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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 June 1982, Volume 14 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT OF 60 YEARS OF PSYCHOLOGY IN CHINA——IN COMMEMORATION OF THE 60TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE FOUNDING OF THE CHINESE PSYC HOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    The Executive Committee of the Chinese Psychological Society
    1982, 14 (02):  3-14. 
    Abstract ( 214 )  
    In this paper the development and work in 6 main aspects during the 60-year period of psychology in China are retrospected. 10 points of experiencesand lessons are summarized, with emphasis on the necessity to hold Marxistphilosophy as the guiding principle in psychology, to enlarge and to deepenthe fundamental and applied research work, to promote the level ofpsychological training of students, etc. The future developments of psychologyin China are discussed.
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    MARXISM AND HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY
    Lin Fang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1982, 14 (02):  19-32. 
    Abstract ( 755 )  
    Both Marxism and humanistic psychology have discussed the problem ofhuman essence and its actualization. They have some views in common, butthe main points are different. They both emphasize the social nature of man,but humanistic psychology pays more attention on the natural basis of it,while Marxism its close relation with social life. They both emphasize thathuman essence will ultimately actualize, but humanistic psychology assumesthe actualization as spontaneous, while Marxism views it in a broad social andhistorical background and concludes that it is essentially an evolving orgrowing process of human practice under the influence of historical develop-ment. The author of this article compares the similarities and the differencesof the two views and discusses several social and psychological problems inconnection with them, such as the role of labor in man's socialization, thefunction of consciousness, the dialectic relation of the absoluteness and rela-tivity of love, the sublation of man's alienation in the development of society,and so on.
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    ON SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT BEHAVIOR:AN ANALYSIS
    Chen Da-rou Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1982, 14 (02):  33-40. 
    Abstract ( 555 )  
    In this paper, Skinner's theory of operant behavior is analyzed in someaspects: its philosophical view point concerned; the unique concepts advanced;the basic versions about the two contingencies, private events, and verbalbehavior. Its applications to various realms are appreciated. Its merits towardthe theories of psychology are also briefly discussed.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FADING PROCESS OF MEMORY AND ITS VARIATIONS
    Li Ling-jie Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1982, 14 (02):  41-49. 
    Abstract ( 527 )  
    This is one of the two studies conducted to confirm the supposition thatforgetting is a fading process of memory, and so under usual conditions, thetime needed for recall of the itemslearned, the number of items incorrectlyrecalled, and also the number of items forgot. will increase with the lengtheningof the interval time between learning and recall, and that, because there aremany factors influencing memory and recall, there will be remarkable variationsin the manifestations of the general tendency of the fading process. Suchsupposition has been mainly confirmed by the experimental results. We assumethat the forgetting process would be understood better under such a supposition.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF 5-11-YR OLDS' COGNITION OF TWO SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS
    Li Wen-fu & Liu Fan Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1982, 14 (02):  50-59. 
    Abstract ( 461 )  
    This study is on the development of 5-11-yr olds' cognition of two spatialrelationships-equality of areas and verticality. Through children's judgementabout the equality of areas, the developmental process of their mastery of theprinciple "equals minus equals will be equals" was investigated. The resultindicated that various variables in the experiment have different effects onchildren's cognition and that children's cognitive process in the judgement ofequality of areas may be mainly devided into two types, that is the judgementon the basis of direct perception and that on the basis of reasoning, and thereseems to exist a transitional state in the development from the former to thelatter. In the result of children's dealing with verticality, besides the case ofperpendicularity to the slope and that of perpendicularity to the level there isalso a medial phase between, a gradually developing process from the formerto the latter. Both these two results show a common tendency of cognitivedevelopment with the increase of age, consisting of two outstanding stagewisecharacteristics:a rapidly developing period at 6-7 years of age when children'sachievements differ significantly and a relatively stable period at 7-9 yearsof age when children's achievements show little or no increment. In the latterperiod children's cognition is liable to the influence of experimental conditions,their achievements are more changeable than those by other age groups. Thismight be the characteristics of this medial, transitional phase of development.
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    STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PART-WHOLE PICTURE PERCEPTION AT THE AGE OF 4-8
    Meng Hong-wei,Song He-yi,Dong Qi,Wang Xiao-ping,Cheng Yuan-shan Peking Normal University.
    1982, 14 (02):  60-65. 
