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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 September 1985, Volume 17 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    THE RETRIEVAL OF INFORMATION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS IN MAKING SIMILARITY JUDGMENT UNDER RECOGNITION CONDITION
    Peng Danling Guo Dejun Zhang Sulan(Beijing Normal University)
    1985, 17 (03):  3-10. 
    Abstract ( 450 )  
    Using the procedures provided by S. M. Condry and A. Levy (1979), we had 30 primary school pupils of the fifth grade and 30 college students to judge the graphic, phonetic or semantic similarities of Chinese characters under different distracting conditions such as their being similar in look, sound or meaning. The result shows that the differences between college students and schoolchildren in the reaction time of making similarity judgments are significant. The R. T in the same age group in making similarity judgement of characters that look similar is the shortest, with those similar in sound taking a longer RT, and the synonyms taking the longest. The RT difference between the second and third catagories are not significant. The result also shows that the distractive effect of graphic similarity on synonym judgement is greater than that of phonetic similarity. On the basis of these results, the authors hold that coding sound may not be a necessary step in assessing meaning. In addition to the graphic-phonetic-semantic channel in information processing of Chinese characters, the graphicsemantic channel must also be available.
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    AN EXPERIMENT IN UNDERSTANDING ANCIENT CHINESE THROUGH THE COMPUTER
    Li Jiazhi Chen Yongming(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1985, 17 (03):  11-18. 
    Abstract ( 429 )  
    The paper describes a computer system of understanding ancient Chinese (SUACH), using two stories written in ancient Chinese as experimental material. The system can make syntactic and semantic analysis of every sentence contained in the two stories and translate them into modern Chinese. It also has the ability to answer questions about the syntactical function and meaning of certain words used in different contexts.Unlike Western languages, the Chinese language has no declensions. For instance, one cannot determine the case of a noun or the tense of a verb according to the morphology of Chinese characters. Neither does Chinese grammar contain adequate rules governing inflections. A tentative plan for the programming of ancient Chinese is presented and discussed in this paper and offered as an aid to students of ancient Chinese.
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    THE AGE-CHANGE OF ADULT INTELLIGENT DEVELOPMENT AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH MEMORY
    Wu Zhenyun Xu Shulian Sun Changhua(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1985, 17 (03):  19-25. 
    Abstract ( 458 )  
    The aging of adults' intelligence were tested with WAIS-RC on 140 subjects. Seven age-groups of 20 to 90-yr-old subjects were matched in sex and educational level. The results were essentially the same as those of the "classical pattern" of the aging of adults' intelligence reported abroad, with lower scores in the Chinese 20-yr-old group. This indicates the influence of historical cultural background on the results of study with cross-section method. In addition, intelligence significantly correlates with memory (r=0.55), and the aging tendency of memory is similar to the scale score of the performance on intelligence test.
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    EXTRAVERSION, NEUROTICISM AND PSYCHOTICISM OF SOME SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN BEIJING
    Chen Zhonggeng Wu Guocheng Peng Kaiping(Beijing University)
    1985, 17 (03):  26-32. 
    Abstract ( 510 )  
    Items of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire were translated into Chinese and analysed through biserial correlation with the 4 scales. A slightly modified EPQ (junior) in Chinese was given to 370 schoolchildren aged 7—15. Their scores in personality characteristics showed that (1) boys score higher extraversion and psychoticism than girls and girls have higher neuroticism and lie scores than boys, (2) the intercorrelation of PL is negative and very high, that of PE PN EN are all below 0.30 exclusively, (3) age trends are inverse to those observed in the adults, and the ENL trends are to some extent in accord with Eysenck's original testing, (4) the 3 scales combined suggest the trends of high percentage of low psychoticism, high percentage of low psychoticism and neuroticism, and high percentage of introversion, especially in girls, (5) most children's reports show a tendency of wide interest in every respect, but boys are now more venturesome and girls more active than before.
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    ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE CHARACTERISTICS IN THE JUVENILE PERIOD
    Zuo Qipei(Jilin Teacher, College)
    1985, 17 (03):  33-39. 
    Abstract ( 720 )  
    This article holds that self-consciousness includes two dimensions in dialectical unity—self-intention and self-cognition It proposes three bases for identifying developmental stages according to thecharacteristics of contradictory movements dictated by the two aspects of self-consciousness: 1. Interchange in the degree of dependency and independency; 2. Depth of the development of self-cognition from the perceptual to the rational, and from the concrete to the abstract; 3. The imbalance in the development of self-intention and self-cognition. On this basis, the development of self-consciousness is divided into four stages wiht particular emphasis on the analysis of the characteristics of the juvenile period. Understanding these eharacteristic will help further explore the developmental laws of self-consciousness and improve the education of juveniles.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE AFFILIATION OF THE ONCY CHILD
    Chert Kewen(Deportment of Sociology, Beljing University)
    1985, 17 (03):  40-46. 
    Abstract ( 871 )  
    Based on a survey in 14 kindergartens and 14 primary schools in urban and suburban areas of Beijing, this study made a comparision on affiliation, between 3 to 12-year-old onlies and non-onlies.The subjects were 482 onlies and paired nononlies, including 885 suburban children and 579 urban children. The methods mainly involved questionnaires, supplemented by observation, interview, case study and peer evaluation.The resurts showed that there was no significant difference in affiliation between onlies and nononlies in the urban areas, and the same was true between only-girls and non-only-girls in the suburban areas, significant difference was only found between only-boys and nononly-boys in the suburban areas (P<0.02).This study also explored the factors in fluencing the only-child's affiliation. Analysis shows: the collective life in a kindergarten and the abundant experience of social participation are favourable to the development of the only-child's affiliation.
