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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 16 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    A STUDY ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING IN RAISING THE EFFECT OF SELF-STUDY
    Lu Zhongheng Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (04): 3-19.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 137 )
    This study recounts the successful experiment with 23 classes in 7provinces using 3 years as one cycle for the guided teaching of self-study in mathematics since 1980. In the four indexes, i. e. schoolachievement, growth of ability in self-study, transfer of ability in self-study,and the overall development of all the subjects, the experimentalclasses were practically all more superior to the comparative classes.Results obtained from the 77 experimental classes in 16 provincesstarting from 1981 and the 70 classes in 22 provinces starting from 1982also support the experimental results obtained in 1980. This type ofteaching method is not only of benefit to the guidance of poor students,it also helps to develop the intelligence and wisdom of the superiorstudents, truly enabling the manoeuvering of the student's learninginitiativeness and enthusiasm, and also to bring into play the effect ofthe teacher's instructional guidance, lighten the teacher's low effectlabour, impelling intellectualization. This method not only can developthe student's convergent thinking, it also develops the divergent thinking.
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    THE PARADIGMS THEORY OF T.S.KUHN AND ITS VALIDITY IN PSYCHOLOGICAL REVOLUTION
    Liu Enjiu Nanjing Teacher's University
    . 1984, 16 (04): 20-26.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 76 )
    This paper analyzes the Paradigm's Theory of T. S. Kuhn and itsvalidity in psychological revolution. It discusses the basis of T. S.Kuhn's theory of scientific philosophy, the Paradigm Theory, itsapplication in psychological revolution,. and its contributions andlimitations. The author pointed out that the success of psychologicalrevolution must be guided by dialectical materialism and historicalmaterialism.
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    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ANALOGICAL REASONING OF 3 TO 6-YEAR-OLD SUPERNORMAL AND NORMAL CHILDREN
    Zha Zixiu Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (04): 27-36.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 65 )
    This study explores the developmental process and levels of theanalogical reasoning power of children in this age bracket, and comparesthe supernormal children with normal ones to see whether there aredifferences in this aspect. The study consisted of 3 experiments. Pictures of real objects andgraphs were used as test materials for individual experimentations. Thesubjects were asked to choose one out of four alternatives, and to givethe reasons for his or her choice. The subjects, 650 in all, were dividedinto 4 age groups. They were selected at random. The results show: (1) 3 to 6-year-old children possess certainabilities of analogical reasoning which develop with. age. (2) The scoresof the overwhelming majority of the supernormal children showed atleast two standard deviations less than those of the normal children inthe same age group, and were even better than the average scores ofthose two years their senior (3) The developmental levels of theiranalogical reasoning were divided into 5 grades. The supernormalchildren surpassed normal children of the same age group by 1--2grades, and were found to be quick in comprehension and alert andresourceful in grasping the interrelationships of bipartite situation.
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    A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CERTAIN DIFFERENCES IN INDIVIDUALITY AND SEX-BASED DIFFERENCES BETWEEN 5 TO 7-YEAR-OLD ONLIES AND NON-ONLIES
    Wan Chuanwen,Fan Cunren,Lin Guobin Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (04): 37-45.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 325 )
    A comparison was made on certain differences in individualitybetween 5 to 7-year-old onlies and non-onlies at six day-care centersin the urban areas of Beijing. The subjects were 138 onlies and 127 non-onlies, including 120 boysand 145 girls. Five categories of behaviors, namely: independency, helpfulness,dependency, aggressiveness and friendliness were observed, involving 16items in total. In the three age groups, the average scores on dependency, helpfulnessand aggressiveness of the non-onlies were, in most cases, slightly higherthan those of the onlies, difference is not statistically significant.Only the difference in dependency between the onlies and non-onliesin the 5-year-old group was significant (P<0.005). A detailed analysisof the questionaires returned from the subjects' parents led to similarresults. We also made comparisons between sex-based differences. Itrevealed that except for the item on helpful behavior, there weresignificant differences between. sexes on dependency, independency,aggressiveness and friendliness. Girls were more friendly and boys weremore aggressive.
