Loading...
ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

Archive

    25 March 1985, Volume 17 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    ON L. S. VYGOTSKY'S THEORY OF HIGHER-LEVEL MENTAL FUNCTIONS
    Gong Haoran (Hangzhou University)
    1985, 17 (01):  17-24. 
    Abstract ( 988 )  
    L. S. Vygotsky(1896—1934) was an outstanding Marxist psychologist in the earlier years of the Soviet Union and founder of the Vygotsky-Leontyev-Luria School. His Theory of Higher-Level Mental Functions is the theoretical base of this School which holds that higher-level mental functions are manifestations of the real nature of human mental activities. What makes the difference between human beings and animals is precisely the fact that human beings possess higher-level mental functions while animals do not.This article analyses the historical background at the time of the emergence of this theory, describes how L. S. Vygotsky developed it in the course of struggles against the advocates of various schools of idealism and mechanism among the psychologists of that time, and discusses specifically the social origin of the Theory of Higher-Level Mental Functions, the Theory of Intermediary and some questions about seats in the brain cortex of higher-level mental functions.The author comments on the contributions made by Vygotsky's Theory of Higher-Level Mental Functions and points out some of its shortcomings.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    ON THE HISTORICAL FORMATION AND BASIC IDEAS OF A. N. LEONTIEV'S THEORY OF ACTIVITY
    Zhang Shiying (Institute of'Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1985, 17 (01):  25-32. 
    Abstract ( 500 )  
    This article is divided into three parts: (1) A brief analysis of the formation of A. N. Leontiev's theory of activity in relation to the need for a new system of psychology after the October Revolution and the establishment of the new social institution of USSR, the culturehistory, of the influence of A. N. Leontiev's theory and the early research done by A. N. Leontiev himself; (2) A summary of the basic ideas of this theory, including the meaning of activity as the object of psychological study, the definition of activity, its basic characteristics and types, and the interrelation among activities, their structure, dissociation and combination, etc.; (3) a twopoint evaluation of this theory, affirming its important reference value in establishing a Marxist psychology.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A KEY CONCEPT IN MASLOW'S THEORY OF NEED
    Xu Jinsheng (Institute of Economy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)
    1985, 17 (01):  33-39. 
    Abstract ( 535 )  
    On criticizing behaviorism and traditional theories of instinct, Maslow put forward the important concept of "instinctoid", which is a key postulation in his theory of need. This article stresses the theoretical consequences of this key concept in Maslow's theory of need and those of his psychological theory, and lists some results of genetic and psychological researches which support directly or indirectly his concept of "instinctoid". At the end of the article the author points out the theoretical implications of this concept, particularly the significance of its approach to the problems of behavioral and psychological development from the point of view of the integration of human and social factors, a viewpoint which is highly conductive to a profound understanding of human behavior.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A SECOND EXPERIMENT ON THE METHOD OF RAISING THE LEVEL OF CHILDREN'S INTELLIGENCE
    Wu Tianmin (Beijing University)
    1985, 17 (01):  40-47. 
    Abstract ( 511 )  
    We believe that children's intelligence can be raised to a certain extent by increasing the efficiency of the brain activity through mental exercise. In our experiment, a series of problems were given to children as arousals for their brain activities. The results obtained from two successive experiments support the author's viewpoint This paper is a report on the second experiment.The experiment was held in a middle school. A first-year class of 42 students and a fourth-year class of 44 students were used as experimental classes while another first-year class of 43 students was used as the control class. The two experimental classes were asked to solve one problem within ten minutes each morning in their own classrooms. 64 such exercises were done during the whole semester.As a result, the mean IQ of the first-year class increased 5 points, and that of the fourth-year class increased 6 points, while that of the control class remaind the same.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    ON THE PROBLEM OF SUBJECTIVITY IN COMPOSITION GRADING
    Huang Yufeng, Wu Chenghong, Qi Yang (Yangzhou Teacher's College)
    1985, 17 (01):  48-56. 
