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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 14 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF CHINESE CHARACTERS
    Peng Rui-xiang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1982, 14 (04): 3-8.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 361 )
    The structure of 3000 printed Chinese characters which were selectedfrom the Chinese textbook for elementary school was analysed. Each characteris divided into four quadrants i. e. upper-left (UL), upper-right (UR), bot-tom-left (BL) and bottom-right (BR).When the shapes composed of the strokesin UL and BR were the same or similar respectively they were attributed toone group and were called subpatterns. The result showed that the subpatterns of BR were more simple than thatof UL and the number of junctions of the former was less than that of thelater. The author argued that the subpatterns of BR are used as group maskin the early stage of the processing of multi-stage matching the computationtime may be reduced.
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    THE INFLUENCES OF ILLUMINANCE,CONTRAST AND COLOR SATURATION ON THE DETECTABILITY OF INSTRUMENTAL VISUAL DISPLAY
    Yang Gong-xia,Chi Gen-xing et al. Tong Ji University
    . 1982, 14 (04): 9-14.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 82 )
    The writers suggested that illumination level, contrast and colour satura-tion correlatively influence the detectability of instrumental visual display.The experimental results have given out the optimum value of illuminationlevel, contrast and colour saturation, and made these findings as a guide forthe design of control rooms in a power plant.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON 6-10 YR.OLDS’DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITION OF SOME COMMON NATURAL THINGS
    Zhao Shu-wen,Liu Fan Beijing Normal College Institute of Psychology. Academia Sinica
    . 1982, 14 (04): 15-24.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 104 )
    The purpose of this study is to explore the problem on the developmentof children's cognition of natural things. Nineteen natural things were used;e. g. the sun, the moon, air, clouds and rain, etc. They were divided intofour groups. Subjects at the age of 6-10 were required to answer individual-ly three kinds of questions: "What is it?" "Do they share some common ch-aracteristics?" and "Why does it comes about?" One hundred children weretested with 20 in each age group. The results indicate: 1) The levels of children's cognition of natural phe-nomena or objects rise with the increase of age. This developmental processmight be divided into two stages, that is a) unable to understand them orunderstanding ambiguously, and b) the stage of transition. The level of most6-10-yr olds' cognition belongs to the latter stage. 2) The period from 8-10yrs of age is one of speedy development with regard to the cognition of thenatural things tested. Besides, children's cognition of natural things developearlier than that of the generalization of similarity. 3) It is an important cha-racteristic in children's cognition to use their own explaination of natural phe-nomena. One determinant of this cbaracteristic, besides tbe child,s age, is thenature of the tested natural phenomenon as well as the child's experience. 4)Education and culture play an important part in children's cognitive develop-ment.
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    STUDY ON PERCEPTION OF POSTURAL VERTICAL AND BODY TILTS
    Lin Zhong-xian,Peng Rui-xiang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1982, 14 (04): 25-32.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 59 )
    The accuracy of perception of postural vertical (0°) and body tilts (15°)、30°、45°、60°、75°and 90° right or left to the body) was investigated under fourperceptual conditions by means of a tilting chair. It was found that when thesubjects set their body to tbe vertical without the aid of vision in a dark room,an average error of 1.6°to the true vertical was produced. When subjects settheir body under normal circumstances in the illuminated room and could getthe aid of visual information, tbe accuracy of judgments increased, the averageerror is 0.8° not more than one degree to the true vertical.The results show that there was a significant difference between thesevarious perceptual conditions made in the dark. The "Verbal-Body" conditionproduced larger errors than the other conditions, and the subjects in the "Vi-sion-Body" condition obtained a little error reduction. The most accurate con-dition of judgments of body positiou was found in "Body-Body" condition. How-ever, in all of these conditions, the subjects made underestimations. We sug-gested that the accuracy of perception of body position was affected remar-kably by the perceptual modality and difficuty of information transmission inperceptual processes, the ipsemodal performance (the standard and the comp-arisons were perceived by the same modality) had more advantages in the in-formation transmission and in the information processing over the cross-modalperformance.
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    ROLE OF VERGENCE MOVEMENT IN STEREOSCOPIC DEPTH PERCEPTION OF HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM
    Wu Jia-long,Zheng Zhu-ying Institute of Biophysics, Academia Sinica
    . 1982, 14 (04): 33-40.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 95 )
    Stereoscopic depth perception for position and for motion was observed andmeasured using a visual psychophysical experimental set designed and madeby ourselves. It seems that vergence movement takes an important part in thecorrect perception of stereoscopic depth.Under the condition of free vergence movement, the perceived depth forposition is consistent With the given binocular disparity up to the range of 3deg. The result. shows that human visual system can Perform algorithm of bi-nocular disparity. It is observed that at large disparity tbe correct perceptionof depth position could not, be reached without vergence movement. The ver-gence movement also plays an important role in stereoscopic perception for mo-tion in depth at large modulation amplitude of disparity. Besides, it is respon-sible for maintaining the perception of motion in depth.A latent period, about 0.15-0.18 sec., is observed by measuring the re-sponse time of stereoscopic depth. It is mainly due to vergence movement.
