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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 14 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN’S COGNITION OF THE PART-WHOLE RELATIONSHIP CONCERNING NUMBER AND ARITHMETIC
    Liu Jing-he,Wang Xian-tian,Zhang Mei-Ling,He Ji-quan,Lin Jia-sui The Institute Abstract of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1982, 14 (03): 3-11.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 177 )
    This is a comprehensive report of 9 experiments we did during the pastthree years. From our previous 4 experiments, we put forword 12 criteria forthe comprehension of part-whole relationship. The same 12 criteria were usedin the 3 experiments (integers, geometrical figures and fraction) designed toinvestigate the reaction of children to part-whole relationship, after which 2teaching experiments were carried out to apply and check the results obtained.On thebasis of the results of these 9 experiments, the authors discussed howthe understanding of the intrinsic nature of the objects to be known (numberand arithmetical concepts in these studies) facilitates the knowing processes ofthe knower, the age characteristics, developmental levels and periods of acceler-ated growth during the process of comprehension of part-whole relationship.That the children's cognition of part-whole relationship may be effectively ap-plied to the learning of arithmetic was also discussed.
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    A STUDY ON 4—11-YR OLD CHILDREN’S DEVELOPMENT OF THE STABILITY OF CONCEPTSIN MATHEMATICS
    The Cooperative Research Group of Children's Cognitive Development
    . 1982, 14 (03): 12-24.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 110 )
    Four sets each consisting of 3 or 5 test-items of different difficultieswere composed. to examine the stability of children's concepts of number,length, area and volume respectively, under both a screened-operation conditionand an unscreened-operation condition. In each of 13 districts throughout thecountry, 3-6-yr olds, with 30 Ss in each age-group, or 7-1l-yr olds, with20-30 Ss in each age-group, were examined individually with the "clinicalmethod". As the general results preliminarily suggest: The stability of children'sconcepts in mathematics, manifesting both in their performances of the examinationand in their cognitive levels of resolving processes, develops with the increaseof age. The stability of one kind of mathematical concepts may emerge earlieror later, depending on the kind and difficulty of test-problems used. Underthe unscreened-operation condition the stability of concepts is higher than thatunder the screened-operation condition. The performance under the screened-operation con-dition may be promoted by the demonstration or enlightenment ofuncreened-operation. Both these two events are more significant during thedeveloping period of concepts. No nationality-or sex-differences are found betweenchildren on the same culture-background. And the stability of concepts seems todevelop in an order of number, length, area and volume. According to theauthors, there exists a developmental process of the concepts from unstableto stable, and stability per se is not absolute, but conditional, it is by nomeans fixed to occur at a certain year of chronological age.
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    CHILDREN’S COMPREHENSION OF SEVERAL KINDS OF TEMPORAL WORDS IN SENTENCES
    Zhu Man-shu,Wu Jing-zhi,Zhuang Xiu-juan et al. East China University
    . 1982, 14 (03): 34-41.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 91 )
    The experimental study shows 1. Children's comprehension of temporal words in sentences undergo along developmental stage. This fact shows that the development of semanticsis a slow process. 2. Children's cemprehension of temporal words presented in this exp-eriment always develops in a steady sequences; this has been proved both bylongitudinal and cross-sectional studies. However, there are obvious individualdifferences in the speed of each child's development. a) Both the levels and stages of comprehension of temporal wordsexpressing the order of activities vary with the nature of the temporal wordspresented, the order of the words in the sentence, the structure of the sentence,and the number of the objects to be acted upon. b) In comprehending the words about temporal units(or periods),childrenfirst understand "today", "yesterday", "tomorrow", then gradually learnsmaller units (or periods) such as "morning", "afternoon", "evening", "at xin the morning", "at x in the afternoon", "at x in the evening", or bigger onessuch as "this year", "last year", "next year". c) In comprehending tenses, children start with present tense, then extendto past and future tenses, that is, progressive tense first, perfect tense next,and future tense last.
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    THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE SYNTHETICAL CLASSIFICATION ABILITY OF THE WORD CONCEPT IN SCHOOLCHILDREN
    Zhu Zhi-xian,Qian Man-jun,Wu Feng-gang,CLin hong-de Beijing Normal University
    . 1982, 14 (03): 42-50.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 95 )
    Classification is an important way of people's thinking activity. This article shows that in the sythetical classification ability of the wordconcepts in schoolchildren, factors of age characteristics are demonstrated. Theclassification ability is better than ability to explain grounds on the classific-ation. A few schoolchildren in grade 5 have a beginning ability of classifica-tion of "combination analysis". This Study shows too that, differences in classification material, culturalbackground and the condition of education impact the quality in the classific-ation.
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    A STUDY ON THE INTERRELATION BETWEEN DIRECT AND INDIRECT COGNITIVE COMPONENTS IN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN AGED 4-6
    Fang Ge,S. Ekblad (Sweden),Li Wen-fu,Wu Nai-ying,Liu Fan
    . 1982, 14 (03): 66-74.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 135 )
    The purpose of this experiment is to analyze the influence of three differ-ent conditions (concrete objects, photos or pictures and verbal instructions) onchildren's counting, manual operating and comparing activities, and thus toexpl ore the role played by the relationship between direct and indirect cogn-itive components in children's cognitive developmental process, and to unders-tand the characteristics of these three activities in 4-6 year olds.
