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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 17 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    THE ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGY IN ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT
    Xu Liancang Chen Long Wang Deng Xue Anyi(Institute of Psychology. Academia Siaica)
    . 1985, 17 (04): 3-9.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 117 )
    In recent years the focus ofeconomic reform has shifted to the enhancement of thequality of enterprise management. Chinese psychologists enthusiastically respond to this shift. In the Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, a research group is making a study in the field of managerial psychology. One of their projects is to study leadership in which they used modern assessment methods to evaluate the quality of the leaders as well as the situational factors in enterprises and factories. A PM leadership questionaire with some modification was used in this study and the results had been fed back to the leaders and middle-level executives. Workers also participated in the discussion about the problems discovered in the. PM survey. Some achievements were reached in this study. This method will benefit the economic reform In this paper survey data was collected from more than 6000 respondents in 40 factories.
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    ANALYSIS OFRESULTS OF MMPI OF NORMAL CHINESE SUBJECTS
    Writer: Song Weizhen(The National Cooperation Group of MMPI in China)
    . 1985, 17 (04): 10-19.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 151 )
    It is already 3 years that MMPI was used in China. From the results obtained it was proved that its use in China had a certain reliability and validity, especially for psychiatric clinical use. But there are many deficiencies in the results. The main reason is that this Inventory was worked out by foreign scholars, many items and standards do not fit our country. This paper introduces our studies in analysing the items of the Inventory one by one and formulating our own standards according to the condition of our country.The analysis of results showed:1. Chinese subjects scored higher than the original MMPI results in all the clinical scales.2. The testing results changed with the advancement of age on the clinical scales.3. There are 76% males and 71% females who had the same scores in the 399 items of the Inventory as the results of Minnesota people. Other items had greater differences.4. In-depth analysis of the clinical data needs to be made for the determination of a standard for normal subjects.
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    FLESH TONE TEST CARD FOR COLOR TV
    Lift Zhongxian, Sun Xiuru, Zhang Zenghui(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1985, 17 (04): 20-24.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 101 )
    The truthful reproduction of human skin color on color television is important. Departures of the reproduced chromaticity from a very restricted range of acceptable values are immediately apparent to the viewer, and slight differences in chromaticity between different pictures of the same subject (e. g. when televised by different cameras) are also immediately discernable. For this reason, a neutral gray-scale balance between the different cameras in a studio is usually followed by a flesh tone balance. A flesh tone test card was made for this purpose. This report introduces the standards of the flesh tone test card and its advantages in subjective assessment of face tone and color balance on the color monitor.
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    STM SPAN FOR CHINESE WORDS AND PHRASES
    Yu Bolin Jing Qicheng(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica) Herbert A. Simon(Carnegie-Mellon University)
    . 1985, 17 (04): 25-32.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 245 )
    Using the Standard immediate recall experimental design, we examined the span of STM for Chinese words and phrases. The data for single words, double-phonetic-compound words and four-character idiomsspeak for the hypothesis that STM is capable of storing a fixed number of chunks, but with rather strong effects of familiarity and complexity onSTM span. Furthermore, phonetic similarity caused a decrease in span. We also examined the morphological effects of the internal components of Chinese characters in forming chunks. We made up pseudocharacters and noncharacters from character components, and found that the component units, and not the full composite patterns, behaved as chunks. Finally, by comparing two different stimilus presentation procedures as to their effects on STM span, we found that the strategy of controlling perception may somewhat increase STM span.
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    A NEW APPLICATION OF PSYCHOLOGY——DETERMINING WEIGHTS WITH IMPROVED METHOD OF PAIRED COMPARISON
    Qi Guodong(Northern Jiao Tong University)
    . 1985, 17 (04): 33-40.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 136 )
    In this paper the theories and methods of fuzzy mathematics and psychology, based on the theory of multiple objective decision, were inducted to ccmprehensive evaluation in economics, and an improved method of paired comparison was proposed for the determination of the weights of comprehensive evaluation. This new method is also suitable for comprehensive evaluation of other problems in social sciences.
