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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 June 1985, Volume 17 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    ON THE PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH IN LITERATURE AS REFLECTED IN LIU XIE'S WEN XIN DIAO LONG
    Liu Zhaoji (Department of Education, Southwest-China Teachers College)
    1985, 17 (02):  3-10. 
    Abstract ( 567 )  
    Liu Xie (465—532 A. D. ), a Chinese literary critic, was the author of WEN XIN DIAO LONG, a comprehensive work on literary theory. The article attempts to study from a psychological. point of view some of his thoughts contained in this classical work.
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    A REVIEW OF A DEBATE ON THE MIND-BRAIN PROBLEM
    Wang Jinghe (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1985, 17 (02):  11-16. 
    Abstract ( 435 )  
    This paper begins with an introduction of a debate on mind-brain problem and an evaluation of its form. Then it reviews the central problem and several basic views. This paper ends with a review of the turning point of thinking and the crux of the author's response.
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    A STUDY OF STUDENTS' SELF EVALUATION OF THEIR MORAL CHARACTER
    Shi Ronghua Wang Wei (East China Normal University)
    1985, 17 (02):  17-24. 
    Abstract ( 959 )  
    Self evaluation deals with personal judgement of his or her physical and mental features. It is also a component part of self consciousness. Correct self evalution has an effect on mental activities arid personal behavior, and is an important factor in human relationship.The present study applies the individual approach method, 320 students of different ages (8, 11,14,17,20),made self evaluations as well as critisisms of others relating to 8 aspects of moral character.The result shows that self evaluation generally tended to overestimate the strong points when compared with the appraisals made by others. However, self criticisms of weak points were generally stronger than the self evaluation of strong points. Self evaluation varied with age and sex. The fifth year in primary school appeared to be a turning point. From the fifth grade on, the pattern of self evaluation tended to follow that of the higher class students and depart from that of the lower grades. The age line seemed to be a significant factor.
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    FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE TEST ANXIETY SCALE (TAI) OF CHINESE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
    Ling Wenquan (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1985, 17 (02):  25-31. 
    Abstract ( 974 )  
    TAI was used on Chinese students in universities. The results indicated that test anxiety in the female is higher than the male. Factor analysis of results showed that there were five factors of test anxiety in Chinese students. Four of the five factors were common to students of both sexes, so they have no significant difference in factor-structure. "Worrying about the results of examinations" is a unique factor to the female students, white "Disliking and criticizing examinations" is a unique factor to the male students.
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    COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE ANALOGICAL REASONING OF 3 TO 6-YEAR-OLD ONLY CHILD AND NON-ONLY CHILD
    Zha Zixiu (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1985, 17 (02):  32-41. 
    Abstract ( 911 )  
    This paper compares the thinking processes of the only child and the non-only child through the study of the developmental levels of analogical reasoning of 3 to 6-year-old children, and analyses the development of children's analogical reasoning in relation to their home environment and schooling.The subjects were 400 3 to 6-year-old children divided into four age groups. In each group, the respective numbers of onlies and non-onlies were either equal or in the ratio of the actual numbers of the two categories in that particular age group.The results show that there is no significant difference between the onlies and children with siblings in mean scores and the developmental level of the three analogical reasoning tests. However, there are obvious differences in the scores of analogical reasoning by children in the same category but with different home education. This indicates that under the combined influence of factors at home, such as the family's size, income, living standards, cultural life and educational level, home education is the direct and key factor effecting children's intellectual development.
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    CHANGES IN SOME OF 20-TO 90-YEAR-OLD ADULTS' MEMORY ACTIVITIES
    Xu Shulian Sun Changhua Wu Zhenyun (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica) Wang Xinde Cai Xiaojie (Section of Geriatric Research, Beijing Hospital)
    1985, 17 (02):  42-49. 
    Abstract ( 592 )  
    This is a follow-up of our earlier study on the aging of memory. The subjects were 210 healthy adults 20—90 years of age, divided into 7 age groups, matched both in sex and educational level. A "Clinical Memory Test" designed by us and standardized by a relevant nationwide cooperation research group was used, and 20 subjects in each group were also tested with the WAIS-RC. The results indicate:1) Generally, memory shows a decreasing tendency with age, beginning from the 50-year-old group on and becoming more marked after seventy. 2) The same decreasing tendency of memory is found in subjects of intelligence-level-matched 20-, 30-, 50-, 60- and 70-year-old groups. 3) Age difference is least apparent in the recognition of meaningless figures and the related-paired-association, and most apparent in the unrelatedpaired-association and the recall of the surnames and hobby characteristies of individuals in their pictures, indicating that the aged have great difficulty in establishing thoroughly new associations. On the basis of the above-mentioned, the authors suggest that memory difficulty of the aged could be the result of difficulty of interaction between encoding, storage and retrieval.
