势的注意捕获

实验2将变化语义水平的注意控制定势, 要求被试同时对两种颜色意义的汉字进行反应, 即在每一试次中辨别靶子是“红”字还是“绿”字。这样, 被试的注意控制定势中包含有红色和绿色两种意义, 那么, 根据关联性的注意定向假说, 红色和绿色线索都将导致线索效应的出现, 而不论具体在每一试次中线索颜色和靶子意义是否一致。

3.1 方法

3.1.1 被试

26名大学本科生和研究生参与了实验, 其中女生21名、男生5名, 18岁至26岁, 平均年龄21.2岁(标准差为1.8)。所有被试为右利手; 母语为汉语; 视力或矫正视力正常, 无色盲色弱; 未参加过同类实验。

3.1.2 实验设备、材料、程序与设计

与实验1不同的是, 对于每一试次, 两种线索和两种靶子皆随机出现。靶子是“红”字或“绿”字, 靶子屏中的3个非靶汉字分别是“线”、“细”和“组”,靶子所在外周方框不出现缺口。被试的任务是既快又准地判断每一试次靶子是“红”字还是“绿”字并相应地用左右食指按“Z”键或“M”键。(对于一半被试, “Z”键对应“红”字, “M”键对应“绿”字; 另一半被试反之)。其他同实验1。实验包括12个练习试次和384个正式试次, 正式试次分成6个试次组, 两个试次组间进行休息, 休息时间由被试掌握。实验约为40分钟。

3.2 结果与分析

删除反应错误的试次, 删除反应时不到200 ms或超过2000 ms的试次, 删除每个被试反应时平均数上下3个标准差外的试次, 一共删除了6.5%的数据。表2呈现了每一条件结合下正确反应的平均反应时及标准差。

表2   实验2中有效性、线索靶子语义一致性和靶子身份间各处理下的平均反应时及错误率(标准差)

因变量指标/线索有效性 “红”字靶子 “绿”字靶子
语义一致 语义不一致 语义一致 语义不一致
反应时(ms) 线索无效 665.8 (106.2) 662.1 (102.8) 718.9 (120.6) 723.1 (123.0)
线索有效 636.7 (104.1) 641.6 (99.9) 692.4 (119.1) 698.4 (115.2)
错误率(%) 线索无效 8.5 (4.5) 6.9 (5.2) 5.9 (5.5) 6.4 (6.3)
线索有效 4.3 (4.3) 5.9 (6.3) 5.3 (6.2) 5.1 (6.2)

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对于反应时的重复测量方差分析表明线索有效性主效应显著, F (1,25) = 29.73, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.54, 出现在线索位置靶子的反应(667.3 ms)总体快于非线索位置靶子的反应(692.5 ms)。靶子身份的主效应显著, F (1,25) = 32.76, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.57, 对于“红”字的反应(651.6 ms)快于对“绿”字的反应(708.2 ms), 但依然未与其他因素产生交互作用, Fs (1,25) < 0.43, ps > 0.52。其他主效应及交互作用均不显著, Fs (1,25) < 0.63, ps > 0.44。

另外, 对于错误率的重复测量方差分析表明线索有效性主效应显著, F (1,25) = 6.77, p < 0.05, η2 = 0.21, 出现在线索位置靶子的错误率(5.2%)总体低于非线索位置靶子的错误率(6.9%)。其他主效应及交互作用均不显著, Fs (1,25) < 3.99, ps > 0.06。错误率的结果总体上与反应时一致, 不存在速度与准确性的权衡, 基于反应时的分析有效。

3.3 讨论

实验2通过变化基于语义水平的注意控制定势, 考察其对特征线索调节注意定向的影响。结果发现, 当被试当前的注意控制定势包含红绿两种意义时, 红色和绿色线索都会捕获注意, 而不论其在具体某一试次中是否与靶子意义一致。这样的结果说明, 语义水平的注意捕获同特征水平的注意捕获一样受当前注意控制定势的影响, 只要与当前注意控制定势相符的刺激都会吸引注意进而调节注意分配。因此, 刺激吸引注意的能力是可变化的, 并非由其自身特征属性决定, 而是受到更高级的自上而下因素的影响。

实验1和实验2表明, 当激活某一语义概念时, 与其一致的物理属性同时也被激活, 并且已激活的物理属性可以导致空间注意的转移并调节当前注意的分配。但是, 反过来是否也能够成立?即当激活某一特征属性时, 与其相一致的更高级别的概念意义是否同时也被激活并调节视空注意的分配呢?从王慧媛、隋洁和张明(2016)的研究中, 我们可以看出似乎存在这种可能。她们考察了不同形式的意义线索对特征靶子反应的影响, 结果发现, 当线索靶子在语义概念上一致即当线索为白色的“红”字、靶子为红色时, 线索能够捕获注意, 并且捕获量与特征线索意义靶子形式时(王慧媛等, 2014)相当。那么我们预期, 当刺激间以先意义概念后特征属性的形式存在语义关联时, 前者同样会影响被试对后者的反应。实验3将对这一问题进行验证。

4 实验3:意义线索特征靶子形式下单一语义定势的注意捕获

实验3交换线索和靶子的属性及概念, 设计靶子为特征属性, 依然存在红和绿两种颜色; 设计线索为意义概念, 在保留“红”和“绿”两种汉字外, 加入“纱”字作为语义无关条件, 即对于红色和绿色, “纱”字都是无任何关联的。实验假设, 当线索意义和靶子颜色语义一致时, 线索捕获注意; 当线索意义和靶子颜色语义不一致及语义无关时, 线索将不能够调节注意。

4.1 方法

4.1.1 被试

18名大学本科生和研究生参与了实验, 其中女生14名、男生4名, 20岁至27岁, 平均年龄22.4岁(标准差为1.8)。其中一人为左利手, 其他人为右利手。所有被试母语为汉语; 视力或矫正视力正常, 无色盲色弱; 未参加过同类实验。

