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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 13 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    SPECIAL CHILDREN AND THEIR MENTAL DEVELOPMENT
    Piao Yong-xin(Department of Education, Beijing Normal Universtity)
    . 1981, 13 (04): 28-34.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 230 )
    The paper discussed the concept of special children in both its broad senseand narrow sense. A preliminary analysis is given to the main and otherdefects of the blind, deaf, and mentally retarded children, and the influencesof these defects to the cognitive develoment. Problems of compensation for themental defects of the special children are also approached.
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    STUDIES ON FLASHBLINDNESS(Ⅰ)——THE EFFECT OF FLASH LUMINANCE AND FLASH DURATION ON RECOVERY TIME
    Fang Yun-qiu,Mao Shou-jin,Yang Zhen-yu,Chen Ming,Wang Hou-hua,Xuan Heng-rui,Guo Yuan-xing.(Shanghai Institute of Physiology)
    . 1981, 13 (04): 47-52.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 75 )
    Under both dark-adapted and light-adapted states (1×10~(-2) stilb), therecovery time (RT) from flashblindness in detecting a 6' gap of LandoltRing was measured for 11 male observers with normal vision. The resultsshow: (1) the RT increases linearly with increase of luminance from 0.45 to15 stilb under dark-adapted condition and 2 to 36 stilb under light-adaptedcondition; (2) the slope of the curve relating RT to luminance increases withincrease of exposure duration) (3) the flash luminance required to producethe same RT is about 3-5 times longer under light-adapted than that underdark-adapted condition. The experimental data may serve as a basis for the determination of thetransmission factor of the protecting glass.
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    STUDIES ON FLASHBLINDNESS(Ⅱ)——THE EFFECT OF BRIEF INTENSE LIGHT ON RECOVERY TIME
    Fang Yun-qiu,Mao Shou-jin,Chen Ming,Wang Hou-hua,Wang Bing-guang,Xuan Heng-rui,Guo Yuan-xing(Shanghai Institute of Physiology)
    . 1981, 13 (04): 53-57.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 127 )
    The recovery time in discriminating a 6' gap of Landolt Ring after abrief intense light was measured for dark-adapted eye of 11 male subjects withnormal vision. Bloch's law holds for flash duration from 0.1 to 5 ms andintegrated luminance from 0.06 to 1.96 stilb sec. Consequently the occlusiontime of the protecting glass can be determined by satisfying the relationshipbetween recovery time and integrated luminance.
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    INFLUENCE OF THE LUMINANCE ON THE CRITICAL FUSION FREQUENCY FOR THE ACHROMATIC AND CHROMATIC LIGHT
    Ma Mou-chao,He Bao-yuan et al(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1981, 13 (04): 58-63.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 81 )
    The present study examined the critical flicker fusion (CFF) of spectrallights and white light at different luminance levels. Flicker was produced byintercepting a beam of light with a sector disk driven by a variable speedmotor. Six wavelengths were used, i. e. 440, 460, 540, 560, 640 and 660 nm.CFF thresholds were determined with three subjects of normal color vision. The results indicated(1) the relation of CFF to log I or to luminancelevels (Ferry-Porter law), for a given range of luminance, is a linear one,except at the highest luminance level (5087td). White light showed CFFmax and the slope for the curve relating CFF to log I was larger than thatof each of the colored lights. It was shown that luminance is one of the mostimportant determinants for the relation between CFF and log I. (2) Amongcolored lights used, green is higher than those at the extreme ends of thespectrum for either absolute values of CFF or the slope described above.Based on these results, we may infer that the effect of wavelength on therelation between CFF and log I is not negligible. (3) While the differenceof curves described above between middle wavelength and extremes of thespectrum is rather obvious, the difference between the curves of adjacentwavelengths or the same hue is not apparent. It seems that the influence ofwavelength separations on CFF is negligible. (4) Under some luminancelevels absolute values of CFF are lower for white light than those for coloredlights, but the CFF max for white light mentioned is greater than those ofall the wavelengths used under highest luminance levels. Our findings oncemore suggest the reconsideration of the appropriateness of the application ofCIE V(λ) under certain conditions.
