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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 16 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT EMOTIONS ON MENTAL PERFORMANCE IN INFANCY
    Meng Zhaolan,Joseph J. Campos Beijing University University of Denver
    . 1984, 16 (03): 4-12.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 129 )
    The influence of Happiness and Distress on mental task performancewas studied in infancy aged 16 months old(Denver subjects) and 16--18months old (Biejing. subjects). The study was a merged data analysis ofboth Denver and Beijings' samples. The two samples showed no signifi-cant difference. The results indicate: 1.The influence of Happiness and Distress on mental performanceis different, The performing effects in the Happiness group are betterthan in the Distress group. They appeared in the following. performingstrategies: "Direct Grasp", "Watching" and "Reaching". 2.The correlations of intensity in Happiness and Distress onperforming effects are different. The Happiness group shows a curvilinearrelation; that is, the highest and lowest levels of Happiness show worseeffects than the middle level. The optimum point of emotional arousal iswithin the range of 22--55% of the whole eliciting period. The Distressgroup shows an ascending slope linear relation: that is, the stronger thedistress, the worse the performing effect.
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    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ADAPTATIVE BEHAVIOR BETWEEN THE ONLY-CHILD AND THE NON-ONLY-CHILD
    Mao Yuyan Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (03): 13-22.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 167 )
    96 kindergarten children of the 3-4(1/2) years old age group participatedin this study. Among them 48 were non-onlies and 48 paired onlies. Themethods were observation and the use of questionnaires. The resultsshowed that there were no significant differences in adaptative behav-ior between .these two groups .of children. Factors which had influenceupon the adaptative behavior, suitable indicators in studying this pheno-menon and effective teaching methods in decreasing children's separa-tion anxiety were also discussed.
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    THE DEVELOPNIENT OF CHILDREN’S COGNITION OF THE SEQUENCE OF TIME(Ⅱ)
    Fang Ge,Fang Fuxi,Liu Fan Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (03): 23-31.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 93 )
    The purpose of this study was. to explore the children's. cognitiveprocess in understanding the longer circle of time, such as weeksand seasons, and probe the developmental trends, levels and characteri-stics of the process, thus go further into comparing the cognitive proc-esses in their understanding of the time sequence of a day, a week, anda season.
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    GESTALT LAWS OF PROXIMITY AND SIMILARITY AND TOLERANCE SPACES
    Chen Lin University of Science and Technology
    . 1984, 16 (03): 32-39.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 142 )
    This paper discusses the essence of visual perceptual organization.Numerous facts of wholistic perception indicate that a primitive andgeneral function of the visual system may be the perception of globaltopological properties. With the aid of the mathematics of ToleranceSpaces, global properties can be described on a discrete set. Thus, thelawful regularities that underlie the perceptual organization, for example,the Gestalt laws of proximity and similarity, may be described math-ematically by the global topological(or tolerance)properties The essenceof Gestalt is just the abstraction of global tolerance properties.
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    REFLECTION TEST CHART FOR PH0TOGRAPHY
    Sun Xiuru,Peng Ruixiang,Lin Zhongxian Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (03): 40-47.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 60 )
    The standard grey and color test chart has six different color pat-ches and seven grey patches of different luminous reflectance. The sixcolors are red, green and blue, cyan, magenta and yellow. The percent-ages of reflectance of the seven grey patches are 91.8, 44.6, 23.4, 12.8, 6.0,3.8, and 18.0. The grey and color reflection chart is to be used as stan-dards in quantitative analysis of color reproduction in various photog-raphic techniques.
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    CEREBRAL LATERALITY AND RECOGNITION OF IDEOGRAM
    Zhang Wutian,Peng Ruixiang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (03): 48-54.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 101 )
    The laterality of recognition of Chinese characters, words andsingle. Arabic numerals (ideogram) tachistoscopically exposed in the leftand right visual. field of normal right-handed subjects was investigated.There was no difference between left and right visual field for singleArabic numerals. A significant right field (left hemisphere). superiorityfor characters and words presented unilaterally and characters.presentedbilaterally with Arabic numerals was shown. The nonsignificant differ-ence between left and right visual fields for words .presentedbilaterally with numerals and characters presented in center and lateralvisual fields simultaneously was obtained; still the right visualfield (left hemisphere) produced the main effect on the recognition ofChinese characters and words.