4.1.2 实验设备、材料、程序与设计

与实验1不同的是, 在线索屏中, 一个白色的汉字随机出现在某一外周方框中, 汉字可能是“红”字、“绿”字或“纱”字; 靶子屏改变了注视屏外周方框的颜色, 分别变为红色、绿色、蓝色(RGB: 0 0 255)和黄色(RGB: 255 255 0), 并且变成何种颜色随机, 靶子屏呈现时间为500 ms (见图3)。根据线索与靶子的组合情况, 一共有6种条件:当靶子为红色方框时, “红”字是语义一致线索, “绿”字是语义不一致线索, “纱”字是语义无关线索; 当靶子为绿色方框时, “红”字是语义不一致线索, “绿”字是语义一致线索, “纱”字依然是语义无关线索。其他同实验1。

图3

图3   实验3流程图

注:首先呈现注视屏500 ms, 然后呈现线索屏100 ms。线索是“红”字、“绿”字或“纱”字, 位置随机。随后再次呈现注视屏100 ms, 最后呈现靶子屏500 ms, 靶子为红色方框或绿色方框。根据线索与靶子的组合情况, 实验采用Block设计, 共有6种条件, 对于每种条件线索字和靶子颜色均已确定。被试的任务是既快又准地判断当前Block内特定颜色靶子框缺口的位置, 缺口左右随机。


实验采用2×3×2被试内设计, 自变量分别为线索有效性(线索有效和线索无效)、线索和靶子间的语义一致性(语义一致、语义不一致和语义无关)及靶子颜色(红色和绿色)。实验采用Block设计, 共有6种条件, 对于每种条件线索字和靶子颜色均已确定, 被试的任务是既快又准地判断当前Block内特定颜色靶子框缺口的位置, 缺口左右随机。每种条件包括12个练习试次和128个正式试次; 每种条件正式试次分成4个试次组, 两个试次组间进行休息, 休息时间由被试掌握。实验约为1小时。

4.2 结果与分析

删除反应错误的试次, 删除反应时不到200 ms或超过2000 ms的试次, 删除每个被试反应时平均数上下3个标准差外的试次, 一共删除了5.3%的数据。表3呈现了每一条件结合下正确反应的平均反应时及错误率。

表3   实验3中有效性、线索靶子语义一致性和靶子颜色间各处理下的平均反应时及错误率(标准差)

因变量指标/线索有效性 红色靶子 绿色靶子
线索有效 线索无效 线索有效 线索无效
反应时(ms) 语义一致 509.0 (38.1) 484.0 (41.7) 534.7 (40.7) 511.9( 44.2)
语义不一致 500.5 (44.1) 498.1 (47.0) 526.1 (37.5) 528.1 (39.0)
语义无关 499.8 (42.9) 495.8 (51.4) 516.7 (33.0) 515.8 (35.4)
错误率(%) 语义一致 4.0 (2.8) 2.1 (2.8) 8.0 (6.3) 5.7 (7.5)
语义不一致 4.8 (4.7) 4.0 (4.4) 5.6 (4.5) 5.7 (5.8)
语义无关 4.1 (3.1) 5.0 (4.7) 5.8 (4.8) 7.1 (7.6)

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对于反应时的重复测量方差分析表明线索有效性主效应显著, F (1,17) = 15.66, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.48, 出现在线索位置靶子的反应(505.6 ms)总体快于非线索位置靶子的反应(514.5 ms)。更为重要的是, 线索有效性和语义一致性存在交互作用, F (2,16) = 19.06, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.53。进一步分析表明, 语义一致条件下, 线索无效条件下的反应(521.4 ms)慢于线索有效条件下的反应(497.6 ms), F (1,17) = 31.12, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.65, 表明出现了注意捕获现象; 语义不一致和语义无关条件下, 线索无效条件下的反应与线索有效条件下的反应无差异, Fs (1,17) < 1.13, ps > 0.30, 表明未出现注意捕获现象(见图4)。同时, 线索靶子语义一致性主效应不显著, F (2,16) = 2.33, p = 0.11。靶子颜色的主效应显著, F (1,17) = 16.52, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.49, 对于红色靶子的反应(497.9 ms)快于对绿色靶子的反应(522.2 ms)。这一结果支持红色属性相对于其他颜色可能存在某种特殊性的观点, 在人类心理和行为反应方面红色客体可能得到更快的认知加工(Hill & Barton, 2005; 李晓明等, 2016; 张腾霄等, 2017)。但是对于本实验更为重要的是, 靶子颜色与其他因素均未出现交互作用, Fs < 1.47, ps > 0.24, 说明虽然不同颜色靶子的绝对反应时有差异, 但并不对各种条件下的注意捕获现象造成影响。

图4

图4   实验3中线索有效性和语义一致性间的交互作用

注:语义一致条件下, 线索无效条件下的反应慢于线索有效条件下的反应; 语义不一致和语义无关条件下, 线索无效条件下的反应与线索有效条件下的反应无差异。


另外, 对错误率的重复测量方差分析表明线索有效性和线索靶子语义一致性交互作用显著, F (2,16) = 5.84, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.26。进一步分析表明, 当线索靶子语义一致时, 线索无效时的错误率(6.0%)高于线索有效时的错误率(3.9%), F (1,17) = 6.00, p < 0.05, η2 = 0.26; 当线索靶子语义不一致和语义无关时, 线索无效时的错误率与线索有效时的错误率无差异, Fs (1,17) < 2.31, ps > 0.15。同时, 靶子颜色的主效应边缘显著, F (1,17) = 4.41, p = 0.51, η2 = 0.21, 对于红色方框反应的错误率(4.0%)略低于对绿色方框反应的错误率(6.3%)。其他主效应和交互作用均不显著, Fs < 2.03, ps > 0.15。可见错误率的总体趋势与反应时一致, 不存在速度与准确性的权衡, 基于反应时的分析有效。