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    ON NEO-BEHAVIORIST B.F.SKINNER’S RESEARCH OF THE CAUSES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR
    Yue Guo-an Institute of Psychology. Academia Sinica
    . 1982, 14 (03): 75-81.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 171 )
    The author analysed Skinner's anvironmental determination theory ofbehavior and unearthed its source. Then he evaluated the methods used bySkinner in his research of the causes of human behavior and compared Watson'sbehaviorism with Skinner's neo-behaviorism. The author also criticized Skinner's"behavior tec-hnology" and pointed out Skinner's "behavior technology" isdoomed to failure.
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    A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON REVERSAL LEARNING IN MACACA NEMESTRINA AND OTHER PRIMATES
    Liu Shi-yi (Liu Shih-yih),Lin De-liang,Cai Jin-xia,Li Chao-da Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Kunming Institute of Zoology. Academia Sinica
    . 1982, 14 (03): 98-103.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 97 )
    Ten adolescent, experimentally normal primates-2 Macaca nemestrina,2Macaca speciosa, 2 Macaca assamensis, 1 Papio hamadryas, 1 Mandrillussphinx, 1 Nycticebus coucang and 1 Cebus albifrons-were used. Reversallearning wasstudied by the method of simultaneous presentation of positiveand negativestimuli. All testing was carried out with a modified WGTA. Tr-aining commenced, with each S to reach a criterion of 80%correct in 2-3successive trials of "stereotype". Next, the "stereotype" was reversed, untilS again reachedthe same criterion. The major findings were: (1) There was no fundamental distinctions in the mobility of the nervousprocesses of Macaca nemestrina, Macaca speciosa and Macaca assamensis, buttheir mobilities were superior to that of Nycticebus coucang. (2) Our results show that the reversal of color stimuli was more diffi-cult than the form stimuli in all of primates tested. (3) The difficulty of reversal from positive to negative stimuli was thesame traits in the majority of primates tested.
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    RESEARCH ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF STEADY TRACKING EYE MOVEMENT IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS
    Song Wei-zhen,Cui Qiu-geng,Gu Jin-kun,Cheng Xin-fang,Dong Shi,Gao Cheng-bin,Wang jie-jun,Li Fang-zhen Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Beijing Anding Hospital Tianjin Psychopathic Hospital
    . 1982, 14 (03): 104-111.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 140 )
    Investigation wae made from the psychophysiological point of view on thecharacteristics of steady tracking eye movement of schizophrenic patients. Therecords were presented in electro-ocurogram. The results indicated: (1)The steady tracking eye movement of the patients were mainly defor-med or lacking in sine waves, indicating that the patients had serious disturb-ances of tracking eye movement. (2)No difference was noticed in the abnormal tracking eye movement of patients having different length of time of illnessand different clinical expressions. (3)Difficulty in eye tracking indicated thatthe patients had obvious cognitive visual disturbances and certain degree ofdefect in attention. Some exploratory research was made on the mechanismof the incidence of illness. (4)Medication had centain effects on the experim-ental results but did not change the intrinsic characteristics of the illness itse-lf.
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    EFFECTS ON THE AGGRESSIVE AND DEFENSIVE BEHAVIORS AND ACTIVITY IN AN OPEN-FIELD FOLLOWING BILATERAL ENTORHINAL AREA LESIONS IN THE ALBINO RATS
    Chen Ji-gang
    . 1982, 14 (03): 112-119.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 106 )
    This work used 36 adult female albino rats which were divided randomlyinto three groups. The eleven rats of the first group suffered bilateral entorh-inal area lesions. The eleven rats of the second group were operated as control.The third one which was made up of 14 rats was normal control group. This work was consisted of two experiments which were performed simu-ltaneously. (1)Observing the rats on the aggressive and defensive bebaviorsagainst a training stick, and at last calculating the percentages of strongerreactions of each rat in pre-and postoperative periods.(2)Placing rat in anopen-field, and recording its walked quodrate numbers in 10min. and observingits performance. The results have indicated, after lesions, the percentagesof stronger reactions in two behaviors and the quodrate numbers were all highersignificantly than that before lesions(P<.001;<0.01;<.001).The lesioned ratsshowed few "Jreezing", crouching, grooming, and washing face in both exper-iments. In the first experiment, we also found that the lesioned rats displayeda phenomenon in which they were attracted intensely by a novel visual stim-ulation, i. e., the presentation of the stick. These results were analysed, then we may suggest that one of the chieffunctions of the entorhinal area in the albino rat is probably related to formingemotional factor of fear, and the?efore promoting the immobility in the actionof the rats. In performing these functions, presumably, visual factor may af--fect this process feebly.
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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE D’,βAND DL IN THE THEORY OF SIGNAL DETECTION
    Feng Bo-lin,Li De-wei,Zhang Zhu-jiang Department of Psychnology Peking Normal University
    . 1982, 14 (03): 120-124.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 116 )
    The relationship between the d', β and DL in the theory of signal Detec-tion was investigated in this paper. A detection experiment of weight discrim-ination without the help of vision was made by "yes-no" method. There are2 weight stimuli in which one is 100g as signal, and the other one 108g asnoise. The presentation of stimulus is arranged under 4 different probabilities.The following results have been obtained: 1. There is a negative relationship between the d' and DL. 2. There seems no relationship between the d' and β. 3. The relationship between the β and DL is not fixed, whenβ>1 it ispositive, but it is negative as β<1.
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