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## 语义关联的注意捕获——来自线索化范式的证据

1, ,2,3, ,4

1长春师范大学心理学系, 长春 130032

2清华大学心理学系, 北京 100084

3 Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK

4苏州大学心理学系, 苏州 215123

## Attentional capture is contingent on attentional control setting for semantic meaning: Evidence from modified spatial cueing paradigm

1, ,2,3, ,4

1 Department of Psychology, Changchun Normal University, Changchun 130032, China

2 Department of Psychology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

3 Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK

4 Department of Psychology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China

 基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金.  31371025吉林省教育厅“十三五”社会科学项目.  JJKH20181210SK长春师范大学人文社会科学基金项目(长师大社科合字[2017] 001号)资助

Abstract

Abstract It has been well documented that attentional capture is contingent on the features of attentional control settings; however, whether and how the semantic contingency between cue and target stimuli modulates spatial attention is poorly understood. Here, we tested this question with strict experiment designs by focusing on pure contingent attentional capture for the semantic meaning of feature attributes or semantic concept cues, and we then examined the nature of attentional control in human visual spatial performance.

A modified spatial cuing paradigm was employed in the current study. In Experiment 1, cues presented in red or green and targets were white Chinese characters “红” (meaning red) or “绿” (meaning green). We had participants discriminate the location of the gap of the target square in different cue-target blocks. Experiments 2 and 3 were identical to Experiment 1, except that in Experiment 2, cue property and target character were randomized, and the task was to discriminate the target as “红” or “绿”; Experiment 3 swapped the cue and target stimuli, where cues were Chinese characters in white and targets were presented in red or green.

The results showed that semantically congruent color cues exclusively captured attention when participants searched for a specific semantic meaning in Experiment 1. In contrast, cuing effects were observed in Experiment 2 in the two-color cue conditions when participants discriminated two Chinese characters, and the effects were independent of the semantic congruency of cue and target. Experiment 3 replicated the results in Experiment 1; cues with semantically congruent Chinese characters captured attention only when participants were required to search for a specific color.

It is concluded that (1) the effects of semantic attentional capture were modulated by attentional control setting, consistent with a contingent attentional orienting hypothesis; (2) the perceptional representation of stimuli activated by semantic concept modulated the processing of stimuli on the location of spatial attention, but the magnitude of the effect decreased; (3) the congruent semantic representation was activated by attentional control setting for perceptional feature and subsequently modulated the allocation of attention; and (4) activation of semantic concept and perceptional representation may be bidirectional and resemble each other in traits of attention shift guidance.

Keywords： semantic contingency ; attentional capture ; attentional control setting ; modified spatial cuing paradigm ; semantic activation

WANG Hui-Yuan, SUI Jie, ZHANG Ming. (2018). Attentional capture is contingent on attentional control setting for semantic meaning: Evidence from modified spatial cueing paradigm. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(10), 1071-1082

## 1 前言

### 2.1 方法

2.1.1 被试

27名大学本科生和研究生参与了实验, 其中女生21名、男生6名1( 证据表明视觉空间注意不受性别差异影响(Inukai & Kawahara, 2012)。下同。), 19岁至27岁, 平均年龄22.1岁(标准差为2.5)。其中一人为左利手, 其他人为右利手。所有被试母语为汉语; 视力或矫正视力正常, 无色盲色弱; 未参加过同类实验。

2.1.2 实验设备与材料

2.1.3 实验程序与设计

### 3.1 方法

3.1.1 被试

26名大学本科生和研究生参与了实验, 其中女生21名、男生5名, 18岁至26岁, 平均年龄21.2岁(标准差为1.8)。所有被试为右利手; 母语为汉语; 视力或矫正视力正常, 无色盲色弱; 未参加过同类实验。

3.1.2 实验设备、材料、程序与设计

### 4.1 方法

4.1.1 被试

18名大学本科生和研究生参与了实验, 其中女生14名、男生4名, 20岁至27岁, 平均年龄22.4岁(标准差为1.8)。其中一人为左利手, 其他人为右利手。所有被试母语为汉语; 视力或矫正视力正常, 无色盲色弱; 未参加过同类实验。

4.1.2 实验设备、材料、程序与设计

### 5.2 语义关联和知觉关联的注意捕获在捕获程度上的相异性

$\left\{ \begin{matrix} 87.3/{{\text{v}}_{语}}=59.9-{{\text{t}}_{语}} \\ 61.7/{{\text{v}}_{语}}=44.1-{{\text{t}}_{语}} \\\end{matrix} \right.$

$\left\{ \begin{matrix} & {{\text{t}}_{语}}=6.0\ ms \\ & {{\text{v}}_{语}}=1.6\ \mathrm{mm}/\mathrm{ms}\ (\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s}) \\ \end{matrix} \right.$