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    AN INTELLIGENCE SCREENING TEST FOR PRESCHOOL AND PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN——PICTURE VOCABULARY TEST
    Gong Zhongxin,Guo Di Shanghai Xinhua Children's Hospital Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research
    . 1984, 16 (04): 46-55.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 167 )
    Peabody Picturp Vocabulary Test (PPVT L. M. Dunn 1965) is oneof the most widely used intelligence tests recommended by the AmericaAssociation of Mental Deficiency. Taking into account the localconditions in China, we have revised the PPVT and applied a standardi-zed test to 764 children aged 3(1/2)-8 in Shanghai by drawing up a mentalage scale, an intelligence quotient and a percentile scale. Coefficientsfor test retest relibility r=0.945;for interobserver reliability r=0.913;forsplit-half reliability r=0.945;for standard error of measurement r=4.5The Validity correlation coefficients of inter-tests are as follows: "Item50"r=0.478;"Draw a man" r=0.466;the full IQ of WPPST r=0.590;theverbal IQ of WPPSI r=0.531;the performance IQ of WPPSI r=0.427;Chinese exam r=0.652;maths exam r=0.609. This test has been applied to more than 5,000 children, and hasproved to be a simple and convenient general intelligence screening testsuitable for groups, and worth popularization in the fields of pediatricsand child education.
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    THE VISUAL ACUITY OF LANDOLT RING UNDER LIGHT FROM HIGH PRESSURE SODIUM LAMP,HIGH PRESSURE MERCURY LAMP,FLOURESCENT LAMP AND INCANDESCENT LAMP
    Yang Gongxia,Chen Weimin et al.Tongji University
    . 1984, 16 (04): 56-62.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 88 )
    The purpose of this study is to examine the .influences of lightsources characterized by linear spectrum on the visual acuity underdifferent adaptation luminances (0.75cd/m~2--125cd/m~2). The results areas follows: 1.The visual acuity under these light sotirces enhanced with theincrease of adaptation luminance, but the increase of visual acuitybecame saturated when the adaptation luminance reached a certaindegree. 2.The visual acuity under sources characterized by linear spectrumis greater than under sources characterized by continuous spectrum, theluminance level remaining unchanged. 3.The difference of visual acuity under high pressure sodiumlamp and that tinder high pressure mercury lamp at all luminance levelsis not significant. 4.The differences between the four sources are not significant atthe luminance levels from 7.5cd/m~2 to 25cd/m~2.
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    THE USE OF BIOCHEMICAL TESTS IN STRESS ASSESSMENT AND STRESS MANAGEMENT
    G. Singer Department of Psychology, La Trobe University, Melbourne Australia
    . 1984, 16 (04): 63-69.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 118 )
    Examples are presented which show that questionnaires can be anunreliable instrument in the assessment of stress in industry. As analternative method the rationale for the use of endocrine (hormonal)tests is presented. It is shown with exampleb that urine levels ofadrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine and cortisol increase in artificiallyproduced stress situations in laboratory studies. Data from ourlaboratory showing differences in the correlations between haemodynamicmeasures and hormones during psychological stress and physical effortconfirm the hypothesis that the "fight-flight" hormone response isinappropriate for coping with psychological stress. Epidemiologicalstudies from industries in Europe and Australia show a correlationbetween certain occupations and the incidence of cardiovascular disease.Data from laboratory studies confirm a causal chain from stress throughhormone changes to heart disease. Studies from our group at La TrobeUniversity show differences on adrenaline and noradrenaline levelsbetween workers on automated and manual machines in. the clothingindustry. Other data from fieldstudies in sawmills, with shippilots andpostal workers also show job related changes in .hormones. In anextension of the use of hormone levels as an index of stress, resultsfrom stress management studies with police and managers are presented,which show that at the end of these programs urine hormone levels ofpersons undergoing stress management programs are lower thah thoseof an untreated control group.It is concluded that biochemical measuresare more reliable and valid in relation to the prediction of theoccurence of stress related illness and that their use has been acceptableto both trade unions and management in Australia.