4.3 讨论

实验3采用意义线索颜色靶子的方式建立语义关联, 考察其对空间注意转移的影响。结果发现, 当线索靶子语义一致时, 线索能够捕获注意; 而当线索靶子语义不一致和语义无关时, 同样的线索将不具备捕获注意的能力。这样的结果说明, 当被试的注意控制定势由特征属性导致时, 与其一致的意义线索同样可以被激活并吸引注意, 且捕获形式同特征线索意义靶子时的捕获形式一致、捕获量相当, 同样符合关联性的注意定向假说。

由实验1和实验3可见, 虽然特征属性和语义概念属于不同层次, 但它们之间的激活似乎是相通的, 或是双向的, 即任意一个层面的激活都会导致另一个层面的激活、进而指导注意的转移, 并且二者对于视觉空间注意的分配模式也趋于一致。

5 总讨论

本研究通过3个实验, 运用线索化范式考察语义关联对注意捕获的影响。实验1使用特征线索意义靶子形式, 发现当被试只存在一种语义水平的注意控制定势时, 只有与当前定势意义一致的线索能够捕获注意。实验2在保持刺激不变的情况下, 调整注意控制定势使其具有两种语义概念, 发现所有与当前语义定势一致的特征都会捕获注意而不论二者在具体试次中的关系如何。实验3交换线索和靶子的属性及概念, 发现在意义线索特征靶子的形式下注意捕获的情况同实验1完全一致, 在捕获量上也完全相当。

5.1 语义关联和知觉关联的注意捕获在捕获形式上的相似性

本研究的结果支持Folk等(1992)的关联性注意定向假说, 即刺激是否捕获注意受当前注意控制定势的影响, 只有与当前的注意控制定势一致的刺激才能够吸引注意并指导视觉空间注意的分配。本研究有力地证明了人类的注意控制定势除发生在特征水平外, 还可以发生在语义概念水平上, 并且无论是特征属性还是语义概念, 一方激发了注意控制定势, 与其一致的另一方也会得到相应激活并具有了调节注意分配的能力。具体来说, 在采用特征线索意义靶子的形式下, 其结果支持了Goodhew等(2014)的研究, 并通过更严格的控制消除了某一特征属性值在注意捕获上的非系统化的优势性, 表明由语义概念引导的注意控制定势能够激活与其相应的特征属性并使其指导注意转移; 在交换线索和靶子属性及概念的形式下依然得到了一致的结果, 表明反过来由特征属性引导的注意控制定势也能够有效激活与其相应的语义概念并使其指导注意转移。

在以往特征水平注意捕获的研究中, 研究者们发现对于某一特征值的注意控制定势, 只有与其特征相同的线索才能捕获注意, 如当靶子为红色时只有红色线索捕获注意, 当靶子为绿色时只有绿色线索捕获注意, 并且两种颜色的捕获程度相当; 而当被试采用非特定的基于一般颜色特征的注意控制定势即靶子颜色不确定时, 所有的颜色线索都具 备了捕获注意的能力, 且捕获程度相当(Folk & Remington, 1998, 2008; Folk & Anderson, 2010)。可见, 本研究在使用语义概念定义靶子后, 颜色线索以同样的形式指导注意转移(实验1和实验2)。有研究表明, 概念理解与感觉运动在脑中共用一个认知神经回路, 这是因为语义理解要基于(至少部 分基于)感觉运动系统的表征, 这经常与语义所描绘的感觉(如视觉、听觉、触觉)和运动经验有关(Gallese & Lakoff, 2005; Bottini, Bucur, & Crepaldi, 2016)。因此, 当对采用意义定义的靶子反应时, 其意义激活了与其一致的感觉(视觉)表征, 并且这种视觉表征足以调节空间注意的分配。另外, 这种激活似乎是自动的, 因为实验中被试并不需要关注颜色线索, 因此也就没有必要去主动激活其表征。

5.2 语义关联和知觉关联的注意捕获在捕获程度上的相异性

从捕获量上看, 由抽象的语义概念激活的特征属性的线索效应一般在20~40 ms (王慧媛, 2009; 王慧媛等, 2014; Goodhew et al., 2014; 本研究), 由其自身特征激活的特征属性的线索效应一般在40 ms以上、甚至超过100 ms (Folk et al., 1992; Folk & Remington, 2008; Eimer & Kiss, 2008, 2010; 王慧媛等, 2014; Goodhew et al., 2014; 刘丽, 白学军, 2016)。可见, 虽然由抽象的语义概念激活的知觉表征在调节视觉空间注意分配的模式上与由其自身特征激活的知觉表征在调节视空注意分配上的模式相同, 但很明显前者比后者的调节程度低。这可能是由于两种刺激关联的注意脱离情况不同。根据Theeuwes的快速脱离(rapid disengagement)假说, 所有显著的刺激都会自动地吸引注意至其位置, 但后续的反应会根据当前的任务有所调整。当某个刺激符合当前的注意控制定势或恰好是要搜索的目标时, 注意便停留在那一位置, 而当这个刺激不符合当前的注意控制定势或是分心物时, 注意则快速从那一位置脱离并指向目标所在位置(Theeuwes, 1991, 2004)。在刺激无关条件下, 由于零结果, 我们无法确定线索是否吸引注意, 但在刺激关联条件下, 线索由于导致了捕获效应则必然吸引了注意。那么, 语义关联和知觉关联注意捕获的差异可能来源于注意从非线索化位置(相对于线索化位置)脱离时的情况不同。