$\left\{ \begin{matrix} & 87.3/{{\text{v}}_{知}}=103.8-{{\text{t}}_{知}} \\ & 61.7/{{\text{v}}_{知}}=94.3-{{\text{t}}_{知}} \\ \end{matrix} \right.$

$\left\{ \begin{matrix} & {{\text{t}}_{知}}=71.4\ \mathrm{ms} \\ & {{\text{v}}_{知}}=2.7\ \mathrm{mm/ms}\ (\mathrm{m/s)} \\ \end{matrix} \right.$

## 6 结论

(1)语义关联的注意捕获符合关联性无意注意定向假说, 刺激的捕获能力受当前注意控制定势的调节;

(2)由语义概念激活的知觉表征在调节空间注意分配上与其自身相比形式相同, 但程度有所下降;

(3)知觉特征水平的注意控制定势能够激活与其相应的语义概念, 使其引导注意转移并调节空间注意分配;

(4)知觉表征和语义概念的激活可能是双向的, 激活后在指导注意转移上表现出相同的特性。

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URL     PMID:11281104

Under certain circumstances, external stimuli will elicit an involuntary shift of spatial attention, referred to as attentional capture. According to the contingent involuntary orienting account (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992), capture is conditioned by top-down factors that set attention to respond involuntarily to stimulus properties relevant to one behavioral goals. Evidence for this comes from spatial cuing studies showing that a spatial cuing effect is observed only when cues have goal-relevant properties. Here, we examine alternative, decision-level explanations of the spatial cuing effect that attribute evidence of capture to postpresentation delays in the voluntary allocation of attention, rather than to on-line involuntary shifts in direct response to the cue. In three spatial cuing experiments, delayed-allocation accounts were tested by examining whether items at the cued location were preferentially processed. The experiments provide evidence that costs and benefits in spatial cuing experiments do reflect the on-line capture of attention. The implications of these results for models of attentional control are discussed.

Schmidt J.R . ( 2014).

Contingencies and attentional capture: The importance of matching stimulus informativeness in the item-specific proportion congruent task

Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 540.

Schmidt L. J., Belopolsky A. V., & Theeuwes J . ( 2015).

Attentional capture by signals of threat

Cognition and Emotion, 29( 4), 687-694.

URL     PMID:24899117

Attention can be captured automatically by events that are physically salient. Similarly, emotional stimuli are known to be prioritised by the visual system because of their behavioural significance. The present study investigated whether a neutral stimulus which became associated with fear captured attention in visual search. Using a fear-conditioning procedure, one stimulus was repeatedly combined with an electrical shock (CS+), whereas another stimulus with identical physical features was never combined with a shock (CS61). Following conditioning, participants had to search for a target; while on some trials, either an irrelevant CS+ or CS61 stimulus was present. The results show that the presence of an irrelevant distractor that was previously associated with fear slowed a search more than a distractor without fear association. The current results indicate that learned fear associations have the ability to capture our attention even if we try to ignore them.

Su L., Bowman H., & Barnard P . ( 2007)

Attentional capture by meaning: A multi-level modelling study. Proceedings of the 29th Meeting of the Annual Cognitive Science Society

Nashville Tennesse, 1521-1526.

Sun S. Z., Shen J., Shaw M., Cant J. S., & Ferber S . ( 2015).

Automatic capture of attention by conceptually generated working memory templates

Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics,77( 6), 1841-1847.

URL     PMID:25944451

Published online: 6 May 201508 The Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2015Abstract Many theories of...

Theeuwes J . ( 1991).

Cross-dimensional perceptual selectivity

Perception & Psychophysics, 50( 2), 184-193.

Theeuwes J .( 2004).

Top-down search strategies cannot override attentional capture

Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11( 1), 65-70.

Wang H.Y . ( 2009).

The influence of semantic relevancy on attentional capture (Unpublished Master’s Thesis).

China:Northeast Normal University.

[ 王慧媛 . ( 2009).

Wang H. Y., Zhang M., & Sui J . ( 2014).

The Effect of Cue-Target Relevance and Search Strategies on Attentional Capture

Acta Psychologica Sinica, 46( 2), 185-195.

[ 王慧媛, 张明, 隋洁 . ( 2014).

Wang H. Y., Sui J., & Zhang M . ( 2016).

The effect of cue-target relevance and search strategies on attentional capture: Evidence from meaning cues

Acta Psychologica Sinica, 48( 7), 783-793.

[ 王慧媛, 隋洁, 张明 . ( 2016).

Ye C. X., Lu J. C., Zhang J. F., Wang J., Tian L. L., & Liu Q . ( 2017).

Strategic inhibition of distractors with visual working memory contents after involuntary attention capture

Scientific Reports.

Zhang T.X., & Han B.X . ( 2017).

Red is more sexy: Factors and evolutional process

Advances in Psychological Science, 25( 6), 1069-1076.

[ 张腾霄, 韩布新 . ( 2017).