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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 16 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON CONTROLLED MASTERY OF CONCEPTS
    Feng Zhongliang,Zhang Xuyang,Wang Xiaoping Beijing Normal University Beijing Teachers College
    . 1984, 16 (02): 47-54.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 117 )
    This is an experimental research on the efficiency of controlledmastery of concepts in class-teaching, through an equivalent-groupedexperiment. The results indicate that controlled mastery might be ableto improve the students' ability to master concepts and the effect seemsstable. The correct action cultivated in this way can be transferred tolearning new concepts in different areas and raise the speed and qua-lity of mastery. Teaching with this method affects positively all stud-ents and is more helpful to medium-level and lower performers. Theresearchers hold that the advantage of this method comes fromintegrating concepts with actions, thus raising the consciousness ofteaching and learning.
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    A STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN’S COGNITION OF TIME-SEQUENCE(1)
    Fang Ge,Fang Fuxi,Liu Fan Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (02): 65-73.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 111 )
    The purpose of this study is to explore the levels and characterist-ics of the development of.children's cognition of time-sequence withina day (morning, afternoon,evening), and its extension (yesterdayevening, tomorrow morning), as well as the relativity of time-sequenceitself, with arrangement of time-pictures and filling blank(s) in pictureseries according to the sequence of time. The subjects' explanations oftheir responses are taken into account. The results indicate:Children of 5 to 6 years of age correctlyunderstand the time-sequence within a day while the 4-year-olds cannot. The cognition of the 4 to 6-year-olds about "yesterday evening","tomorrow morning" and the relativity of time-sequence develops withage, but their levels of development are rather low. The 7-year-oldsknow well the relativity of time-sequence. Children's comprehension of time-sequence is related to their ownexperiences. The development of temporal words and the cognition oftemporal relations facilitate each other, but they do not go synchro-nously.
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    A STUDY ON THE COMPARISON OF CHILDREN’S ABILITY TO TRANSFORM ACTIVE AND PASSIVE FORMS IN CHINESE SENTENCE STRUCTURE
    Tang Jian Fudan University
    . 1984, 16 (02): 82-92.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 98 )
    The purpose of this study is to explore the problem of the develop-ment of deaf, retarded, and normal children's ability to transform activeinto passive forms or vice versa in Chinese sentence structure.Ten groupsof sentences were used as test material, each of them was composed ofone active sentence and one passive sentence. All of the active andpassive sentence forms in the Chinese language were presented. Thevocabulary was limited to the second grade level of schools for deaf-muted, and the subjects were required to transform them from one forminto another. The subjects were 9 to 13-year-old deaf, retarded, andnormal pupils, and twenty-one 14 to 18-year-old deaf-mutes. Each agegroup consisted of more than 30 children, adding up to a total of 208. The results indicate:The differences in the ability of the threetypes of subjects to transform active and passive sentence forms weresignificant. Normal children's ability to transform was better than thatof deaf children, and deaf children's ability was better than that ofthe retarded children. But in each age group it was not an absoluterule that the transformational ability of deaf children was lower thanthat of normal children. The significant period in the development ofthe transformational ability varies with the type of subject. For normalchildren, the significant period falls between the ages of 10--11;for theretarded, between 12--13;for the deaf, shortly after 12--13. The threekinds of subjects have identical trends when they transform all kindsof Chinese active and passive sentence structures and, the interrelatedcoefficients indicate no inevitable and regular relationship between thetransformational ability and studies in language or arithmetic.
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    THE EFFECT OF COLOUR-RENDERING PROPERTIES OF LIGHT SOURCES ON VISUAL ACUITY
    Zhang Yizhong General Administration of Civil Aviation of China
    . 1984, 16 (02): 93-103.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 111 )
    In this experiment four types of lighting sources with differentcolour rendering properties are used in turn to illuminate two kindsof visual task separately. The visual acuity under each condition has been measured andcalculated. It is found that raising the colour rendering index of thelighting source could increase the visual discrimination effect in reco-gnizing the black signs against coloured background; while decreasingit in recognizing the coloured signs against grey background. These eff-ects are mainly the results of the function of luminance contrast betweenthe details and the corresponding backgrounds under different lightingsources. The results agree with the relationship of V=f(c) which isbased on the visual performance of human observers. Besides, it showsthat the coloured details against grey background are better definedthan the black detail against coloured background in visual discrimin-ation, and the colour contrast plays an important role in advancingvisual acuity. It is proved that the high pressure sodium lamp (HPSL)is one of the best lighting sources for the former sign pattern in raisingvisual acuity and saving electric energy in spite of. its lower colourrendering property.
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    A UNIFIED MODEL FOR STIMULUS-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP
    Chen Wenxi Shanxi Mining Institute
    . 1984, 16 (02): 104-113.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 177 )
    The author suggests that there is a general relationship betweenstimulus τ and its effect E, the so-called effect equation E=B log(1+γ),where B is a conditional constant having the same dimension or naturewith that of the corresponding effect E. This new idea is more or less supported by neuro-physiologicalexperiments and is strengthened by considering the fact that. humansensory acceptor organs can respond to stimuli of enormous intensitydifference. It is quite interesting to note that many psychological laws indistinct fields can be unified into one psychological model given by theeffect equation. For instance, from this equation we may derive the lawof forgetting and the Hyman formula of choice reaction time in thefield of experimental psychology, and also various experimental laws inpsychophysics, such as Fechner's law, Weber's law, the Ferry-Porterlaw and the Granit-Harper equation etc. The law of forgetting is thus modified to extend its validity to thetime range 0≤t<1, rendering it more comprehensive. Fechner's law isalso modified, avoiding the appearance of negative sensation. Besides,the relation between effect E and sensation S is discussed. TheGranit-Harper equation viewed in this model has been rendered moreeasily understandable. During the derivation of the Ferry-Porter law the author discoveredan apparent principle with regard to the speed and accuracy of infor-mation porcessing in the brain. Direct tests of the unified model can be obtained by analyzingcertain previously published data. The sample given in this paper is aneuro-physiological experiment on king crabs. Another sample will bepresented in a separate paper where the relationship between reactiontime and stimulus intensity will be dealt with.
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    EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON GRASPING WITH LEFT OR RIGHT HAND BY 6 MO.TO 3-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN
    Li Xintian,Li Minggao,Ge Huikun,Jin Kuihe Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Chinese Medical University
    . 1984, 16 (02): 114-122.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 96 )
    An experiment of object grasping with right or left hand wasdesigned to see hand preference in 300 children from 6 months to3-years of age. The results showe ed that the frequency of using right orleft hand was around 50%.within 1 year of age.The percentage of right-handed children increased with age,reaching 69.4% at 1 to 1(1/2+) years of age71.3% at 1(1/2) to 2 years, 76.9% at. 2 to 2(1/2) years,and 81.5%. at, 2(1/2) to 3years The frequency of right-handedness of boy's increased faster. thanthat of girl's. The experiment showed that there were cases of objectgrasping with both hands, but the incidence decreased rapidly after 1(1/2)years of age. The proportion of left-handed children with two or oneleft-handed parents was higher than that with two right-handed parents.Children also showed a selective tendency to ward the color of objectsand toys.
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