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    ANIMAL MODEL OF ROTATIONAL BEHAVIOR WITH 6-OHDA LESIONS
    Guan Linchu,Terry E. Robinson,Jill B. Becker Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Psychology Department and Neuroscience Laboratory, University of Michigan
    . 1984, 16 (04): 70-75.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 77 )
    The nigrostriatal was damaged on one side of the brain with aneurotoxin, 6-OHDA. The function of the two cerebral hemispheres inanimals produced asymmetry. With lesions in the rats, cocaine inducedthe rotational behavior. Forty-three adult female albino rats of the Holtzman strain wereobserved. The results showed a 85--100% dopamine depletion in 38 ofthese rats (88.37%), their lesions were ideal. However, three rats(6.98%) had a less than 60% dopamine depletion, and two rats (4.65%)only a 60--80% dopamine depletion. How to Prepare and automatically record the rotational behaviorin rats with rotometre, and measure dopamine level in striatal by highperformance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection wasdealt with in detail in this paper.
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    AN ANALYSIS ON EEG POWER SPECTRUM AND COHERENCE DURING QUIET STATE IN QIGONG
    Sun Fuli,Wang Jisheng,Liu Guizhen,Jiao Xiuyan,Zhang Zhenjiang,Shi Yongjun,Zhang Tiange Institute of Biophysics, Academia Sinica Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Beidaihe Sanatorium of Qigong, Hebei
    . 1984, 16 (04): 76-81.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 138 )
    This paper reports the effects of Qigong (breathing exercise) onEEG power spectrum and coherence in 78 normal persons between theages of 32 to 72, who volunteered to subject themselves to spectralanalysis. The results of comparative studies on EEG between the quietstate in. Qigong, the normal resting state and. sleep indicated that inthe case of Qigong, there was a decrease of the δ power and an increaseof a power in the frontal area, as well as an increase of the coherencevalues at definite frequencies between the frontal and the occipitalareas. An index of the quietness level,in Qigong was thus produced.Compared with the restinng state, the index was higher in Qigong andlower in sleep. Although the index demonstrated the specific characterof the quiet state in Qigong, no significant index differences weredetected among various kinds of Qigong, Furthermore, the indexconfirmed the similar effects of various kinds of Qigong in achievingthe quiet state.
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    ROLE OF RAT MAMMILLARY BODY AND SEPTUM IN SACCHARIN AVERSION LEARNING
    Ou Yingqi,Xu Shitong,Xiao Peng,Li Ou,Huang Huiyang,Lin Xiaoshan South China Normal University
    . 1984, 16 (04): 82-88.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 64 )
    On the basis of previous work this study deals with the effectof electrolytic destruction of,mammillary body or septum on saccharinaversion learning of rats. The results show that the destruction of mammillary body orseptum caused no deterioration of the establishment of conditionedsaccharin aversion. The persistence of its memory trace was notimpaired either. This result is the same as that of the previousexperiment, and seems to indicate that memory of the sense of smellhardly depends on the action of the mammillary body, hippocampusand septum that link the. loops. concerned.
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    EFFECTS OF SOCIAL ISOLATION ON THE BEHAVIOR OF GROWN-UP RATS DURING SOCIAL STRESS
    Tang Cimei,Sun Lihua,Lin Wenjuan Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1984, 16 (04): 89-94.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 70 )
    After reaching 4 months old, the grown-up albino rats weredivided, some housed in isolation and some in gregarious groups for 8weeks. Observations were made on their behavioral patterns of eating,drinking and sleeping. Thereafter all the rats were regrouped, putting 4strangers in one cage as a means of creating social stress to study itseffects on, the behavioral patterns of rats from both catagories.It wasfound that the behavioral changes in eating, drinking and sleepinginduced by social stress in isolated rats were more significant thanthose in gregarious rats,even though social isolation was carried outafter the rats were grown-up. Compared with gregarious rats, isolatedrats were characterized by stronger aggressive behavior. In comparisonwith the rats of which social isolation was carried out in early life(one month old), the behavioral changes during social stress in thegrown-up rats previously kept in social isolation were, however, lesssevere and they seemed to experience a shorter adaptation process.