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    PRELIMINARY STUDY OF SEMANTIC RETRIEVAL FOR CHINESE LANGUAGE
    Chen Yongming and Peng Ruixiang (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1985, 17 (02):  50-57. 
    Abstract ( 520 )  
    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the semantic retrieval for Chinese language. In experiment 1, twenty-three two-character words selected from thirteen sentences were used as stimuli in a free association test. The results indicated that semantic distance in terms of commonsense relations between words is useful to predict the performance of the free association test. In experiment 2, the true/false judgement reaction time technique was used. Thirty-eight (20 true and 18 false) sentences were used as stimuli in a true/false judgement test. The findings coincided with the results obtained by Collins and Quillian. The difference of retrieval time between levels in which the sentences were stored was verified. The results indicated that in the stage of information retrieval, the morphological effect of Chinese characters is not an important factor.
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    THE KEYWORD METHOD AND ENGLISH WORD ACQUISITION
    Zhu Ying Li Mingde (Peking University) (Sichuan University)
    1985, 17 (02):  58-64. 
    Abstract ( 496 )  
    This experiment was designed to test the Keyword Method of building vocabulary as it is. used in English-speaking. countries. The results slowed that the Keyword Method is not nearly as successful on Chinese students as it is on native speakers of English. But a new Keyword Method we designed for Chinese to learn English words has proved helpful to Chinese students translating Chinese into English.
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    AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODOLOGY:NOTES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL FUZZINESS AND FUZZY STATISTICAL TESTS
    Ma Mouchao (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica) Wang Peizhuang (Beijing Normal University)
    1985, 17 (02):  65-74. 
    Abstract ( 488 )  
    Draying on the results of studies of experimental psychology, the article deals with the concepts of psychological fuzziness, fuzzy sets and randomness. The article also carries illustrations of the nature of fuzzy statistics and the techniques of the Multistage Evaluation Method and the Interval Evaluation Method. Both methods were used for the measurement of similarity, associated with figure, and the results showed considerable consistency.
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    EFFECTS OF HIPPOCAMPAL DAMAGE ON JUMP-TABLE AVOIDANCE REACTION IN RATS
    Liu Shanxun Kuang Peizi (Institute of Psycholooy, Academia Sinica)
    1985, 17 (02):  75-80. 
    Abstract ( 518 )  
    The Paper deals with the characteristics of jump-table avoidance reaction (JAR) in rats and the effects of bilateral hippocampal damage on othe JAR. Experimentation showed that the trace of the first electro shock Insted for about 2 minutes and the establishment and retention of JAR was easy, in repeated training. The tracing activity of the first electroshock was significantly influenced by bilateral hippoeampal damage which also made the consolidation of JAR diffieult. However, the damage produced no effect on the retention of JAR once it was consolidated. The autnors made an analytical study of the results
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    DISCRIMINATION AND GENERALIZATION OF SPATIAL CONFIGURATION:A COMPARATIVE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON RHESUS MONKEYS AND PIGEONS
    Chen Shaofu (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1985, 17 (02):  81-89. 
    Abstract ( 422 )  
    Six monkeys (macaca mulatta) and seven pigeons were used as Ss in the experiment. The purpose is to make a comparative study of the discrimination and generalization abilities of the animals in spatial configurations. They were first trained to discriminate a pair of figures consisting of the same three elements but different in spatial configuration. They were then tested with other pairs of stimuli consisting of the same elements but modified in arrangement. Three sets of stimuli were used in the experiment. The stimuli of set A differed in color, set B in shape and set C in size. The result showed that the monkeys generalized different spatial configurations but the pigeons only responded with certain partial cues. Also, except for the interaction between the shape and size of the stimuli, the physical facts of the stimuli had no significant effects on performance.
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    A COMPARISON OF SOME METHODS FOR DETERMINING PHOTOPIC SPECTRAL LUMINOUS EFFICIENCY FUNCTIONS
    He Baoyuan Xu Zonghui (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1985, 17 (02):  90-96. 
    Abstract ( 448 )  
    The paper compares some of the methods used for determining photopio spectral luminous efficiency functions, and discusses the respective characteristics and strong and weak points of these methods. The autnors point out the need for further study of these and other methods for the determination of the functions.
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    THE FIFTH NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE CHINESE PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    Lin Zhong-xian(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1985, 17 (02):  104-111. 
    Abstract ( 399 )  
    This paper gives a report of the Fifith National Conference of the Chinese Psychological Society. It includes 4 parts: (1)General orientation, (2) Group activities, (3)Election of the standing committee and organization of branch committees, (4) Summary of the meeting.
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