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    THE EVALUATION OF SERIOUS ILLUSION DURING FLYING ON 105 AIRCREW WITH THE CALORIC-INDUCED ELECTRONYSTAGMUS
    Yu Li-shen,Wang Kui-nian,Xia Xiang-yun Institute of Aviation Medicine, CPLA
    . 1982, 14 (04): 41-49.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 66 )
    The investigation of vestibular apparatus function has been carried out on105 aircrew, who had come under medical care because of serious illusion inflying in the period from 1973 to 1977. The data on the main parameters ofelectronystagmus duration, frequency, amplitude, speed of slow phase, C. P.and D. P. are presented.The change of parameters from normal in the caloric-induced electronys-tagmus was revealed in 80 of 105 aircrew with serious illusion in flying, thusconstituting 76.2%, C. P. and D. P. in the caloric-induced electronystagmuswas revealed in 49 of 105 cases, thus constituting 46.7%. It shows that thecaloric-induced electronystagmus provide a practical, objective and quantita-tive method for assessment of serious illussion in flying.
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    THE EFFECTS OF TRAINING ON MORAL JUDGEMENTS AMONG CHILDREN
    Cen Guo-zhen,Li Bo-shu Shanghai Normal College
    . 1982, 14 (04): 50-58.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 180 )
    The investigation was undertaken to test the effects of two different train-ing procedures on the moral judgements in young children. A total of 125kindergartens and primary school children ranging from 5-11 years were in-volved, The results indicate that brief training programme can immediatelychange the orientation of children's moral judgement, but may somewhat berestricted by other variables of maturation of individual development. The re-sults also demonstrate that the principle explanation-type training was more effective than the verbal approval-type training.
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    A STUDY ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SHORT-TERM MEMORY OF THE AGED
    Xu Shu-lian,Sun Chang-hua,Wu Zhen-yun,Wang Xin-de,Cai Xiao-jie Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Section of Geriatric Research, Beijing Hospital
    . 1982, 14 (04): 59-66.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 169 )
    Short-term memory was studied on 240 normal humans aged 65-90, in-cluding peasants, workers, cadres and housekeepers, with a control group offifty 20-24 year olds. The results indicate:1. The effciency of memory significantly decreases with aging in the re-production of logical stories, free recall of pictures, digit span and directedmemory. Except in memory span, subjects from 65 to 90 also show a similartendency of memory decline with the increase of age. The performances of thegroups of 65 yr. olds and 75 yr, olds are close to those of the groups aged 70and 80 respectively.2. The fact that the aged have better performances on digit forward andbigber percentage of correct responses on the last item of stimuli series suggestsless loss in their primary memory than in other aspects.3. For the young group, the four performances in short-term memorystand in an orderly series, with the score of memory of pieces of story as thehighest, then the recall of the picture, digit forward, and directed memoryas the lowest. Tbe performances of the aged group, however, do not show sucha clear order. In subjects over 75, the performances on digit forward becomerelatively better than those on the other three tests.4. Under the condition of this study, the performances of memory are sig-nificantly related with education factor, the performances of educated sub-jects are markedly better than those of the non-educated.
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    THE REVISION,EMPLOYMENT AND EVALUATION OF M.M.P.1.IN CHINA
    The National Coordination Croup of M. M. P. I.
    . 1982, 14 (04): 67-76.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 110 )
    In the investigation, we present the revision process of the Minnesota Mul-tiphasic Personality Inventory (M. M. P. I.) carried out in China. The pro-cess consists of four stages.1. The M. M. P. I. was translated from English into Chinese withoutmodifications, but with reference to its Chinese edition revised by Dr.Zhang Miao-qing of Hong Kong. The M. M. P. I. was then tried for itsuse in several areas in China.2. The M. M. P. I. underwent some necessary amendments in regard tothe difficulties and problems arising during the course of its use.3. A national coordination group was organized and the revised inventorywas used for more extensive administration in a larger area in China.4. This inventory was translated and revised again.Through our trial of its use, both the reliability and the validity of thisinventory proved themselves to be high. It is of definite value to be used inour country with necessary modifications. Furthermore, it is of particular valuein diagnosis in psychiatric clinics. But, the results must be carefully analyzedin combination with the norms of Chinese people. Owing to the differences inthe mode of life, cultural traditions, and historical background between Chinaand other countries, we must make a personality inventory suiting nationalconditions of our own country as soon as possible.
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