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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 16 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    STUDY ON THE PROBLEM OF PERSONALITY
    Huang Nai-song Suzhou University
    . 1984, 16 (01): 4-10.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 71 )
    Personality, the stable and unique set of psychological traits, describeshow a person thinks, feels and acts, i.e. how he reflects upon and acts on theobjective world. Each individual receives a unique combination of genetic endowment andenvironmental experiences. Variations in adult personality are governed by each individual's uniqueinteraction between his genetic endowment and developmental experiences. All aspects of personality can potentially affect behavior, but beharioris also governed by those situational factors and contextual cues to whichthe individual has already accumulated responses. Personality dimensions as shown in the figure at the end of this articleare more or less useful to us in describing an,individual's personality.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE TRANSFORMATION FORM CONCRETE TO ABSTRACT OF CHILDREN AGED 4—7
    Lu Jing Hangzhou University
    . 1984, 16 (01): 11-17.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 97 )
    The study is to analyze the cognitive process of transformation formconcrete to abstract and abstract to concret. The factors influencing trans-formation were discussed.
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    EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON ASSIMILATION AND CONTRAST ILLUSIONS
    Zhang Hou-can,Diane J. Schiano Beijing Normal University University of Pittsburgh
    . 1984, 16 (01): 37-44.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 101 )
    Psychological, stcategic, and stimulus differentiation variables areusedto examine the nature of the functional relation between assimilation andcontrast distortions jn three experiments using the Delbouef (concentriccircle)illusion configurations. In Experiment Ⅰ, field dependence was foundto correlate positively with assimilation, but negatively with contrast, distor-tion magnitude in individuals. In Experiment Ⅱ, significant distortion reduc-tion was observed when observers were instructed to selectively attend tothe test element but only for the contrast configuration. In addition, observersgiven standard in.structions showed reductions in both distortions with loweredcontrast contour reflectance contrast, but those given selective attentioninstructions showed a similar reduction only in the assimilation distortion.InExperiment Ⅲ,suprafoveal (as opposed to subfoveal) viewing significantlyreduced the assimilation, but maximized the contrast, distortion. Moreover,significant distortion reduction with the "illusion decrement" procedure wasobserved only in suprafoveal conditions. The rate of dectement over trialsdiffered for the assimilation and contrast distortions, This pattern of findingsis best accounted for in terms of the composite congitive "Pool and Store"model, in which processes influencing Perceptual organization determine boththe type of distortion that is initially observed and the effectiveness of stra-tegic differentiation manipulations in reducing distortion magnitude.
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    EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON STEREOSCOPIC DEPTH CONSTANCY
    Meng Hong-wei The Central Institute of Educational Research
    . 1984, 16 (01): 45-51.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 206 )
    In the experiment, the stereoscopic depth constancy was explored indistances between1.5--6m. The results showed that all the three objectswhich are different depth were Perceived constantly. In order to calculate the range of their stereoscopic depth constancy, weused Brunswik's formulae BR=(R-S)/(A-S). The range of constancy we found in most observation conditions waswithin 1±10%.
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    SOME CHARACTERISTICS IN TACHISTOSCOPIC RECOGNITION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS
    Peng Rui-xiang,Zhang Wu-tian Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (01): 52-57.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 101 )
    This study on recognition of Chinese characters and two-character wordswith tachistoscop shows that there are some common patterns in recognizingChinese characters with different structures for adults and pupils:the chara-cters of symmetric structures are easier to recognize and the characters ofhalf encircled structures are more difficult to recognize. There are also somecommon points in extracting the feature of characters for the recognitionprocess of adults and pupils:The buttom-right quarter are extracted fre-quently for the characters separated vertically and the upper-left quarter areextracted for half encircled characters. The results may have some use toChinese character teaching. The device of machine recognition of Chinesecharacters are also discussed.
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    COLOR CONSTANCY UNDER CHANGING PHASES OF DAYLIGHT
    Jiao Shu-lan,C. C. Ching,Zhang Wu-tian Institute of PS ychology, A cademia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (01): 58-64.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 103 )
    Identical colored paper chips were matched under various phases ofdaylight and another light source composed of RGB primaries. Spectrophoto-metric measurements were made of the two light sources, and the coloredchips under these conditions were computed for their chromaticities on theCIE 1931 color diagram. The matched colorimetric shift under the RGBprimaries was a measure of the degree of color constancy as perceived bythe observer. It was found that when matching single colors (Y, BG, P, YG, R) thecolorimetric shift was much less then that of computed physical colorimetricshift under changing natural daylight, which means that the perceived colordid not change in proportion with the spectral changes of daylight. In thisway it was possible to make objective colorimetric measurements of colorconstancy. The same phenomenon of breaking down of color constancy wasobserved with matching of colors in a meaningful picture. It seemed thatcolor constancy, like all other perceptual phenomena, has as its basis verycomplex physiological and psychological processes.
