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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 December 1983, Volume 15 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    RESEARCH ON“MENTAL PHILOSOPHY”
    Zhao Li-ru Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1983, 15 (04):  13-21. 
    Abstract ( 419 )  
    Yan Yong-jing translated Joseph Haven's "Mental Philosophy: Includingthe Intellect Sensibilities and Will" (1857). This was one of the firsttranslations introducing Western psychology to China. This translation waspublished in 1889, 15th year of Guangxu in the Qing Dynasty.
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    A SYSTEMATIC TEACHING AND LEARNING EXPERIMENT OF APPLYING THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE PART-WHOLE RELATIONSHIP WITH “l” AS THE UNDERLYING BASIS
    Zhang Mei-ling,Liu Jing-he,Wang Xian-tian,He Ji-quan,Chen Sheng-kai Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Experimental School of Heishan Beiguan in Liaoning
    1983, 15 (04):  43-51. 
    Abstract ( 447 )  
    This is a systematic teaching and learning experiment aimed atverifying the results of the authors' previous experiments. It was carriedout in the first grade of the Beiguan Experimental school in Heishan byusing the content of the first book of the current arithmetic textbooks,reorganized by the authors on the basis of the principle of applying theknowledge of the part-whole relationship with " 1 " as the underlying basis.The results obtained in the more than one year's experiment with the pupilsfrom Heishan, show that, under such a knowledge structure, children of theexperimental class learned within the same period the contents of about150 teaching hours more than those in the control class, that the results ofthe examinations obtained by the experimental class are near to or even alittle better than those obtained by the comparative class, and that thecompetence of the former for learning transition is higher than that of thelatter. This illustrates that the above principle can be effectively applied tothe learning of arithmetic in the primary schools.
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    STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THINKING FLEXIBILITY OF OPERATION IN SCHOOLCHILDREN
    Lin Chong-de Beijing Normal University
    1983, 15 (04):  52-61. 
    Abstract ( 391 )  
    This is an experimental study on thinking flexibility or divergentthinking in mathematical operation in schoolchildren in combination of crossresearch with vertical research.The study shows: 1. In the development of thinking flexibility of operation in school-children, the factor of age characteristics is demonstrated, but it developssteadily, that is, no critical period was found in this study. 2. Thinking flexibility of operation develops in eduction. Good teachingmeasures in mathematics can develop thinking and improve the quality ofmathematical teaching. 3. Divergent thinking is a generalization process. Divergent thinkingand convergent thinking are both aspects in the process of dialectical unityof thinking. Convergent thinking is a basis of divergent thinking; divergentthinking is the development of convergent thinking, both of them areimportant in teaching practice.
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    A STUDY ON THE CREATIVITY OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
    Zheng Ri-chang,Xiao Bei-ling Beijing Normal University
    1983, 15 (04):  78-85. 
    Abstract ( 807 )  
    The Creative Thinking Exercises for High School Students (CTE)were administered to 812 high school students, and the students' creativitywas evaluated by their teachers. The test scores and rating results werecompared with some relative factors. Results indicate that: 1. It is reliable and valid to use CTE for evaluating high schoolstudents' creativity. 2. The distributions of the high school students' creativity obtained inthis research were normal curves. 3. The high creative students showed some common personalitycharacteristics. 4. Students' creativity were moderately related to their academicachievement scores. 5. High school boys had significantly higher scores on flexibility thanthe girls, but not on the other aspects. 6. There were no differences between "the only-child" group and otherchildren in their creativity. 7. Among the students, creativity of the cadres were superior to theothers.
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    EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON COLOR AND FIGURE DISCRIMINATION OF 3—6 YEAR OLD CHILDREN
    Zhang Zeng--hui,Lin Zhong--xian Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences
    1983, 15 (04):  94-101. 
    Abstract ( 482 )  
    In this paper, perceptual discriminations of twelve colors and twelvefigures were studied for 3--6 year old children. Three exposure timesfor each color and each figure were used in the experiments, i. e. 0.01 sec,0.05 sec, and 0.1 sec in random order. From the results, it is seen thatthere are significant influences of the exposure time on color and figurediscrimination. The effect of exposure time on figure discrimination wasmore pronounced for younger children. The ability of color and figurediscrimination of 3--6 year old children increased with age stepby step. The ability of color discrimination of pre-school children, underthree exposure times, the correct discriminative percentage of yellow, red,green are the highest. The difficulties of correct discrimination of the 12figures are not the same, some are easier and some are more difficult, thesedifferences may be correlated with the spatial character of figures and thedifficulty of coding through the medium of words.