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    A STUDY OF TACHISTOSCOPIC RECOGNITION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS AND NONSENCE SHAPES
    Yin Wengang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (03): 55-61.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 93 )
    Sixty Chinese university students were requested to recognize Chi-nese characters and nonsense shapes which were presented tachistosco-pically. The results showed that most subjects, both right-handedand left-handed, manifested bilateral effect of two hemispheres whenthey responded to stimuli. The percentage of subjects who showed novisual field difference in reading Chinese characters was 60% and inthe case of nonsence shapes, 56.66%. This experiment is different fromthose which test European-American subjects with, syllabic words asstimuli. It indicates that the Chinese subjects seem to follw a specialprocess in recognition.
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    THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO PATIENTS WITH CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN Ⅰ.EMOTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
    Xu Shulian,Wu Zhenyun,Sun Changhua,Yang Zhiliang,Yan Xiwei,Du Tianlong Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica East-China Normal University Beijing Institute of Neurosurgery Beijing Xuanwu Hospital
    . 1984, 16 (03): 62-70.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 102 )
    The psychological especially emotional characteristics of two caseswith congenital insensitivity to pain were investigated. in order to studythe relationship between emotion and pain, thus testifying the emotionaltheory of pain. Case Ⅰ, female, 10 years old, with subnormal intellig-ence and normal personality assessed. with the revised Junior EysenckPersonality Questionaire,has heavier fear-feeling than normal subjectsthat results from social. and educational factors, but lacks fear-feelingto physical injuries. She is very irritable, and used to have uncontroll-able temper-bursts. Her responses to sudden strong stimuli (e. g. bell-sound, light)are approximately normal. Case Ⅱ., male, 13 years old, withmoderate mental retardedness and normal personality, lacks all kinds offear-feeling. His everyday emotional status is euphoric. His verbal andmotor responses to sudden strong stimuli are normal, but without corr-esponding facial or autonomic nervous responses. Both cases are hyper-active, with aimless movements. The results indicate that some relationbetween pain and emotion exists, but the emotion theory of pain is notverified.
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    THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO PATIENTS WITH CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN Ⅱ.COGNITION AND REACTION TO PAIN CAUSING STRONG STIMULI
    Wu Zhenyun,Xu Shulian,Sun Changhua,Yan Xiwei,Du Tianlong,Yang Zhiliang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Beijing Institute of Neurosurgery Beijing Xuanwu Hospital East-China Normal University
    . 1984, 16 (03): 71-79.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 58 )
    The perception and reaction to intense stimulations were. studied ontwo patients with insensitivity to pain (a girl and a boy at the age of10 and 13 respectively), with a control group of 20 normal children atthe same age stage. Results: (Ⅰ)Daily-life pain: Not detected in both patients (includingpain sensation and reaction). (Ⅱ) Experimental pain:1)pain sensation:Not detected in both patients, 2) "pain" reaction: case 1 had "pain"reaction similar to that of normal children. The changes in pulse, resp-iration and behavioral reactions were obvious. Case 2 had no "pain"reaction. The changes in pulse and respiration were slight and behavio-ral reaction was absent. It was different from normal children. It seems that congenital insensitivity to pain may be divided into twotypes: incomplete type (as case 1) and complete type (as case 2). Onecan have "pain" responses without pain-feeling. The results verify the two-component theory of pain from a specificaspect.
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    HANDEDNESS OF RHESUS MONKEYS IN PICKING UP FOOD
    Ren Renmei,LuMingyi,Mu Wenwei,Yang Mingjie,Yan Kanghui,Beijing University Medicine and Biology Institute, Academy of Medicine of China
    . 1984, 16 (03): 80-84.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 94 )
    This research was divided into two parts: 1. About 1,200 artificially fed Rhesus Monkeys were observed for atotal of 1,510 monkey-times in unrestrained free range. For each monkeywe counted randomly ten times of hand use in picking up food duringfeeding, and then recorded right and left hand use ten times for each hand.The results showed that there were no dominant lateratization of han-dedness in the monkey group. 2. 79 Rhesus Monkeys were observed in breeding cages. We countedten times of hand use in picking up food by each monkey during feed-ing everyday within a period of ten days, and then recorded right andleft hand use ten times for each monkey. The results showed that the mon-keys exhibited handedness but no dominant lateralization of same.