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    EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF ISOTEMPERATURE LINES ON THE CIE 1960 UCS DIAGRAM
    Yu Bo-lin,Jiao Shu-lan,Jing Qi-cheng,Zhang Zeng-huei Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (01): 65-72.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 70 )
    To determine the appropriate length of the isotemperature lines on thePlanckian locus in the CIE 1960 UCS Diagram, 7 lights from 0--360μrd inequal intervals of 60 μrd in the Planckian locus were used as standards,with each standard light a set of 10--12 lights on each corresponding iso-temperature line was used as test lights. The standard and test lights werematched on a 2° bi-partite field in a visual colorimeter to evaluate theircolor difference. The 2 observers gave similar results. By determining 3levels of color difference from the Planckian locus along each isotemperatureline, it was possible to draw 2 zones along the Planckian locus. Lihgts fallingwithin these zones are either of the same color or of similar color as thecorrelated Planckian radiator.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF COLOR UPON THE RATE OF DETECTION OF INSTRUMENTAL VISUAL DISPLAY
    Yang Gong-xia,Jiang Jue-zhong,Chi Gen-xing,Yu Wen-zhao Tong Ji Universify Huadong Normal University
    . 1984, 16 (01): 73-77.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 106 )
    The influence of different colors (blue, yellow, green and gray) ofdetection was studied. It suggested that hue plays an important role in therate of detection of instrumental visual display, the effects of color saturationand luminance contrast are in second place. This study recommends theappropriate colors for the panels of instrumental visual display.
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    THE HEMISPHERIC FUNCTION IN DICHOTIC LISTENING OF SONGS
    Wang Nai-yi Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (01): 78-81.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 167 )
    The article investigated the functions of cerebral hemispheres with subjectsof certain musical training for songs in dichotic listening. The same melodyand different words in both ears or different melodies and different words inboth ears, due to the interference of words right-ear or left-hemispheric sup-erriority for recognizing words is shown, indicating that words are superiorcompared with melodies. But with the same words and different melodiesbetween the two ears it shows the left-hemispheric function for recognizingwords and the right-hemispheric function for perception of melodies.It appearsthat there is balance or two-side and different subjects use different stra-tegies.
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    THE EFFECT OF SILENT MULTIPLICATION ON BRAIN STEM AUDITORY RESPONSES
    Wei Bao-ling,Tang Hao China Medical University
    . 1984, 16 (01): 82-87.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 70 )
    The brain stem auditory responses (BSR) of 31 subjects with normalhearing were recorded. 21 were asked to calculate multiplication. 16 wereasked to listen attentively to clicks and also estimate trigering times simul-taneously by recording. In the calculating group, BSR of 16 subjects had adecreased amplitude of wave Ⅰ in comparison with that of the calm subjects.BSR of 20 subjects had a positive wave with a 10--14msec latency. Noincreased amplituds of wave Ⅰ was observed in this group. In the second group, no decreased amplitude of wave Ⅰ was observed. Onthe contrary, the amplitude of wave Ⅰ of 4 subjects increased. The resultsindicate that BSR are affected by psycho-loads, in which negative and positivefeedback to the receptors may play a role, the former being predominant.
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    EFFECTS OF POSTNATAL ELECTROCONVULSIVE SEIZURES ON LEARNING AND MEMORY IN RATS
    Wu Liang,Liu Ren-yi,Xu Bing-xuan Shanghai Brain Research Institute, Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (01): 88-92.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 118 )
    Immature rats of 18--19 days of postnatal life received repetitive elec-troconvulsive shocks (ECS) for four weeks (twice a day). As compared withpaired control littermates,these animals showed poor ability to learn theavoidance maze discrimination as well as the food reward discrimination whenthey were 48--68 days old. The derangement became much more obvious when ECS was given atearlier days.(14 days postnatally). However, no impairment on learning andmemory could be found when ECS was given after they became adult rats(60 days after birth). These results seem to be consistent with the clinical observation that theoccurence of epileptic seizureg during the first year of life may be of ominousprognostic significance for the intellectual development of the child.
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    THE STUDY ON LEARNING ABILITY OF SOCIALLY ISOLATED RATS
    Lin Wen-juan,Tang Ci-mei Institute of Psychology. Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (01): 93-97.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 124 )
    In an attempt to observe the effect of social isolation on learning in rats,comparisons of learning ability were made between rats reared in gregarioussocial conditions and those reared in isolation. Learning ability was determinedby means of spatial water maze, signal water maze and food maze. The resultsindicated that the rats reared in gregarious social conditions did better thanrats reared in isolation at learning a series of mazes. Isolation decreased the learning ability of the rats. The more complex thelearing-maze, the more obvious was the effect of isolation on learning ability.
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    SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG RHESUS MONKEYS IN BREEDING CAGES
    Ren Ren-mei,Lu Ming-yi,Mu Wen-wei
    . 1984, 16 (01): 98-105.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 101 )
    There were seven adult male monkeys and twenty-eight adult femalmonkeys as subjects of our observation. they were divided into seven groups,separately kept in seven breeding cages.Ten behaviour repertoires such asorder to daily food ration; order to eat sun flower seeds; cage shaking; suppla-ntation-avoidance;threat;chase;non-sexual mounting;presenting;grooming andapproaching were adopted for analysis of the social relationships among mon-keys in breeding cages. The result showed that there is a linear rankingrelationship among monkeys in every breeding cage.
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