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    INFANT VISUAL DEVELOPMENT
    M. S. Banks(University of Texos, Austin, USA)
    1985, 17 (03):  47-53. 
    Abstract ( 457 )  
    The empirical work reviewed here illustrates two common and useful observations in developmental research: (1) at birth some capabilities are reasonably mature and others are not and (2) different capabilities develop at distinctly different rates. Specifically, temporal resolution is fairly good at birth and develops rapidly, attaining adultlike levels by about two months of age. On the other hand, spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity are rather poor at birth and develop relatively slow; adult levels are not reached by the sixth month. Such early deficits in spatial vision may underlie early deficits in other visual capabilities such as accommodation, convergence, and stereopsis.
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    A STUDY OF THE THINKING DEVELPMENT OF ADOLESCENT STUDENTS FROM 23 PROVINCES AND CITIES IN CHINA
    Nationwide Research Group of Adolescent Mental Development
    1985, 17 (03):  62-71. 
    Abstract ( 453 )  
    This study is aimed at 1st and 3rd year students of junior high schools and 2nd year students of senior high schools. The results are:1. The age-characters of thinking development are: Formal logical thinking begins to prevail in the 1st year of junior high and tends to mature by the 2nd year of senior high. Dialectical logical thinking emerges in its initial form in the 1st year of junior high and begins to take hold in the 2nd year of senior high.2. The character of thinking development of adolescent students of both sexes are: The over-all level of thinking development is about the same in boys and girls, though both have their own characteristics. The idea that "boys are superior to girls" or vice versa is not accepted.3. There are differences in the development levels of student sthinking between different types of high schools.
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    THE RECOGNITION OF PATTERNS IN SOLVING APPLIED ALGEBRICAL PROBLEMS OF EQUATION
    Shi Tieru(Guangdong Educational College)
    1985, 17 (03):  72-79. 
    Abstract ( 566 )  
    In our experiment we made a research on the role and peculiarity of recognition of patterns in solving applied algebrical problems of equation by the students of junior high schools.In solving these problems, the recognition of patterns appear mainly to be the differenciation of types of problems.The result shows that the subject's recognition of type of the problem determines whether he can solve it quickly and correctly or not.To recognize definitely the type of an applied problem, the student must abstract definite general relationships or structures from the concrete semantic context of the problem. This ability can be improved through drills with a variety of exercises.
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    NOISE TOLERANCE IN HUMAN STEREOPSIS
    Cheng Lihai Yao Guozheng Liu Lei(Institute of Biophysics, Academia Sinica)
    1985, 17 (03):  80-87. 
    Abstract ( 498 )  
    Four sets of RDS were designed to specify the relationship between human stereoscopic noise tolerance and binocular disparity, magnitude and structure of figure and texture of image respectively. The main results areas follows:(1) Stereoscopic noise tolerance is related to the magnitude and direction of disparity. The bigger the binocular disparity, the lower the noise tolerance. The noise tolerance for crossed disparity is higher than that for uncrossed disparity.(2) Stereoscopic noise tolerance is related to the magnitude and structure of figure. The smaller and more complex the figure, the lower the noise tolerance.(3) Stereoscopic noise tolerance is related to the texture of image.The noise tolerance for "checkboard" texture is a bit higher than that for "gauze-like" pattern.(4) It seems that the maximum noise tolerance of RDS does not exceed 30%.
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    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL REACTION IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE:Ⅱ. A STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR PATTERN OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE PATIENTS
    Zhang Boyuan(Beijing University)(The National Collaborative Study Group for TABP & CHD)
    1985, 17 (03):  90-97. 
    Abstract ( 599 )  
    Studies on the behavior pattern of CHD patients (coronary heart disease) have begun in China. A survey of 714 CHD patients and 425 normal people and 220 family members of the patients was conducted in 18 provinces and municipalities. The result showed that the scores of TABP (Type A behavior pattern) in CHD patients are much higher than in normal people (P<0.01), and the scores of mental workers are higher than those of physical workers (P<0.01). There is no obvious difference on the ground of sex or age (P>0.05).
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    EEG OF NORMAL CHILDREN AND MBD CHILDREN UNDER DIFFERENT BEHAVIORAL SITUATIONS
    Kuang Peizi Chen Shuangshuang(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica) Ma Ruofei(Xiyuan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine)
    1985, 17 (03):  98-102. 
    Abstract ( 498 )  
    EEG of normal and minimal brain dysfunction (MBD) children under four behavioral situations (eyes closed, listening to music and story, performing correction test) were observed. The results indicated that during eyes closed and attending to music the average of a rhythms of the left-hemisphere in the MBD children were lower than those of normal children; when listening to story-telling right hemisphere rhythms of MBD children were lower than that of the normal. In the correction test situation the percentage of error of MBD children was higher than that of the normal, and EEG results before and during the correct test did not change for the MBD children, but there was significant change in the normal children.
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    A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OFMONOGRAPHS PUBLISHED IN "ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA SINICA", 1956—1984
    Guan Lianrong Wei Mingxiang Chen Yongming(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1985, 17 (03):  103-107. 
    Abstract ( 584 )  
    The analysis shows that the number of monographs concerning educational and developmental psychology is the highest, next come those on general psychology. The authors mainly come from research institutions, but those from universities have increased recently. The bulk of contributors are from Beijing, Shanghai, and Hangzhou. Papers dealing with the solution of practical problems are relatively few.
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