    Abstract ( 870 )  
    This article concentrates on the porblem of subjectivety in compositon grading. It is made up of 3 parts:1. Characteristics of the disparity in composition grading;2. Analysis of the reasons causing disparity in different subjective hint effects;3. Analysis of the relationship between subjective hint effects and the hint giver's age, sex, teaching experience and educational level. The grade they teach also had a bearing on hint effects.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON FACIAL EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF INFANTS
    Meng Zhaolan, Yan Jun, Meng Xiandong (Beijing University)
    1985, 17 (01):  57-631. 
    Abstract ( 624 )  
    This study is based on the pictures of one-year-old Chinese babies showing their facial expressions of six emotions, i. e. happiness, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust and fear. The experiment also included discriminative and labeling tests.The patterns shown here are basically the same as those of non-Chinese babies described by Izard in "Max". The results support the postulation that there are basic facial expression patterns in human infancy thus proving that there exists cross-cultural nature in the basic emotional facial expression patterns.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    PRESCHOOLERS' ABILITY TO TELL ANIMATE FROM INANIMATE OBJECTS
    Fang Fuxi (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1985, 17 (01):  64-72. 
    Abstract ( 861 )  
    Three to five year-old children were asked to judge and explain four blocks of questions concerning actions, parts, mental states and reciprocal ability respectively to test their knowledge about the differences between animate and inanimate objects. The results showed:1) The preschoolers, even at 8 years of age, not only distinguised a person from a rock, but also from a doll. They didn't attribute the characteristics of the animate (e. g. the person) to the inanimate (e. g. the rock or doll);2) The children's identification of a person, a rock or a doll was based not only on the movement or stillness of the object, but also on the parts or materials of which it is made, its origin, properties and functions. The 3-year-olds were able to distinguish a person from a doll according to endogenous movement or movemont produced by an external agency;3) The children's understanding of the distinction between animate and inanimate objects proceeded from external to internal phenomena, from analysis to integration, from appearance to reality; and the ability to differentiate is directly related to their understanding of causality and the cause of movement and their basic knowledge about these objects.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A STUDY ON THE STABILITY OF THE CONCEPT OF LENGTH AMONG ZANG (TIBETAN) AND HAN CHILDREN BETWEEN THE AGES OF 5 AND 11
    Lu Shijie Li Hongyuan (qinghai Teachers Training College)
    1985, 17 (01):  73-81. 
    Abstract ( 834 )  
    This study is based on an experiment conducted among a number of Zang (Tibetan) and Hun children of 5—11 years of age on the Qinghai Plateau. They were asked to compare the lengths of two or three objects to examine the stability of their concept of length. The results indicate:(1) The stability of their concept of length increased with age. There were no significant differences in the performances of Zang and Han children within the age groups of 10 and under; significant differences occurred only in the 11-year-old age group. The ages of 7,9 and 10 were turning points which deserved particular attention; (2) The development of the stability of the children's concept of length underwent four stages roughly corresponding to their ages, but there was no clear-cut transition from one stage to another. The development is the result of interdependence and interaction between various cognitive factors; (3) The "conservation" of concept is a complex and changeable process. The results of the study show that the relations between direct and indirect cognition were important factors in the formation and development of the children's cognitive structure; (4) Differences in cultural and educational backgrounds definitely influenced the development of the stability of their concept of length.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    TACTILE LENGTH SUMMATION:EXPERIMENT WITH COMPLEX VARIABLES
    Wang Su Han Kai (Department of Psychology, Peking University)
    1985, 17 (01):  82-87. 
    Abstract ( 413 )  
    The tactile sensitivity of forearm to summate the length of plexiglass rectangles was tested. A single rectangle and a complex formed from 2 to 5 rectangles were used as the variable stimuli, which were compared with the single standard stimulus. The main result of the experiment was that there was no significant difference in the mean thresholds between discriminations of lengths in the experiments using single and complex variable stimuli. This result is consistent with the experiment using complex standard stimuli. It has been suggested that the subjective measurement with a mental ruler seems to be a general scheme of performance of subjects in tactile length perception and that the length summation requires more intensive and effective use of strategy than discrimination of single length.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    AN ANALYSIS BY SIGNAL DETECTIVE THEORY OF SCHOOLCHILDREN' S ABILITY TO RECOGNIZE CHINESE IDIOMATIC PHRASES IN MIDDLE AND HIGHER GRADES
    Ye Yiduo (Fujian Normal University)
    1985, 17 (01):  88-93. 