具体来看, 这个过程可能存在两个时间, 一个是注意从非靶位置脱离的时间, 表现了脱离的难度, 另一个是注意从非靶位置到靶子位置移动的时间, 表现了脱离的速度, 两个时间的和就是相关刺激的捕获量。那么, 对于语义和知觉两种关联, 是脱离难度、速度还是二者皆有差异呢?这个问题可以通过计算推导出来。如果注意从非靶位置脱离的时间为t, 捕获量为CE, 注意移动的平均速度为v, 位移的距离为s, 那么可以得到公式s/v = CE - t。根据实验的参数和结果, 我们能够计算出不同情况下的捕获量和注意的位移(即非靶到靶子间的距离)。那么, 通过列二元一次方程即可得到在当时情况下的脱离时间和移动速度。在本研究中, 注意位移有两种情况, 一种是从一位置到对侧位置为87.3 mm, 另一种是从一位置到相邻位置为61.7 mm, 通过计算二者对应的捕获量分别为59.9 ms和44.1 mm (为了与后面知觉关联条件下的捕获量相对应, 这里只选取线索为红色的情况)。那么我们可以得到语义关联条件下注意的脱离时间与移动速度的二元一次方程,

$\left\{ \begin{matrix} 87.3/{{\text{v}}_{语}}=59.9-{{\text{t}}_{语}} \\ 61.7/{{\text{v}}_{语}}=44.1-{{\text{t}}_{语}} \\\end{matrix} \right.$

解方程可得,

$\left\{ \begin{matrix} & {{\text{t}}_{语}}=6.0\ ms \\ & {{\text{v}}_{语}}=1.6\ \mathrm{mm}/\mathrm{ms}\ (\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s}) \\ \end{matrix} \right.$

通过同样的方法, 对王慧媛等(2014)中局部知觉关联+特征搜索模式中的数据再整理可得到知 觉关联下注意的脱离时间和移动速度的二元一次方程,

$\left\{ \begin{matrix} & 87.3/{{\text{v}}_{知}}=103.8-{{\text{t}}_{知}} \\ & 61.7/{{\text{v}}_{知}}=94.3-{{\text{t}}_{知}} \\ \end{matrix} \right.$

解方程得,

$\left\{ \begin{matrix} & {{\text{t}}_{知}}=71.4\ \mathrm{ms} \\ & {{\text{v}}_{知}}=2.7\ \mathrm{mm/ms}\ (\mathrm{m/s)} \\ \end{matrix} \right.$

由此可见, 语义关联注意捕获中注意的移动速度虽然略慢于知觉关联注意捕获中移动速度, 但其注意脱离耗时短, 较知觉关联容易得多, 因此从整体上表现出了较小的线索效应。当然, 这两项参数只是从这两个实验中推导出来, 后续还需要进一步更精确的研究。

5.3 注意转移中知觉表征和语义概念彼此激活的相似性

由实验1和实验2可知, 基于语义概念水平的注意控制定势不仅可以激活与其相一致的知觉特征属性, 而且这种知觉特征足以导致注意的转移并调节空间注意的分配。那么这种语义到知觉的激活是单向的还是可逆的?实验3对这一问题进行了探讨, 将线索和靶子的属性进行了交换, 以语义定义线索, 以颜色定义靶子。结果依然表现为线索靶子语义一致时出现注意捕获现象, 语义不一致及语义无关时未出现注意捕获现象, 并且不论从形式上还是从捕获量上都与特征线索语义靶子的形式一致。这表明基于知觉特征水平的注意控制定势同样也能激活与其相应的语义概念, 使其吸引注意并调节空间注意分配。语义词汇学的成分理论认为, 概念是由许多特征或属性表征的, 这些属性在某种意义上就是简单的或基本的意义成分, 通过体验这个概念, 这些表征至少部分地体现在感知觉、运动和其他神经系统中(Binder et al., 2016)。由实验1和实验3的结果可以看出, 知觉表征和语义概念的激活可能是双向的, 并且两个方向具有相同的能量, 激活后在指导注意转移上表现出相同的特性。这也在一定程度上意味着二者可能具有相同的认知神经机制, 在脑水平上可能也具有共用的脑区。

另外, 有研究者建构了刺激显著性强度分布的二维模型(Intensionalist Model), 认为在一空间分布中当前任务范畴处于中心位置, 刺激的显著性越高就越趋于中心位置(Su, Bowman, & Barnard, 2007)。那么可以推测, 当刺激与靶子共享特征时, 刺激就在当前任务范畴中心, 因此对注意的调节作用较大, 表现出了较大的捕获效应(Folk et al., 1992; Folk & Remington, 2008; Eimer & Kiss, 2008, 2010; 刘丽, 白学军, 2016); 而由语义关联构建的刺激虽然也属于当前任务范畴, 但相对偏离中心, 因而对注意的调节作用较小, 表现出了较小的捕获效应(王慧媛, 2009; 王慧媛等, 2014, 2016; Goodhew et al., 2014)。而本研究中构建语义关联的知觉、语义刺激的显著性可能相似, 因此距离当前任务范畴中心相当, 表现出了相同的捕获能力。

相类似的, 不注意视盲(Inattentional Blindness)研究中也发现, 当不可预期的刺激与目标客体所在同一语义范畴时, 相比于语义无关的刺激, 其会更多地被检测到; 并且当不可预期的刺激与目标客体语义一致时, 其为英语单词或汉字时的效应要比是图片时的大。这说明个体可以基于更高水平的语义范畴建立注意定势, 从而调整注意分配使得语义概念得以优先加工, 即一个刺激能否被知觉到是由其所具有的意义决定的(Koivisto & Revonsuo, 2007; Guo, You, & Li, 2016)。针对不同水平的刺激, 有研究者分别比较了汉字、英语单词及图片语义加工激活脑区的异同(Chee et al., 2000)。结果表明, 汉字和图片的语义任务共同激活了左前额叶、左后颞叶、左梭状回及左顶叶; 英语单词语义加工的激活形式与汉字相似, 只是程度稍小。这样的结果说明汉字、英语单词和图片的加工激活了一个共同的语义系统, 三者只是呈现出了特定形态的差异。

