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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 March 1982, Volume 14 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    STUDIES ON THE BRAIN MECHANISMS OF SLEEP
    Liu Shi-yi (Liu Shih-yih) Shanghai Institute of Physiology, Academia Sinica
    1982, 14 (01):  22-31. 
    Abstract ( 730 )  
    (1)Theoretical approaches to sleep: Despite the fact that nearly one-third of our life is spent in sleep, theexplanation of our need for sleep remains elusive. Ancient and contemporarytheories concerning the function of sleep have been discussed. (2)"Dry" mechanisms of sleep: A great deal of impetus was given to sleep by the development of EBG,EOG and EMG recording techniques. It is generally accepted that there arefour different stages of non-REM sleep in adults. Our results show that itseems to have only three stages of non-REM, sleep for children aged 3-7years. Tentative theories concerning the significance of REM sleep have beensuggested. (3)"Wet" mechanisms of sleep: Sleep is correlated with hypothalamic-pituitary neuroendocrines, biogenicamines and specific sleep-inducing substances. We demonstrate the delta andsigma EEG-enhancing effects of pure α-aspartyl DSIP synthesized by uswith the liquid-phase method. We also demonstrate the delta and sigma EEG-enhancing effects of a new substance synthesized by us with the solid-phasemethod. It is a nonapeptide with the amino-acid sequence Trp-Ala-Gly-Gly-Phe-Ala-Ser-Gly-Glu.
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    A CHINESE LANGUAGE UNDERSTANDING SYSTEM——CLUS Ⅰ.
    Li Jia-zhi,Guo Rong-jiang,Chen Yong-ming
    1982, 14 (01):  32-43. 
    Abstract ( 450 )  
    This is the first experiment of a Chinese language understanding systemconstructed on the principle of semantic network. The model simulates a dialogbetween a pupil and a teacher on the common sense about animals. This system has limited abilities of reasoning, including induction,making inferences from partial information and from indirect information sothat the machine is capable of answering questions which could not beanswered depending only upon its knowledge base. Owing to the fact that word order is an important characteristic ofChinese language, our system, in understanding questions and making answers,adopted "word order analysis" instead of "case analysis" which is used by P.H. Lindsay and P. A. Norman, R. H. Simmons and others. The program is run on a China-made computer TQ16, supported by BCYprogramming language, and about 200 Chinese characters written in alphabeticway have been used for the input and output of the experiment.
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    AN INVESTIGATION IN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RELATION BETWEEN PART AND WHOLE IN CHILDREN WHOLE IN CHILDREN——ON SOLVING PROBLEMS OF INCLUSIVE DIVISION NOT BY DIVISION METHOD IN CHILDREN OF 6-7 YEARS OF AGE
    He Ji-quan Institute of Piychology. Academia Sinica
    1982, 14 (01):  44-52. 
    Abstract ( 589 )  
    222 children of 6-7 were. asked to solve problems of inclusive division ofvarious forms. These children did not know multiplication and divsion methods.The results indicate: 1) Children of 6-7 showed cognitive ability number relationship of partand whole but only to a certain level. Three different ways were used by thechildren in solving problems of inclusive division: a) By non-arithematical method. b) By successive addition or subtraction of equal numbers. c) By composition and decomposition of equal numbers. 2) The mastering of part and. whole number relationship in inclusivedivision depends upon children's understanding of the relation between the totalnumber, the number of set into which the total number is divided and thenumber of the elements in each set. It was suggested that there are indications of the cognition of part andwhole relationship of numbers.
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    THE EFFECTS OF FIELD DEPENDENCE ON PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION AND NORMAL INSTRUCTION IN LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT
    Zhang Bi-yin Beijing Normal University
    1982, 14 (01):  53-58. 
    Abstract ( 459 )  
    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of field dependenceon programmed instruction and normal instruction in learning achievement. The results showed that: 1. In the field independence group, the achievement was not obviouslydifferent between programmed instruction and normal instruction. 2. When the learning materials were difficult in the field dependencegroup, the effect of programmed instruction was obviously better than that ofnormal instruction.