    Abstract ( 639 )  
    The experiment shows that the results of cognition vary with the 3 different kinds of Chinese idiomatic phrases——homonyns, synonyms and phrases similar in form. Recognition of the last kind is the poorest, while homonymous and synonymous idiomatic phrases are confused only when they co-exist in one sentence. Among the four cognition methods, pictographic cognition is the best and general cognition the poorest, while semantic cognition and phonetic cognition vary in different grades. When the cognition method and materials are consistent, pupils in the third grade proved to be the least capable in cognition. When pictographic cognition is employed, pupils in the fifth grade do well with any kind of material and they are apparently better in semantic cognition.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    EFFECT OF INTRAVENTRICULAR INJECTION OF SCOPOLAMINE ON ALIMENTARY CONDITIONING AND ON SPONTANEOUS UNIT ACTIVITY OF HIPPOCAMPUS IN RABBITS
    Mei Zhentong, Huang Yanyou and Wang Jing (Shanghai Institute of Physiology, Academia Sinica)
    1985, 17 (01):  94-97. 
    Abstract ( 516 )  
    The effect of scopolamine on alimentary conditioning was investigated in 9 rabbits. Intraventricular injection Of scopolamine (30 or 45μg) caused a temporary depression of conditioned reflex, while the animals' food intake was not affected. The spontaneous unit activity of hippocampus was recorded in 22 awake ned restrained rabbits. After intraventricular injection of scopolamine (40μg) which inhibits the conditioning performance, the discharge rate of spontaneous unit activity showed no obvious changes; while after intraventricular injection of cholinergic agonist carbachol (6—8μg), the spontaneous unit activity showed some increase.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    EXCRETION OF URINARY CATECHOLAMINE DURING COMPETITION IN GYMNASTS
    Tang Cimei Ding Xueqin Lin Wenjuan Sun Lihua
    1985, 17 (01):  98-102. 
    Abstract ( 742 )  
    Blood pressure and pulse rate of 37 gymnasts were measured in the precompetition and pretraining period, Excretion of urinary catecholamine of 25 gymnasts was determined in the precompetition period and during competition and training period.It was found that the diastolic blood pressure in the precompetition period was higher than that in pretraining period in male gymnasts. Excretion of noradrenaline (NA) during competition increased significantly both in male and female gymnasts. Compared with the competition period decrease of NA excretion was significant during training in the female group, however, no significant decrease was observed in the male group. Excretion of adrenaline (A) increased significantly during competition period both in the male and female group and decreased during training.Excretion of A was lower in these gymnasts whose performance was good. Excretion of NA also was lower only in the good performance group of females, but in the male group it was similar either in the good or bad performance group.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    THE EFFECTS OF COCAINE ON ROTATIONAL BEHAVIOR IN RATS WITH UNILATERAL LESIONS OF THE NIGROSTRIATAL SYSTEM
    Guan Linchu (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica) Terry E. Robinson Jill B. Becker (Psychology Department and Neuroscience Laboratory, University of Michigan)
    1985, 17 (01):  103-109. 
    Abstract ( 490 )  
    Thirty-four female albino rats of Holtzman strain were observed in this experiment as models of rotational behavior with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the nigrostriatal system in the brain. Three behavioral observations were conducted in a special and automatic rotometer. Only the data collected on those animals that had more than 85% dopamine depletion at the lesion side and had shown dominantly ipsilateral circling behavior (toward the lesion side) were analyzed and discussed. The 34 female rats all qualified. The effects of cocaine on rotational behavior in rats as observed in this experiment are as follows:It is obvious that cocaine produced a stereotyped and rotational behavior; the action was rapid. Different doses of cocaine produced different effects on rotational behavior in rats.A single exposure to cocaine significantly produced a long-lasting (at least one week) facilitation of rotational behavior in rats. It suggests that it is not necessary to repeatedly administer psychomotor stimulant drugs to produce long-lasting changes in brain and behavior.
    Related Articles | Metrics