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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 13 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    THE VIEW OF PRACTICE IN PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY——A Theoretical Approach to the Relationship between Mental and Actual Activities
    Li Zheng(Educational Department, An Hui Normal University)
    . 1981, 13 (03): 3-10.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 56 )
    Associations and relationchips between individual, objective and practiceare manifested in human dayly activities, and these formed some specialcontradiction; that is, as the author take it, the contradiction-unity betweenmental and conscious activities which act most actively in actual activities,and the real activities. In the point of view of practice, the relations ofpsychological processes and actual activities should be wholly investigatedand studied in the respect of regularity. The natures, structures and mech-anisms underlying human life activities are also studies in this paper.
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    COOPERATIVE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON COACHING INSTRUCTION IN SELF-STUDY OF MATHEMATICS OF FIRST-YEAR MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS——Preliminary Conclusions of Results in Five Experimental Middle School Classes in Beijing
    Cooperative Research Group of Coaching Instruction in Self-Study of Mathematics, Beijing
    . 1981, 13 (03): 11-19.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 86 )
    This paper discussed the necessity of self-study and experimental methodsof self learning, and problems concerning how to coach a self-studyexperimental class. Quantified data showed four times that the fiveexperimental classes were all superior to control classes in their achievementand self-study ability. One can never affirm that self-study cannot godeep in understanding concepts and principles. The experiment showed thatstudents with relatively poor foundation, too, are able to study on their own.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ABOUT THE UNDERSTANDING OF CLASS INCLUSION IN CHILDREN FROM 3 TO 7 YEARS OLD
    Lu Jing,Lu Wan-jun(Hang zhou University)
    . 1981, 13 (03): 20-26.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 213 )
    This is an experimental study about helping preschool childrenunderstanding the concept of class inclusion. But to Piaget preschool childrencannot understand this concept. In investigating children's acquisition of the concept of class inclusion wedesigned different method from the method used by Piaget, and in theexperiment, preschool children showed better results in understanding theconcept of class inclusion.
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    THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN’S COGNITION OF VELOCITY OF MOVING OBJECTS(Ⅱ)
    Fang Ge,Liu Fan(Institute of Psychology, Academi Sinica)
    . 1981, 13 (03): 27-33.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 63 )
    This paper is the second and supplementary part of the previous one withthe same title, reporting the results of this research. All the results of this research show as follow: (1) The development of children's cognition's of velocity is from part tothe whole. (2) The effects of relative positions of the moving objects on velocity-cognition are earlier and stronger than that of their distance. (3) The effect of starting time and stopping time of moving objectson velocity-cognition are much stronger than that of the duration of movement. (4) The development of cognition of velocity accelerates when childrenare about 7-8. (5) The development of cognition of velocity proceeds through thecontradiction and motion between perception and concept. (6) Children have had the basic internal conditions for the formationof concept of velocity at the age of ten.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION OF RATIONAL NUMBER
    Chen Qi,Zhang Bi-yin,Zhu Yi-cai(Beijing Normal University)(Beijing №6 Middle School)
    . 1981, 13 (03): 34-42.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 82 )
    This research attempts to find out the different effects of programmedinstruction and traditional instruction on students' achievement, learningtime, thinking ability and learning motivation. The experiment was carriedout in two first-year classes (an experimental class and a control one) ina middle school, both of which were taught rational number in theiralgebraic course, and by the same teacher. The average level of the twoclasses was approximately equal in the beginning. The experimental classbegan to use a programmed teaching material compiled by ourselves forabout a month, during which both classes were tested a few times and theirmarks compared. The results showed that the experimental class madeobviously better progress in all aspects than the control class. These resultsare probably related to the heuristic characteristics of programmed materials.Programmed instruction still needs further research.
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    THE STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NUMBER CONCEPT AND OPERATIONAL ABILITY IN SCHOOLCHILDREN
    Lin Chong-de(Beijing Normal University)
    . 1981, 13 (03): 43-52.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 208 )
    In the development of the number concept and operational ability ofschoolchildren, factors of age characteristics, critical period, and the unityof stability and variability of age characteristics are demonstrated. Theauthor has advanced some new ideas for the structure of thinking, andbelieves that the structure of thinking is a system which has certainmaterials, direction and form under the control of adequate principles. Thedevelopmental trend of the thinking structure in schoolchildren was alsostudied in this article.
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    STUDIES ON COGNITIVE STYLES——Role of the Individual Differences in Field-Dependence in Learning and Visual After-Effect
    Zhang Hou-can,Meng Qing-mao,Zheng Ri-chang(Department of Psychology, Peking Normal University)
    . 1981, 13 (03): 53-58.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 232 )
    The present paper consists of 2 studies of the individual differences infield-dependence among children aged from 10 to 11. In the first study, theGroup Embedded Figure Test was given to 68 children. Comparingtheir scores with those of Test of Learning Ability for Children of 9-14,andtheir academic achievements, we found that the degree of field-independencewas positively correlated with the performance in mathematics and there wasno correlation between field-independence and learning of Chinese language. 24 children of both ends along the continuum of field-dependence-indepen-dence were used as subjects for the second study. As the result of anexperiment of tilted-line after-effect undertaken in the dark room,it was foundthat the additional object for reference provided in the visual field produced afine effect for the field-dependents and no effect for the field-independents.An evidence of sex-difference in cognitive style was also found in theseexperiments.