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    AN INDIVIDUAL CASE STUDY OF A CHILD MASTERING NUMBER CONCEPT——Ⅱ. A FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF A CHILD AT THE AGE OF 4-5 YEARS
    Xu Zhi-quan,Song Bao-ling Zheng Zhou University
    1982, 14 (01):  59-72. 
    Abstract ( 585 )  
    This report is a follow-up study of the number concept masteringprocess of a 4-5 year old child. The result shows that under conditions ofeffective training and adequate drilling, the procedure of the child to masterpreliminary number concept enters a critical year. Counting and writingnumbers, using numbers as signs to calculate are most prominent in thisprocedure. To read and memorize the table of order of numbers, trying,error and sudden realization, counting fingers as a self-hint, transforms intothe development of the ability of oral counting. Counting according to differentnumber order is the main content in the development of oral counting. Thedevelopment of ability to count articles is obviously prior to the developmentof ability to count numbers orally. The development procedure of the first oneis: Counting one by one, counting by groups, and counting by parts. In fact,to read and memorize the different numeral tables will enable the child tounderstand and realize the basic types of numbers, the combining types ofnumbers and the relationship between them. Writing numbers is thedevelopment of counting ability, that will be "set", in the form of matter. Infact, reading and writing numbers are the main methods that will enable thechild to master and operate the "word-formation", of numbers, and promotethe development of counting ability, It is also an essential method used bythe child in raising his number conception level. In the course of masteringnumber concept by the child, the development procedure of calculating abilityis: plus and minus one by one, plus and minus by groups, and plus andminus with dividing and grouping of numbers. Calculating numbers (plus,minus, multiplication and division) is the method used by the child in learningnumber formation., it is also an important mothod used by the child in raisinghis level of conception of numbers.
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    INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN KINAESTHETIC AFTER-EFFECT
    Chen Shu-yong,Yang Bo-min Pcking University
    1982, 14 (01):  73-82. 
    Abstract ( 597 )  
    The kinaesthetic after-effects of 143 subjects were determined with twoinspection bars, one of which was narrower, the other was wider than thetestblock. According to the value of the after-effect induced by the narrowinspection bar and that by the wide one was positive or negative and thealgebraic sum of N+B, KAE fell into seven types. The neurotypes of someof the subjects were also estimated with the method used. by the Teplovianschool. The result shows that the value of the KAE of the more inhibitablesubjects tend to be negative, and that of the more excitable subjects positive.The results of GE test, reminiscence experiment and weight suggestion testall show that reducers are mostly extraverts, and augmenters mostlyintroverts. The authors have followed the change of the KAE of a subjectunder different conditions, the consistency of his type of KAE was observed,The procedure of KAE determination has been simplified. The KAE thusdetermined makes no difference with that determined with the method previouslyused. Both the consistency of the types of KAE and its simplified procedurecreate favorable conditions for KAE to be used as an index for extraversion-introversion diagnosis.
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    PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT ON HUMAN RECOGNITION OF VISUAL COMPLEX FIGURES
    Peng Rui-xiang,Lin Zhong-xian Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1982, 14 (01):  83-90. 
    Abstract ( 437 )  
    Four groups of matric histoform, namely, the random metric figures,the restricted motric figures, the large dispersion metric figures, the smalldispersion metric figures were used as target figures in this study. Each groupconsisted of 6 metric figures. Each figure was presented by two kinds ofexposed time (1/2 sec. 4/5 sec.) and was put on three distances (40M. 80M.120M.). The subject was required to recognize the target figure from the 6comparable figures as soon as possible. The results showed that the subject's recognition performance of therandom figures was better than that of the restricted figures. Similarly,recognition performance of the small dispersion figures was better than thatof the large dispersion figures. The effect of exposed time on recognition wasmore pronounced. It may be argued that the relational parameter which comesfrom the sampling rule and dispersion may be used as a predictor ofperformance in some perceptual tasks.
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    DECAY PROCESS OF THE OPPOSITE MONOCULAR AND BINOCULAR MCCOLLOUGH EFFECTS AND OF THE TILT AFTER-EFFECT
    Jiao Shu-lan,Ji Gui-ping,Zhang Wu-tian Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1982, 14 (01):  91-94. 