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    INHIBITORY EFFECT OF THE SUBCORTICAL BRAIN STIMULATION
    Xue Zuo-hong,Shao Jiao Beijing University
    1983, 15 (04):  107-112. 
    Abstract ( 505 )  
    Nine rats with permanent paired electrodes implanted in differentsubcortical regions, such as n. amygdaloideus centralis, area amygdaloideaanterior, hippocampus ventralis, n. caudatus-putmen, fimbria hippocampi,area between n. amygdaloidus corticalis and amygdaloideus medialis, areabetween capsula interna and globus pallidus, and pedenculus cerebri, werestimulated with 50Hz, 50 microamp. current at 24hrs. interval. No kindling effect had ever developed since the stimulations oftenresulted in flattening of EEGs recorded from the stimulated regions. Thepatterns of the EEG flattening after stimulation were very similar to thoseobserved by Shao and Valenstein in the kindled rats when a series ofsubthreshold brain stimulations Were administered, Reserpine injectioncompletely dispelled this effect. It was concluded that this phenomenon reflects an inhibitory effect ofthe subcortical brain stimulation and depends not upon the location of thestimulation but upon the functional state of the neurons during stimulation.
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    GENERALIZATION OF OBJECTS,PHOTOGRAPHS AND PICTURES IN 1.5—2.5 YR.OLD CHILDREN A COMPARATIVE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE PRELIMATES(Ⅲ)
    Wan Chuan--wen,Ren Ren--mei,Lin Guo--bin Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Beijing University Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1983, 15 (04):  113-117. 
    Abstract ( 789 )  
    In order to make comparisons between the results obtained from goldenhaired monkeys on the generalization of objects, photographs and pictures.,with that of children, another experiment was performed on 10 yr. 7 monthto 2 yr. 6 month old children. The method was similar to that ofexperiment I. At the beginning of the experiment, each child was given avery simple verbal instruction. ALL Ss' stable discrimination to the basicdiscriminative stimuli were established rapidly, this was probably due to themediation of children's language development. In the subsequent tests it wasshown that the ability of transfer of the discrimination from solid objects totwo dimensional pictures of children seemed to improve with age. This wasparallel with the development of children's language.
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    EFFECTS OF THE SEPTAL DAMAGE ON THE ECoG ORIENTING REFLEX IN RABBITS
    Chen Shuang--shuang,Kuang Pei--zi Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1983, 15 (04):  118-121. 
    Abstract ( 402 )  
    In the present paper the effects of septel electrolytic lesions on theECoG orienting reflex in rabbits are reported. The experiment shows that inthe septal damaged group the rate of the arousal reaction of the cortexand the hippocampus to the novel stimuli were significantly lower than thatof the control group. The result is identical with that of our previousinvestigation of the hippocampal damaged group. A discussion concerning the results of the experiments are given by theauthors.
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    THE BEHAVIOR CHANGES IN MORPHINE DEPENDENT RATS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH BRAIN CONTENTS OF MONOAMINE NEUROTRANSMITTERS
    Xiao Jian,Jiang Chang--qing Beijing University
    1983, 15 (04):  122-128. 
    Abstract ( 813 )  
    The experiment studied the changes of behaviors and brain contents ofmonoamine neurotransmitters in 64 rats with morphine addiction that wereaffected by daily drinking and hypodermic injection of morphine. The resultshowed that both drinking and injection of morphine could bring all of therats into morphine dependent condition at the fourth week of the experiment.The morphine dependent rats obviously preferred solution of morphine andwater to water, and the morphine intake was stabilized at approx. 35mg/kg/day. If the drug stopped suddenly, the rats became active, then the foodintake decreased and body wieght reduced. At the same time, the conditionedfood-seeking running accelerated and the mistakes made at the turninggreatly decreased, The transmitter contents of monoamines in the wholebrain of morphine dependent rats also changed, NE and DA slightlydecreased, but 5--HT and 5--HIAA markedly increased. Whether thesechanges are primary or secondary needs further study.
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