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    THE MEASUREMENT OF SKIN COLORS OF CHINESE CHILDREN FROM BIRTH TO 3 YEARS OLD
    Lin Zhong-xian,Zhang Zeng-hui,Sun Xiu-ru(Institute of Psychology,Academia Sinica)
    . 1981, 13 (03): 59-64.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 64 )
    The skin colors of 508 Chinese male and female children, aged frombirth to 3 years old, were measured with a digital color difference meter.The results showed that the chromaticity coordinates of average skin colors ofChinese children from birth to 3 years old are x=0.3697, y=0.3524; reflectance=30.4%. Comparing the results shown in male Ss with that in female Ss,we found that there is a little difference in chromaticity, and the purity ofskin colors of the males is higher than that of the females. The results showed that the skin color of newborns tends to be morereddish, and gradually becomes yellow as they grow older. The reflectanceof skin is the lowest in the newborn child and increases with its growth, andit is the highest in the 2-3 year olds, then gradually gets lower again.The purity of skin colors in the newly-born children is the highest, and itdecreases remarkbly as the infant grows in the period of suckling, and thengradually gets higher again.
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    EMPIRICAL TESTS FOR FEATURE SELECTION BASED ON A PSYCHOLOGICAL RULE OF RECOGNIZING AMBIGUOUSLY SHAPED CHINESE CHARACTERS
    Ma Mou-chao,Wang Pei-zhuang(Institute of Psychology Academia Sinica) (Beijing Normal University)
    . 1981, 13 (03): 65-70.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 87 )
    In attempt to describe human perceptual behavior, we suggest a rule ofrecognition which contains relations between physical variables (e. g.: lineextension) and perceived attributes. We used three different psychologicalmeasurements, namely identification, confidence and goodness scales. Theresults obtained have clearly demonstrated that each of the differentpsychophysical paradigms gives the same rule; this psychological rule can beexpressed with fuzzy sets and is a dynamic property when ambiguouslyshaped Chinese characters are presented in different directions. According to our findings, such a dynamic fuzzy relation is the reasonfor essential difference between a machine and a human observer for recognizinghand-written Chinese characters.
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    SOME STUDIES OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTION DURING NITROGENOXYGEN SATURATION IN DEPTH OF 20-36.5 METERS AND AIR EXCURSION SIMULATED DIVING IN DEPTH OF 50-70 METERS
    Chen Bao-song,Wu Shu-hui,Yin Wen-wu(scientific Institute of Salvage and Rescue of the Ministry of Communication)(Shanghai Institute of Physiology, Academia Sinica)(Shanghai Company of Salvage and Rescue)
    . 1981, 13 (03): 71-80.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 114 )
    In this study, six experiments were made on 22 healthy male adults fora total of 36 times of simulated saturation diving. The result shows that thesimple reaction-time is usually prolonged when the nitrogen partial pressure isabove 2.7 ATA. The two-choice reaction time is obviously prolonged at thedepth between 50 and 70 meters. The ballbearing rate decreases obviouslyafter 60 meters. The effciency of the test to add between one-digit numberdecreases obviously after 70 meters. There is no significance for the memorytest within ten digits until the depth is 70 meters These results show thatunder nitrogen-oxygen saturation and air excursion beneath the depth of 70meters all the divers keep good intelligence and working ability.
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    CONTRAST SENSITIVITY OF HUMAN EYE TO CHROMATIC SINUSOIDAL GRATINGS AND ADAPTATION AFTEREFFECT
    Yu Wen-zhao(shanghai Institute of Physiology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1981, 13 (03): 81-86.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 79 )
    Experimental data suggest that for at 2°visual field during mesopicvision contrast sensitivity of human eye to chromatic sine gratings isdifference. Most were more sensitive to the green grating than the blue andred gratings. It was found that at the range of the low spatial frequencycontrast sensitivity to chromatic sine gratings is also attenuated. It was demonstrated that range of the spatial adaptation to coloured sinegratings and position of the lowest spatial frequency channels all stayed at the0.8c/d. Bandwidth of adaptation aftereffect to chromatic gratings is alsoassymetric. It was concluded that adaptation aftereffect of chromatic gratingsis mainly associated with the white-black channels, and, also with the colorchannels.