    Abstract ( 518 )  
    In the present study, ninety-eight children from 4 to 8 years of age weretested for the development and characteristics of their perception of pictures.The pictures used here were those in which both the parts and the whole hada meaning independently. The results showed: 1) the ability to perceive bothpart and whole increased regularly with age, 2) the parts are perceived at anearlier age than the wholes. These results were similar to that of D. Elkind;R. R. Koegler and E. Go (1964). In addition, we found that part and wholeintegration was present in children by the age of 8(a majority of 83%). Theability to perceive part and whole are closely related to educational conditions,if educational conditions were more advantageous, the children would be ableto perceive both part and whole by the age of 6.
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    THE STUDY ON IDEAL, MOTIVE AND INTEREST OF ADOLESCENTS IN SCHOOL IN TEN PROVINCES AND CITIES
    Research group in the study on ideal, motive and interest of adolescents
    1982, 14 (02):  75-86. 
    Abstract ( 562 )  
    The study was separatly made on adolescents in ten provinces and cities. The study considers that at present most of our adolescents in schoolhave ideals. Their tendency is basically sound. Their main current is good. The study shows that ideal is the core and direction of outlook on life.For education on ideal the student's motive must be aroused and the student'sinterests must be fostered. Education in school must be able to handle therelationship between ideal, motive and interest. The direction and motive shouldbe clear.
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    COLOR DISCRIMINATION UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHTINGS
    Zhu Zu-xiang,Xu Yao-jin Hangzhou University
    1982, 14 (02):  87-93. 
    Abstract ( 437 )  
    In this paper, the effects of absolute color discrimination were comparedunder eight different lightings, i. e. four white lightings and four color edlightings. The level of luminance is 3 nit. The results indicated that the effectsof absolute color discrimination of white lighting are better. than that of colo-redl ightings. Under the condition of red lighting, color discrimination is worsethan that under other colored lightings. The results also indicated that the effects of discrimination of 11 colorsused in this experiment were different. It is easy to discriminate colors of redand orange from other colors, and difficult to discriminate colors betweenyellow and white, green and light blue, deep blue and black, because theyare easily confused.
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    A STUDY OF THE RANGE OF THE OPTICAL AXIS NONPARALLELISM OF BINOCULAR OPTICAL RANGEFINDER
    Fang Li-luo,Yu Ji-sheng,Gao Jing Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1982, 14 (02):  94-102. 
    Abstract ( 474 )  
    This experiment studied the relationship between the accuracy of rangefinding, visual fatigue and optical axis nonparallelism of binocular opticalrangefinder, in order to provide a basis for setting the standard of verticaldivergence, horizontal divergence and horizontal convergence of binocularoptical rangefinder. A binocular stereo range finding system was used. 10adults with normal vision participated in this experiment under normaltemperature(≈20℃) conditions. The experiment gave the range of limited values and comfortable valuesof the optical axis nonparallelism of binocular optical rangefinder. The limited values are Y=184.22+0.10X-0.19X~2(0≤X≤30) Y=59.54+0.01X-0.06X~2(0≤X≤30) The comfortable values are Y=121.43+0.07X-0.29X~2(0≤X≤20) Y=40.20+0.01X-0.10X~2(0≤X≤20) The results showed that changes of optical axis within certain regions canlead to corresponding changes of accuracy of range finding and visual fatigue
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    A STUDY ON THE PERPENDICULAR ILLUSION INDUCED BY TILT PARALLEL LINES
    Xiao Bei-ling,Zou Hong,Chen Yu-zhu Department of Psychology, Peking Normal University
    1982, 14 (02):  103-108. 
    Abstract ( 554 )  
    An experiment on perpendicular illusion was made with 20 college studentsand young workers by using a set of tilted parallel lines as the inducing partof the stimulus. The effect of perpendicular illusion was found in the almostvertically and horizontal1y located testing lines, and the magnitude of perpen-dicular illusion was closely related to the tilt angle of the inducing lines,but when the two parts of the stimulus were seperated apart for each eye,and then looking through a stereoscope, the perpendicular illusion was no moreobserved: This suggested that the perpendicular illusion is li?nly to be initiatedon the retina, and it may be explained by the theory of lateral inhibition.
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    A COMPARATIVE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE PRELIMINARY GENERALIZATION OF NONHUMAN PRIMATES(Ⅰ)GENERALIZATION OF OBJECTS,PHOTOGRAPHS AND PICTURES IN GOLDEN HAIRED MONKEYS(RHINOPITHECUS ROXELLANAE)
    Lin Guo-bin,Wan Chuan-wen,Shao Jiao,Liu Fan Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1982, 14 (02):  109-114. 