5.4 小结和展望

由此可见, 当刺激带有某种意义色彩时, 其在一定程度上具有了吸引注意的能力, 而这种意义色彩最典型的表现方式为社会性。无论对于情绪词还是情绪面孔, 语义加工都表现出了对注意的调节(Huang, Baddeley, & Young, 2008; Preston & Stansfield, 2008); 无论是真实的情绪面孔还是简笔图形, 都表现出了对注意控制定势的依赖(Barratt & Bundesen. 2012; Glickman & Lamy, 2018); 无论是直接的威胁性表情还是习得的恐惧联结, 都表现出了在注意选择方面的优先性(Schmidt, Belopolsky, & Theeuwes, 2015; Burra, Barras, Coll, & Kerzel, 2016)。人类早在婴儿时期就表现出了对社会性刺激的偏好, 如更多地去关注面孔、身体部位及动物的图片(Gluckman & Johnson, 2013)。实验室控制中, 与目标具有意义关联的客体即使与当前任务无关, 也会影响选择性注意(Malcolm, Rattinger, & Shomstein, 2016)。而在真实场景中我们会面临更多的不确定性因素, 如最近的一项研究发现, 在驾驶室内场景中降低分心物的频率以及增加任务的数量都会导致更多的注意分散, 这些都成为由于不当的注意分配而导致的风险因素(Arexis, Maquestiaux, Gaspelin, Ruthruff, & Didierjean, 2017)。意义色彩将如何影响现实生活中的注意转移可以成为未来研究的方向。

6 结论

(1)语义关联的注意捕获符合关联性无意注意定向假说, 刺激的捕获能力受当前注意控制定势的调节;

(2)由语义概念激活的知觉表征在调节空间注意分配上与其自身相比形式相同, 但程度有所下降;

(3)知觉特征水平的注意控制定势能够激活与其相应的语义概念, 使其引导注意转移并调节空间注意分配;

(4)知觉表征和语义概念的激活可能是双向的, 激活后在指导注意转移上表现出相同的特性。

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Folk, C. L., &Remington R.W, . ( 2008).

Bottom-up priming of top-down attentional control settings

Visual Cognition, 16( 2-3), 215-231.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Previous research suggests that the efficiency of visual search can be influenced by the implicit priming of top-down control mechanisms produced by intertrial repetition of display characteristics. The present studies were designed to explore the potential influence of intertrial priming on top-down control settings known to modulate the capture of spatial attention. In Experiment 1, subjects responded to unpredictably red or green colour-singleton targets preceded by uninformative red or green colour-singleton cues. Significant cueing effects indicative of attentional capture were obtained for all combinations of cue colour and target colour. More importantly, the magnitude of cueing effects varied as a function of the congruence between the cue colour and the colour of the target on the previous trial. In Experiment 2, when subjects were encouraged to adopt an attention set for a specific colour, only cues of the same colour produced evidence of attentional capture, and the intertrial congruence between cue and previous target colour had no effect on performance. It is concluded that top-down attentional control settings are subject to bottom-up, intertrial priming, but only when primed parameters of the control settings are left unspecified by the nature of the task.

Folk C.L., &Anderson B.A . ( 2010).

Target-uncertainty effects in attentional capture: Color-singleton set or multiple attentional control settings?

Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17( 3), 421-426.

[本文引用: 1]

Gallese V., &Lakoff G. , ( 2005).

The brain's concepts: The role of the sensory-motor system in conceptual knowledge

Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22( 3-4), 455-479.

URL     PMID:21038261      [本文引用: 1]

Concepts are the elementary units of reason and linguistic meaning. They are conventional and relatively stable. As such, they must somehow be the result of neural activity in the brain. The questions are: Where? and How? A common philosophical position is that all concepts—even concepts about action and perception—are symbolic and abstract, and therefore must be implemented outside the brain's sensory-motor system. We will argue against this position using (1) neuroscientific evidence; (2) results from neural computation; and (3) results about the nature of concepts from cognitive linguistics. We will propose that the sensory-motor system has the right kind of structure to characterise both sensory-motor and more abstract concepts. Central to this picture are the neural theory of language and the theory of cogs, according to which, brain structures in the sensory-motor regions are exploited to characterise the so-called “abstract” concepts that constitute the meanings of grammatical constructions and general inference patterns.

Giammarco M., Paoletti A., Guild E. B., &Al-Aidroos N . ( 2014).

Contingent attentional capture by stimuli that match long-term memory representations

Journal of Vision, 14( 10), 645.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Attentional capture serves an important behavioural function o ensure that salient stimuli in our environment are selected for detailed processing. But what determines salience? This question has primarily been studied by asking what types of low-level stimulus features capture our attention, such as colour or luminance, and how such capture by low-level features is regulated by our top-down goals (i.e., contingent on our attentional control settings). Building off of recent demonstrations that saliency can also be determined by higher-level representations such as conceptual knowledge (Wyble, Folk, & Potter, 2013, JEP:HPP), learned value (Anderson, Laurent, & Yantis, 2011, PNAS), and statistical regularity (Zhao, Al-Aidroos, & Turk-Browne, 2013, Psych Sci), we asked whether stimulus salience can be established based on long-term episodic memory representations. When searching our environment for one of a number of items stored in long-term memory, will stimuli resembling those memories automatically capture attention? To evaluate this question we asked subjects to memorize a set of 30 visual objects and then complete a Posner cueing task, for which the targets were any one of the studied visual objects. Cues were studied or novel objects, either matching or not matching the subjects' attentional goals, respectively. We observed that matching cues produced a cueing effect, but not non-matching cues, suggesting that attentional control settings can be specified based on long-term memory representations, potentially episodic memories. These results add to the growing evidence that salience reflects a complex interaction between internal representations and external features. More broadly, the results also suggest a role for visuospatial attentional capture during the retrieval of long-term memory representations, which may contribute to the rapid recollection observed in recent long-term memory studies (Aly & Yonelinas, 2012, PloS; Guild et al., 2013, PB&R).