    Abstract ( 649 )  
    This experiment investigated the decay process of the opposite monocularand binocular McCollough effects. The strength of the after-effect wasmeasured by matching it with another light from a three color colorimeter,then the chromaticity of the matched light was computed. It was found thatboth the monocular and binocular after-effects decreased in excitation puritywith time. It showed a sharp decrease in the first 3 hours, afterwards thistrend slowed down and lasted to as long as 24 hours. However, with the eyesclosed for 9 hours after adaptation, there was no decay, the strength of theafter-effects remained almost the same as those immediately after adaptation. It seemed that the restoration to equilibrium for pattern coritingent colorafter-effects is not endogenous but dependent upon retinal stimulation. Thiswas unlike the tilt after-effect which decayed both with eyes open or witheyes closed.
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    A STUDY ON DISCOMFORT OF GLARE
    Pang Yun-fan,Zhang Shao-gang,Peng Ming-yuan,Gao Lu-tai Institute of Physicss The Chinese Academy of Architecture
    1982, 14 (01):  95-101. 
    Abstract ( 547 )  
    A brief account is made of the purpose and significance of research onglare; explanations are made on the physiological and psychological effect ofglare and its influence on production as well as the four factors for evaluationof the degree of discomfort of glare. Mention is made of the arrangements ofequipments and conditions of experiment and the process of obtainingmathematical expressions for glare evaluation. Relational curve brightness ofthe source of glare vs background brightness and relational curve of the-solidangle subtended by the source of glare on the observer's eye vs angulardisplacement of the source from the observer's line of sight are presented.Comparisons have been made between all parameters of the Chinese formulawith those of other countries.
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    THE EFFECT OF THE LEVELS OF PROCESSING ON FREE-RECALL AND RECOGNITION
    Zhu Ying The Department of Psychology, Peking University
    1982, 14 (01):  102-106. 
    Abstract ( 500 )  
    The experiment was designed to explore the idea. of the levels of processingfor human memory research proposed by Craik (1972). The major concern inour experiment was the effect of the levels of processing on free-recall andrecognition, including simultaneously three retrieval information. The resultsshowed that the deeper the encoding process, the better the presented materialretrieved. The result was discussed with the viewpoint that there is interactionbetween encoding and retrieval. The type of encoding was more importantthan input-output compatibility.
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    EFFECTS OF HIPPOCAMPUS DAMAGE ON LEARNING AND MEMORY IN RATS
    Liu Shan-xun Kuang Pei-zi Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1982, 14 (01):  107-113. 
    Abstract ( 598 )  
    In this paper the effects of hippocampus damage on the different stagesof the establishment of dark avoidence conditioned reflex (DAR) and theinfluences of different parts of hippocampus on DAR were reported. The Dataof our experiments were as follows: 1. The extensive damage of thehippocampus results in difficulty to consolidate The DAR, and the more theconditioned reflex is consolidated, the less it is interfered by the extension; 2.The influence of hippocampus on the DAR depends on the region and theextension of damage, and the effect of ventral hippocampus damage on theDAR is more prominent than that of the dorsal one. The results demonstratedthat the hippocampus takes part in the different stages of memory, especiallythe early stage, and the effects of different parts of the hippocampus aredifferent.
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    CHANGES IN ELECTROCONVULSIVE SHOCK THRESHOLD IN SLEEP-DEPRIVED RATS
    Li De-ming,Liu Shan-xun Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1982, 14 (01):  114-116. 
    Abstract ( 457 )  
    Male albino rats were deprived of sleep for 24,48 and 96 hrs on a smallplatform (d=4.5cm) surrounded by water. Thresholds for electroconvulsiveshock decreased significantly jn sleep-deprived rats. Controlled animals wereplaced on a large platform (d=11.5cm) surrounded by water for 20 hrs andwere returned to a normal rearing cage for 4 hrs. The threshold forelectroconvulsive shock increased slightly in the controlled ones. Resultsindicated that sleep deprivation heightened the excitability of central nervoussystem.
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