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    EFFECTS OF LSD ON PURE TONE DELAYED AVOIDANCE RESPONSE IN MONKEYS
    Bao Chun-yang,Xu Bing-xuan(Shanghai Institute of Physiology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1981, 13 (03): 94-99.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 69 )
    The pure tone delayed avoidance response in the shuttle box wasestablished in six monkeys. The animal discriminated between two kinds ofstimuli (Macaca mulatta) each stimulus consisting of two pure tone pipes(1,000 Hz or 600 Hz) which were seperated by a short interval. If the twotone pipes of a given stimulus are identical in frequency, the stimulus isnegative. If the two signals are different in frequency, the stimulus is positive,and the animal should cross over to the other side. Since neither pipe signal ismore associated with punishment than the other, the correct response ispossible only when the animal retains the trace of the first signal up to thepresence of the second signal so that comparison can be made between the two. In general, animal can perform satisfactorily after a delayed period of 9seconds,the longest delayed period is 15 seconds. It took 28 experimental daysto attain the criterion of a learned delayed response on the average. Intravenous injection of LSD in doses of 30-40 μg/kg will decrease thepercentage of correct responses as compared with the criterion level, (from80% correct response to 10%-70%). However, it will reture to normal lerelafter 24 hours.
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    EFFECTS OF SOCIAL STRESS ON BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS OF EATING,DRINKING,SLEEPING AND AGGRESSION IN SOCIALLY ISOLATED RATS
    Lin Wen-juan,Tang Ci-mei(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1981, 13 (03): 100-106.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 116 )
    Observations were made on behavioral patterns of eating, drinking andsleeping of albino rats isolated or housed in groups for 8-9 weeks. Resultsindicated that the patterns of sleeping differed significantly between isolatedand gregarious animals, although the food or water intake and body weightwere similar in both groups of animals. Isolated rats has significantly lesssleep time. The extent of changes in sleep time for isolated rats was largerthan that for gregarious rats. Later both the isolated rats and gregarious ratswere brought together in groups of 4 strangers per cage as a means of socialstress, and its effects on behavioral patterns in both groups were investigated.Behavioral changes of eating, drinking and sleeping induced by social stressfor isolated rats were more significant and restoration was slower than thatfor gregarious rats. Moreover, the isolated rats, when placed together,developed fighting behavior, which gradually disappeared in a number of days.A month later, social stress was again imposed on both groups of animals,the isolated rats developed fighting behavior and sleep time was affected again.
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    EFFECT OF ELECTROSTIMULATION OF DORSAL HIPPOCAMPUS ON ESTABLISHING SPATIAL AVOIDANCE DISCRIMINATION CONDITIONED REFLEX
    Shao Dao-shen,Kuang Pei-zi(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1981, 13 (03): 107-111.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 104 )
    The purpose of this experiment is to observe the effect of electrostimulationof dorsal hippocampus after avoidance response on the establishment of spatialavoidance discrimination conditioned reflex. The results are as follows. The stimulation of hippocampus had greater interference in the estalishmentof conditioned reflex during the initial stage The reaction rate(5%) in theexperimental group was significantly lower (p<0.001)than that in the controlgroups. On the other hand, on the second day of training the reactive rateraised to 51%. There were no significant differences between the experimentalgroup and the control group Hence, the influence of stimulating hippoc-ampus on establishing conditioned re?lex was diminished, when the conditionedreflex became established. Our present data suggest that the maintenance ofnormal function of hippocampus in the initial stage of establishing conditionedreflex is important.
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    THE PHOTO-KINETIC REACTION OF AMPHIOXUS(BRANCHIOSTOMA BELCHARI)
    Shao Jiao,Lin Guo-bin,Chen Shao-fu(Department of Psychology, Beijing University)(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1981, 13 (03): 112-117.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 61 )
    The presence of photoreceptor cells in the spinal cord of amphioxus hasalways been known by the neuroanatomists, but the information about thereaction to photo-stimulus of the animal is rare. Last summer we carried outan experiment in Qingdao in the purpose of examining the sensitivity of theamphioxus (Branchiostoma belchari) to monochrome lights of different wave-lengths. Over two hundreds of B. belcharis were tested individually byprojecting monochrome light directly on them when they were resting at thebottom of a small plexiglass aquarium. The results showed that B. belcharis seem to be highly sensitive to themiddle band (534-577mμ) of the visible spectrum, i. e., green and yellow,less sensitive to blue and orange (459mμ, 602mμ), and almost insensitive ?ored (635mμ). At the end of the experiment we made an observation on the color lightpreference of the amphioxus. In each trial 10 belcharis were put in theaquarium, which was then illuminated with red light on one side and withanother light, such as white, blue, green or yellow on the other side. Theuneven distribution of the animals in the two halves of the aquarium wassimply due to the fact that when the lights were on, the animals inthe more-effective area moved vigorously and came into the range of theless-effective area incidentally while the animals in the less-effective arearemained motionless, so the numbers of the animals in this area increased. Here we use the term photo-kinetic reaction so that it is distinguishedfrom any other kind of taxis.
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