Giammarco M., Paoletti A., Guild E. B., &Al-Aidroos N . ( 2016).

Attentional capture by items that match episodic long-term memory representations

Visual Cognition, 24( 1), 78-101

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract A remarkable ability of the human visual system is the implementation of attentional control settings (ACSs) that govern what stimuli capture or hold attention. We provide evidence that ACSs can be specified by episodic long-term memory representations. In all experiments, participants memorized 30 images of objects that they then monitored for in an attention task, inducing an episodic-based ACS. In Experiments 1a and 1b, only studied cues in a cueing task captured attention. We confirmed these cueing effects reflect capture by testing for inhibition of return in Experiment 2a, and controlled for perceptual masking by cues in Experiment 2b. In Experiment 3 we determined that ACSs are specifically supported by episodic retrieval, by dividing studied images into two sets and designating one as the targets in a rapid serial visual presentation task: Only target-set matching distractors produced a spatial blink (captured attention). These results extend our understanding of the representations specifying ACSs.

Glickman M., &Lamy D. ,( 2018).

Attentional capture by irrelevant emotional distractor faces is contingent on implicit attentional settings

Cognition and Emotion, 32( 2), 303-314

[本文引用: 1]

Gluckman M., &Johnson S.P, . ( 2013).

Attentional capture by social stimuli in young infants

Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 527.

URL     PMID:3744870      [本文引用: 1]

We investigated the possibility that a range of social stimuli capture the attention of 6-month-old infants when in competition with other non-face objects. Infants viewed a series of six-item arrays in which one target item was a face, body part, or animal as their eye movements were recorded. Stimulus arrays were also processed for relative salience of each item in terms of color, luminance, and amount of contour. Targets were rarely the most visually salient items in the arrays, yet infants first looks toward all three target types were above chance, and dwell times for targets exceeded other stimulus types. Girls looked longer at faces than did boys, but there were no sex differences for other stimuli. These results are interpreted in a context of learning to discriminate between different classes of animate stimuli, perhaps in line with affordances for social interaction, and origins of sex differences in social attention.

Goodhew S. C., Kendall W., Ferber S., & Pratt J . ( 2014).

Setting semantics: Conceptual set can determine the physical properties that capture attention

Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 76( 6), 1577-1589.

URL     PMID:24824982      [本文引用: 7]

The ability of a stimulus to capture visuospatial attention depends on the interplay between its bottom-up saliency and its relationship to an observer’s top-down control set, such that stimuli capture attention if they match the predefined properties that distinguish a searched-for target from distractors (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 18 , 1030–1044 1992 ). Despite decades of research on this phenomenon, however, the vast majority has focused exclusively on matches based on low-level physical properties. Yet if contingent capture is indeed a “top-down” influence on attention, then semantic content should be accessible and able to determine which physical features capture attention. Here we tested this prediction by examining whether a semantically defined target could create a control set for particular features. To do this, we had participants search to identify a target that was differentiated from distractors by its meaning (e.g., the word “red” among color words all written in black). Before the target array, a cue was presented, and it was varied whether the cue appeared in the physical color implied by the target word. Across three experiments, we found that cues that embodied the meaning of the word produced greater cuing than cues that did not. This suggests that top-down control sets activate content that is semantically associated with the target-defining property, and this content in turn has the ability to exogenously orient attention.

Guo Y. N., You X. Q., & Li Y . ( 2016).

The role of stimulus type and semantic category-level attentional set in sustained inattentional blindness

Japanese Psychological Research, 58( 4), 332-341.

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Hill R.A., & Barton R.A . ( 2005).

Psychology: Red enhances human performance in contests

Nature, 435, 293.

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Huang W. Y., Su Y. L., Zhen Y. F., & Zhe Q . ( 2016).

The role of top-down spatial attention in contingent attentional capture

Psychophysiology,53( 5), 650-662.

URL     PMID:26879628      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract It is well known that attentional capture by an irrelevant salient item is contingent on top-down feature selection, but whether attentional capture may be modulated by top-down spatial attention remains unclear. Here, we combined behavioral and ERP measurements to investigate the contribution of top-down spatial attention to attentional capture under modified spatial cueing paradigms. Each target stimulus was preceded by a peripheral circular cue array containing a spatially uninformative color singleton cue. We varied target sets but kept the cue array unchanged among different experimental conditions. When participants' task was to search for a colored letter in the target array that shared the same peripheral locations with the cue array, attentional capture by the peripheral color cue was reflected by both a behavioral spatial cueing effect and a cue-elicited N2pc component. When target arrays were presented more centrally, both the behavioral and N2pc effects were attenuated but still significant. The attenuated cue-elicited N2pc was found even when participants focused their attention on the fixed central location to identify a colored letter among an RSVP letter stream. By contrast, when participants were asked to identify an outlined or larger target, neither the behavioral spatial cueing effect nor the cue-elicited N2pc was observed, regardless of whether the target and cue arrays shared same locations or not. These results add to the evidence that attentional capture by salient stimuli is contingent upon feature-based task sets, and further indicate that top-down spatial attention is important but may not be necessary for contingent attentional capture.

Huang X. T., Huang W., & Li X. R . ( 1991).

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Journal of Psychological Science, ( 6), 1-7.

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[ 黄希庭, 黄巍, 李小融 . ( 1991).

关于中国人颜色情调的研究

心理科学, ( 6), 1-7.]

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Huang Y. M., Baddeley A., & Young A. W . ( 2008).

Attentional capture by emotional stimuli is modulated by semantic processing

Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception and Performance, 34( 2), 328-339.