    Abstract ( 483 )  
    The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the ability of generalizationof the golden haired monkey (Rhinopithecus Roxellanae)from three dimensionalobjects to their two dimensional representative photographs and pictures. Wedeveloped a modfied apparatus after WGTA in pushing form, which is suitablefor our own use. The experiment was conducted on 3 golden haired monkeys(2?,1?), aged from 2-3 years. The Ss were birert trained to discriminatebetween two objects:an ink bottle like block and a cabin like gray woodenblock. Then the photos and pictures of the objects were randomly shown tothem to examine if the discrimination could be transfered. All three subjectsshowed no generalization, i. e. they reacted to the photos and pictures rand-omly.
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    THE EFFECTS OF ANISODINE ON DISCRIMINATED LEARNING,MEMORY AND ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY IN ANIMALS
    Guan Lin-chu,Wu Qin-e,Shao Dao-sheng Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1982, 14 (02):  115-121. 
    Abstract ( 497 )  
    Anisodine is a new alkaloid, it was first isolated from Scopolia tangutica(Anisodus tanguticus) by Chinese phytochemists. The chemical structure andpharmacological actions of anisodine are similar to those of scopolamine. Itstoxicity is weaker than scopolamine. But if someone takes an overdose of thismedicine, it will cause auditory and visual hallucination and disorientation.The purpose of this paper is to observe the effects of anisodine on discriminatedlearning and memory in rats and to inquire into the effects of anisodine onspontaneous and evoked electrical activity of the brain and conditioned reflexof ECoG in rabbits. The results are as follows: There were remarkable effects of anisodine on the discriminated learningand memory in rats. It showed that error responses increased and reactiontime was prolonged and the formation rate of defense conditioned reflex waslower in the medicine group than those in the control group. Anisodine can cause high voltages and slow waves of the whole cortexand obvious inhibition of conditioned reflex of ECoG in ?abbits.
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    EFFECTS OF ATTENTION ON THE LATE COMPONENTS OF HUMAN BRAIN AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIALS
    Wei Jing-han,Tang Ci-mei Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1982, 14 (02):  122-128. 
    Abstract ( 579 )  
    In this experiment some psychological conditions were further controlled,the effects of the selective attention and the novelty of the environment andstimuli on the late components of auditory evoked potentials of the human brainwere studied simultaneously in the same group of subjects. The resultsindicated: During selective attention, wave N_1, P_2 latency increased andamplitude enhanced; wave P_3 amplitude enhanced. Novelty of the environmentand stimuli caused wave N_1 latency increase and amplitude enbance; wave P_2N_2 P_3 amplitude enhance. we observed some EP, in which the amplitude islarger when the stimulus is weak, the ampltude is smaller when the stimulusis stronger. The results were discussed.
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    THE EFFECTS OF LASER GUIDED BY OPTIC FIBER INTO FRONTAL CORTEX AND NUCLEI CAUDATE ON THE TRANSMITTERS OF MONOAMI NES AND AMINOACIDS IN THE CORPUS STRIATUM OF RATS
    Shen Zheng,Xiao Jian,Wang Li-hua,Lin Shu-zhi Department of Phychology, Beijing University
    1982, 14 (02):  129-134. 
    Abstract ( 514 )  
    The article studied the changes in transmitters of monoamines andaminoacids in the brain corpus striatum of 52 rats under laser radiation guidedby optic fiber into the brain. The results are as follows: 1) He-Ne laser radiation (6328A, 0.04mw) lasting 3 minutes causessignificant decrease of 5-HT, 5-HIAA and increase of GABA. Besides, laserradiation to the cortex leads to significant increase of ASP and GA, laserradiation to nuclei caudate decreases DA and GA. 2) Nitrogen ultraviolet laser radiation (3371A 0.04mJ/pulse, 10 pulses/sec) causes significant increase of 5-HIAA, GABA, ASP and decrease of 5-HT. Besides, laser radiation to cortex decreases NE, but radiation to nucleicaudate causes decrease of DA. 3) Both He-Ne laser and nitrogen ultraviolet laser radiation to mixedstandard sample in vitro causes photolysis of ASP. Besides, nitrogen laser alsocauses the photolysis of NE and DA. The effects of laser radiation to thebrain on 7 kinds of transmitters in the corpus striatum does not mean a simplephoto-chemical process, but they are complicated effects on brain metabolismprocesses.
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