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    INHIBITION OF CATECHOLAMINE BIOSYNTHESIS AND LEARNING ABILITY IN SOCIALLY ISOLATED RATS
    Tang Cimei,Sun Lihua,Lin Wenjuan Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (03): 85-91.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 85 )
    Effects of inhibition of catecholamines biosynthesis on learning insocially isolated rats were investigated. Both gregarious rats and isolatedrats were divided into α-MT,DDC and control groups, It was foundthat more training was required in the learning of positional watermaze for isolated rats after α-MT injection (250mg/kg, ip), but not sofor gregarious rats. No significant effects of DDC (500mg/kg, ip) on thelearning of positional water maze were observed both in isolated andgregarious rats. A decrease of 38% in cerebral cortex (including hippocampus) con-tents of noradrenaline was observed in isolated rats after α-MT injection,and only a decrease of 20% in gregarious rats. These results suggestthat the decrease of learning ability. in isolated rats is related to thedecrease of brain contents of catecholamines, particularly the contentsof noradrenaline in the cerebral cortex.
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    THE EFFECTS OF LSD ON THE BEHAVIOR AND ACTIVITY OF NEURONS IN THE DORSAL HIPPOCAMPUS NUCLELEUS IN RABBITS
    Sun Gongduo,He Guoliang,Wang Jianjun,Guan Linchu,Chen Shuangshuang,Kuang Peizi Department of Physiology, Guiyang Medical College Jiangxi Medical College Nanjing University Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (03): 92-97.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 85 )
    the experiment was on the effects of extremely small intravenousinjection or injection of medbrain raphe of LSD on the behavior andfiring of the neurons in the dorsal hippocampus nucleus in the conscious,unanesthetized and unrestrained rabbits. The results show regular effectson the behavior,especially on the licking and turning activities.Therewas an interval in the peak of two behavioral changes from beginningto end. Intravenous injection or injection of medbrain raphe of LSDmay partially regulate the activity of neurons in the dorsal hippocamp-us, as was shown in the increase in the firing. frequency.and the changein the form of firing.
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    THE EFFECT OF GAMMA RAY ON THE LEARNING ABILITY OF RATS
    Wu Yongxiang,Wang Bingguang Institute of Aviation Medicine
    . 1984, 16 (03): 98-103.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 96 )
    The present study observes the effect of a dose of 800.red γ-ray onthe subjects, ability of learning conditioned defense reflex in an equallyspaced Y-shape maze. The results shows a decrease in the learning ability of the rats. Itshows a low daily correct learning ratio, increasing times of learning toreach the criterion of correctness, delay in the reaction motion anddecrease in the ratio of appearance of active avoidance. In view of the characteristics of the animal rediated, we think thatthe reaction motion time is better than correctness ratio as an index forjudging learning and memory ability.
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    STUDY ON MATHEMATICAL ABILITY AND THE CONNECTION OF COGNITION AND THEORIES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
    Chen Qi,D. B. Kaye,V. L. Bonnefil Beijing Normal University University of California, Los Angeles
    . 1984, 16 (03): 104-111.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 110 )
    The paper presents a selective, historical review of psychologicalstudies on the nature of mathematical ability, covering research on psy-chometric, cognitive, and cognitive-developmental traditions in psychol-ogy. The review reveals several questions common to investigations inthese sub-disciplines. The authors argue that methods should be borrowedfrom each of these areas, new information-processing methods shouldalso be created to understand the nature of mathematical ability and itsdevelopment.
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    RECENT STUDIES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN THE U.S.
    Liu Fan,Zhang Meiling Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (03): 112-119.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 83 )
    The author and his colleagues participated in the CAS-NAS jointconference on cognitive pychology held in the U. S. in August/Septemb-er, 1983. The group visited 17 research institutes and organizations inthat courttry. This article is a brief account of the research work done inthe United States on metacognition, cognitive problems in learning ofmathematics and natural science subjects, reading, social-cognitiondevelopment, infant, study and the application of computer to psychologicalstudies.
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