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    ERGONOMIC STUDY ON IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS
    Xu Lian-cang,Ling Wen-quan(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1981, 13 (04): 64-73.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 148 )
    Management of quality is a complex subject, and it is closely connectedwith many disciplines. Being one of the most important subjects, ergonomicshas brought attention to itself. In China, the activity of T. Q. C. (TotalQuality Control) started in many factories. Psychologists participated in thiswork in collaboration with engineers. In this paper the attention is focused onthe human factors in the management of quality. Analysis of the wasteproduce showed that main defects were concerned with buman operation, e.g., the work of inspectors. The researchers improved the visual environmentof the inspector and put forward a new system of reward to motivate theworkers and inspectors to pay more attention to the quality of the textileproducts. Their efforts resulted in good success, and the rate of defects haddecreased about 28%.
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    A STUDY ON THE SHORT-TERM MBMORY OF 50—90 YEAR OLDS
    Xu Shu-lian,Sun Chang-hua,Wu Zhen-yun,Song Mu-ling and Yan Xi-wei(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)(Xuanwu Hospital, Beijing)
    . 1981, 13 (04): 74-79.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 110 )
    In this work the short-term memory of 102 subjects 50-90 years of agewas studied, in 85 ones of whom physical health-conditions were thoroughly.examined. A contol group of 22 people of 22-25 years old also took thememory-tests. The results were as follows: 1) The efficiency of memory decreases with the increase of age in thefree recall of pictures, the reproduction of logical stories, and the digit-span. 2) In the reproduction of logical stories, the memory of the central ideaof stories degenerates slower than that of the pieces of stories. Thedegeneration in performance of digit-foreward is slower than that in all othermemory functions save the memory of central idea of stories. These suggestthe characteristic of memory degeneration of aging. 3) The pathological or aging changes in nervous system and cardio-vascular system are related to the deterioration in memory.
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    THE INFLUENCES OF ACOUSTIC STIMULUS ON EPILEPTIC SEIZURE IN SOCIALLY ISOLATED RATS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH BRAIN CONTENTS OF MONOAMINE NEUROTRANSMITTERS
    Tang Ci-mei,Lin Wen-juan Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1981, 13 (04): 80-87.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 92 )
    Male rats were isolated or housed in groups for 9-12 weeks. Then acuteand chronic acoustic stimuli were given. The influences of social isolation onthe incidence of audiogenic epilepsy and adaptation process in rats wereobserved and the brain contents of monoamines were determined. The incidence of audiogenic epilepsy was higher in isolated rats than ingregarious rats during 20 minutes acute acoustic stimulus. The brain contentsof NE decreased significantly in the telencephalon of the isolated animals afteracoustic stress. But it just tended to decrease in the telencephalon of thegregarious rats and in the brain stem of both isolated and gregarious rats. The decrease of the incidence of audiogenic epilepsy in isolated rats wasslower than that of the gregarious rats during daily 20 minutes acousticstress for 6 days. The total numbers of epilepsy and wild running-about inthe period of 6 days in isolated rats were markedly more than that of thegregarous rats. The brain contents of NE in the brain stem of the isolatedrats were significantly lower than in the gregarious rats after chronic auditorystress for 6 days. Brain contents of 5-HT both in the telencephalon and thebrain stem increased in gregarious rats, but it only increased in thetelencephalon of the isolated rats. On the 7th day the brain contents of NE inthe telencephalon of the gregarious rats increased significantly and the braincontents of 5-HIAA increased in isolated rats. The present results indicated that the isolated animals were weaker incoping with auditory stress, their adaptation process also slowed down. Thechanges of brain contents of monoamines after auditory stress suggest that alower rate of synthesis of NE and 5-HT in isolated animals may beresponsible for such phenomena.
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