URL     PMID:18377174      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The attentional blink paradigm was used to examine whether emotional stimuli always capture attention. The processing requirement for emotional stimuli in a rapid sequential visual presentation stream was manipulated to investigate the circumstances under which emotional distractors capture attention, as reflected in an enhanced attentional blink effect. Emotional distractors did not cause more interference than neutral distractors on target identification when perceptual or phonological processing of stimuli was required, showing that emotional processing is not as automatic as previously hypothesized. Only when semantic processing of stimuli was required did emotional distractors capture more attention than neutral distractors and increase attentional blink magnitude. Combining the results from 5 experiments, the authors conclude that semantic processing can modulate the attentional capture effect of emotional stimuli. (Copyright) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

Institute of Language Teaching and Research. ( 1986). A frequency dictionary of Modern Chinese. Beijing, China: Beijing Language Institute Press.

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[ 北京语言学院语言教学研究所. ( 1986).

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北京: 北京语言学院出版社.]

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Inukai T., &Kawahara J.I . ( 2012).

Sex differences in attentional capture (summary of awarded presentation at the 30th annual meeting)

The Japanese Journal of Psychonomic Science, 31( 1), 89-90.

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Kiss M., &Eimer M. , ( 2011).

Attentional capture by size singletons is determined by top-down search goals

Psychophysiology, 48( 6), 784-787.

URL     PMID:21539576      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The question whether attentional capture by salient visual stimuli is driven by bottom-up salience or is contingent on top-down task set is still under dispute. We show that the ability of size singletons to capture attention is determined by current search goals. Participants searched for small or large target singletons among medium-size distractors. Attentional capture by small or large size singleton cues that preceded target search displays was reflected by spatial cueing effects and N2pc components. These effects were observed only when these cues matched the current target-defining feature, but not for physically identical but mismatching cues. Results demonstrate that attentional capture by size singletons is not driven by bottom-up salience, but is controlled by feature-specific task settings.

Koivisto M. &Revonsuo A. , ( 2007).

How meaning shapes seeing

Psychological Science, 18( 10), 845-849.

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Li X. M., He P., & Liu L. Y . ( 2016).

Red graphical effect in risk avoidance behavior

Advances in Psychological Science, 24( 3), 351-355.

[本文引用: 2]

[ 李晓明, 和平, 刘林英 . ( 2016).

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心理科学进展, 24( 3), 351-355.]

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Liu L., & Bai X.J . ( 2016).

The effects of attentional control setting and types of cues on attentional capture

Acta Psychologica Sinica, 48( 9), 1093-1104.

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[ 刘丽, 白学军 . ( 2016).

注意控制定势和线索类型在注意捕获中的作用

心理学报, 48( 9), 1093-1104.]

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Malcolm G. L., Rattinger M., & Shomstein S . ( 2016).

Intrusive effects of semantic information on visual selective attention

Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 78( 7), 2066-2078.

URL     PMID:5013139      [本文引用: 1]

Every object is represented by semantic information in extension to its low-level properties. It is well documented that such information biases attention when it is necessary for an ongoing task. However, whether semantic relationships influence attentional selection when they are irrelevant to the ongoing task remains an open question. The ubiquitous nature of semantic information suggests that it could bias attention even when these properties are irrelevant. In the present study, three objects appeared on screen, two of which were semantically related. After a varying time interval, a target or distractor appeared on top of each object. The objects semantic relationships never predicted the target location. Despite this, a semantic bias on attentional allocation was observed, with an initial, transient bias to semantically related objects. Further experiments demonstrated that this effect was contingent on the objects being attended: if an object never contained the target, it no longer exerted a semantic influence. In a final set of experiments, we demonstrated that the semantic bias is robust and appears even in the presence of more predictive cues (spatial probability). These results suggest that as long as an object is attended, its semantic properties bias attention, even if it is irrelevant to an ongoing task and if more predictive factors are available.

Preston S.D., &Stansfield R.B . ( 2008).

I know how you feel: Task-irrelevant facial expressions are spontaneously processed at a semantic level

Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 8( 1), 54-64.

[本文引用: 1]

Reeder R. R., van Zoest W., & Peelen M. V . ( 2015).

Involuntary attentional capture by task-irrelevant objects that match the search template for category detection in natural scenes

Attention Perception & Psychophysics, 77( 4), 1070-1080.

[本文引用: 1]

Remington R. W., Folk C. L., & McLean J. P . ( 2001).

Contingent attentional capture or delayed allocation of attention?

Perception & Psychophysics, 63( 2), 298-307.

URL     PMID:11281104      [本文引用: 1]

Under certain circumstances, external stimuli will elicit an involuntary shift of spatial attention, referred to as attentional capture. According to the contingent involuntary orienting account (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992), capture is conditioned by top-down factors that set attention to respond involuntarily to stimulus properties relevant to one behavioral goals. Evidence for this comes from spatial cuing studies showing that a spatial cuing effect is observed only when cues have goal-relevant properties. Here, we examine alternative, decision-level explanations of the spatial cuing effect that attribute evidence of capture to postpresentation delays in the voluntary allocation of attention, rather than to on-line involuntary shifts in direct response to the cue. In three spatial cuing experiments, delayed-allocation accounts were tested by examining whether items at the cued location were preferentially processed. The experiments provide evidence that costs and benefits in spatial cuing experiments do reflect the on-line capture of attention. The implications of these results for models of attentional control are discussed.

Schmidt J.R . ( 2014).

Contingencies and attentional capture: The importance of matching stimulus informativeness in the item-specific proportion congruent task

Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 540.

[本文引用: 1]

Schmidt L. J., Belopolsky A. V., & Theeuwes J . ( 2015).

Attentional capture by signals of threat

Cognition and Emotion, 29( 4), 687-694.