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    AN EXPERIMENT ON THE EFFECT OF MOODS IN SPORTS FOR JUNIORS
    Chai Wenxiou,Wang Wenjuan Tianjin Institute of Physical Culture Hangu First Middle School
    . 1984, 16 (04): 95-100.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 142 )
    The subjects of this experiment were 46 juveniles tested in a 400-meter race. They were equally divided into two groups without theirknowledge. Those in Group A would be spurred on with encouragingwords during the race whereas those in Group B would be criticized.They ran the race in pairs, with one drawn from each group. Theirprevious individual 400-meter records were kept for comparison with theresults of this test. The subjects were told that their performance wouldbe judged in terms of both speed and technique. At the 100m, 200mand 300m points, several people were posted to do. the prodding orblaming to the individuals as planned. The results showed that the great majority of Group A studentsreacted positively to the encouraging words with added vigor;only asmall minority reacted negatively. The reaction of students in Group Bwas the opposite. The great majority of them lost their spirit in therace. The experiment points to the positive effect of encouragement tothe students, and the negative effect of discouraging words. In commenting or criticizing juveniles, attention should be paid totheir age and gender.
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    A RESEARCH ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADOLESCENT MORALITY AMONG LAHU AND HANI NATIONALITIES IN XISHUANGBANNA IN YUNNAN PROVINCE
    Zhang Shifu Kunming Normal Institute
    . 1984, 16 (04): 101-108.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 120 )
    Moral education for the adolescents of Lahu and Hani nationalitiesin Xishuangbanna has been effective. In the process of their socialintegration and their transition from adolescence to adulthood, theirsense of independence and maturity enjoy the recognition and respectof their own people, They are trusted in productive work and social life.Their small peer group activities have proved not only to enhance theirsense of belonging, but in no small degree to help comform theirmorality and behaviour to the norms of their own nationalities. These two nationalities use every opportunity and means to helpthe adolesents develop their morality.Learning from models and theirown direct experiences has been found to be most rewarding.
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    A PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS IN COLLEGE CLASSES
    Huang Xiting,Shi Kan,Wang Xiashan Southwest Teachers' College Chongqing Teachers' College
    . 1984, 16 (04): 109-119.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 919 )
    Investigation and interview, sociometry and observation aresynthetically applied to the study of interpersonal relations betweenfreshmen, sophomores and seniors in 21 classes as separate collectives.The results show: 1) There are certain features in the informal inner structures ofcollege classes, 2) Significant personality traits are found in the two extremetypes in a class-the most popular and the most unpopular. 3) The basic criteria used by college students in choosing friendsare moral character and psychological similarity. 4) The college students expect their class leaders to possesscertain mental traits as basic requirements. 5) There is a close connection between a college student's self-concept and his or her interpersonal relations with classmates.
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    THE CHILD'S MORAL COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:A PERSPECTIVE ON RECENT RESEARCHES
    Chen Huichang Shanxi Institute of Educational Science
    . 1984, 16 (04): 120-128.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 177 )
    This paper examines researches done by some of Piaget's and L.Kohlberg's successors since the 1960's on moral cognitive developmentof the child. The author of the paper, confirmed some of Piaget's andKohlberg's theories, revised or pounded some. of their other theories,and at certain points f raised. criticisms or, disagreements.The authorconsidered that the schools of theories in.the West should be approachedcritically, and that Chinese psychologists should benefit from the goodpoints in Western methodology and anply them in the light of theactual situations in China in the advancement of research on themoral development of the child and adolescent.
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