URL     PMID:24899117      [本文引用: 1]

Attention can be captured automatically by events that are physically salient. Similarly, emotional stimuli are known to be prioritised by the visual system because of their behavioural significance. The present study investigated whether a neutral stimulus which became associated with fear captured attention in visual search. Using a fear-conditioning procedure, one stimulus was repeatedly combined with an electrical shock (CS+), whereas another stimulus with identical physical features was never combined with a shock (CS61). Following conditioning, participants had to search for a target; while on some trials, either an irrelevant CS+ or CS61 stimulus was present. The results show that the presence of an irrelevant distractor that was previously associated with fear slowed a search more than a distractor without fear association. The current results indicate that learned fear associations have the ability to capture our attention even if we try to ignore them.

Su L., Bowman H., & Barnard P . ( 2007)

Attentional capture by meaning: A multi-level modelling study. Proceedings of the 29th Meeting of the Annual Cognitive Science Society

Nashville Tennesse, 1521-1526.

[本文引用: 1]

Sun S. Z., Shen J., Shaw M., Cant J. S., & Ferber S . ( 2015).

Automatic capture of attention by conceptually generated working memory templates

Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics,77( 6), 1841-1847.

URL     PMID:25944451      [本文引用: 1]

Published online: 6 May 201508 The Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2015Abstract Many theories of...

Theeuwes J . ( 1991).

Cross-dimensional perceptual selectivity

Perception & Psychophysics, 50( 2), 184-193.

[本文引用: 2]

Theeuwes J .( 2004).

Top-down search strategies cannot override attentional capture

Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11( 1), 65-70.

[本文引用: 1]

Wang H.Y . ( 2009).

The influence of semantic relevancy on attentional capture (Unpublished Master’s Thesis).

China:Northeast Normal University.

[本文引用: 5]

[ 王慧媛 . ( 2009).

语义关联对注意捕获的影响(硕士学位论文)

东北师范大学.]

[本文引用: 5]

Wang H. Y., Zhang M., & Sui J . ( 2014).

The Effect of Cue-Target Relevance and Search Strategies on Attentional Capture

Acta Psychologica Sinica, 46( 2), 185-195.

[本文引用: 8]

[ 王慧媛, 张明, 隋洁 . ( 2014).

线索靶子关联和搜索策略对注意捕获的作用

心理学报, 46( 2), 185-195.]

[本文引用: 8]

Wang H. Y., Sui J., & Zhang M . ( 2016).

The effect of cue-target relevance and search strategies on attentional capture: Evidence from meaning cues

Acta Psychologica Sinica, 48( 7), 783-793.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

采用线索化范式,操作性地建立线索和靶子间的关联,通过比较不同搜索策略任务下不同线索靶子关联条件间的捕获量考察关联水平及搜索策略对注意捕获的作用,并分析抽象的意义概念对空间注意分配的调节作用.结果发现(1)意义线索的注意捕获符合关联性的注意定向假说,只有符合当前注意控制定势的线索才具有捕获注意的能力;(2)知觉关联在调节无意注意定向上具有主导性,调节能力强,能将其他因素效应掩盖;语义关联单独作用时对无意注意定向有调节作用,但调节程度小,效应易被掩盖;(3)搜索策略虽然能够大大提高反应速度,但只有基于特征独子的搜索模式对无意注意定向有调节作用,且调节能力有限.研究再次认证了空间无意注意转移中注意控制定势的作用,同时指出抽象的概念加工能够根据当前的环境有效指导后续的选择和行为.

[ 王慧媛, 隋洁, 张明 . ( 2016).

线索靶子关联和搜索策略对注意捕获的作用——来自意义线索的证据

心理学报, 48( 7), 783-793.]

URL     [本文引用: 2]

采用线索化范式,操作性地建立线索和靶子间的关联,通过比较不同搜索策略任务下不同线索靶子关联条件间的捕获量考察关联水平及搜索策略对注意捕获的作用,并分析抽象的意义概念对空间注意分配的调节作用.结果发现(1)意义线索的注意捕获符合关联性的注意定向假说,只有符合当前注意控制定势的线索才具有捕获注意的能力;(2)知觉关联在调节无意注意定向上具有主导性,调节能力强,能将其他因素效应掩盖;语义关联单独作用时对无意注意定向有调节作用,但调节程度小,效应易被掩盖;(3)搜索策略虽然能够大大提高反应速度,但只有基于特征独子的搜索模式对无意注意定向有调节作用,且调节能力有限.研究再次认证了空间无意注意转移中注意控制定势的作用,同时指出抽象的概念加工能够根据当前的环境有效指导后续的选择和行为.

Ye C. X., Lu J. C., Zhang J. F., Wang J., Tian L. L., & Liu Q . ( 2017).

Strategic inhibition of distractors with visual working memory contents after involuntary attention capture

Scientific Reports.

[本文引用: 1]

Zhang T.X., & Han B.X . ( 2017).

Red is more sexy: Factors and evolutional process

Advances in Psychological Science, 25( 6), 1069-1076.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

近10年关于颜色心理效应的研究逐渐聚焦于红色性效应。在人际交互过程中,红色能够在特定情境下提高性吸引力,但受性别和配偶价值影响。这些影响本质上可用动机过程来解释。动物学和心理学的研究都表明,红色性效应更有可能是进化形成的心理适应器,并得到后天强化。未来研究应当克服当前研究方法的不足,探索动机类型、颜色属性和时空特征对红色性效应的影响,并努力应用该效应于产品设计中。

[ 张腾霄, 韩布新 . ( 2017).

红色更性感:影响因素与进化基础

心理科学进展, 25( 6), 1069-1076.]

URL     [本文引用: 2]

近10年关于颜色心理效应的研究逐渐聚焦于红色性效应。在人际交互过程中,红色能够在特定情境下提高性吸引力,但受性别和配偶价值影响。这些影响本质上可用动机过程来解释。动物学和心理学的研究都表明,红色性效应更有可能是进化形成的心理适应器,并得到后天强化。未来研究应当克服当前研究方法的不足,探索动机类型、颜色属性和时空特征对红色性效应的影响,并努力应用该效应于产品设计中。

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