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    THE MMPI RESPONSE PATTERN OF SINGAPORE CHINESE
    Boey Kam Weng
    . 1985, 17 (04): 41-47.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 117 )
    The findings of this study show that the Chinese and English MMPI are highly equivalent (average scale-by-scale correlation=0.81)and their average scale reliabilities are also very satisfactory, reaching 0.85 and 0.78 respectively.With regard to the MMPI profiles of Singapore Chinese, it was found that subjects who are Chinese-educated (C-Ed) obtained a 28 code type, whereas the English-educated (E-Ed), a 89 code type. Interestingly, when basic scales were ranked in terms of T-scores, Singapore Chinese had appreciably higher ranking in Scale Ma and lower in Scale Pa when compared with mainland China. Their ranking in Scale Si was slightly higher when compared with Hong Kong district. Significant rank order correlations were found between C-Ed and Chinese in mainland China and Hong Kong district. For the E-Ed, only the profile of males is found to be similar with their counterparts in Hong Kong district. In terms of endorsement pattern, correlations of E-Ed with six American samples were higher than with subjects in Hong Kong district, whereas for the C-Ed, the reverse was observed.The above findings show clearly that though C-Ed and E-Ed are both Singapore Chinese, they cannot be considered a homogenous group. The profiles established in this study not only meet the need of a local normal baseline for test interpretations, but also provide data for further validation study and cross-cultural comparison.
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    AN EXPERIMENT ON THE USE OF CLASSIFIERS BY 4 TO 6-YEAR-OLDS
    Fang Fuxi(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1985, 17 (04): 48-56.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 120 )
    In the present study, 4 to 6-year-old children speaking mandarin or Cantonese and bilingual overseas Chinese children in the same age group were tested for their ability to use some of the common classifiers with the objects shown to them through pictures. This was followed by another test for their ability to generalize four classifiers among a number of novel objects called by pseudo names. The results show that the. 4-yearTolds' ability to use classifiers was poor, but their ability improved quickly with age. The usage of basic common classifiers was learned by the end of the preschool period. Dialect and foreign language both as important variables had strong effects on the children's ability. And the development of such ability was also found to be closely related to the cognitive development of abstract thinking and the power of generalization.
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    ON CHILDREN' S MEMORY AND COGNITION Ⅰ. A STUDY ON THE MEMORY OF SERIAL CONFIGURATION BY CHILDREN BETWEEN 4—6 YEARS OF AGE
    Wang Xiantian Zhang Meiling(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1985, 17 (04): 57-64.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 136 )
    This is an attempt to explore the developmental characteristics of 4 to 6-year-olds' memory of length-seriation and number-seriation figures. The children were asked to reproduce the figures from memory by arranging different lengths of rods and counters and give a verbal discription of what they were doing. The result shows that both the graphic reproductions and the verbal descriptions were correct. The memory of length seriation was superior to that of number seriation. After a lapse of 6 months, same children's graphic reproductions were more faithful to the originals than their earlier reproductions. It is supposed that the children had improved their understanding of seriation in the intervening period, which is considered as a consequence of normal cognitive growth.The result also shows that children's memory strategies develop in three stages. They begin with no strategy, pass on to an intermediate stage, and then enter into the stage of applying workable strategies to the memory task. The development of memory stages is closely related to the development of cognition.
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    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE FACULTIES OF MEMORY OF CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS AGED 9 AND 11 ON THE QINGHAI PLATEAU
    Drafted by Wang Xiangye(Oinghai Teacher's University)
    . 1985, 17 (04): 65-73.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 89 )
    The article presents a comparative study of the development of the faculties of memory of children, aged 9 and 11, of the Han, Sala, Hui, Mongolian, Tu and Tibetan nationalities living in nine different regions of the Qinghai Plateau. The indicators include cognition speed, memory scope, recollection of pictures and association memory.The study indicates that the faculties of memory of the children among the Han, Sala and Hui nationalities show no distinctive differences, whereas the faculties of memory of the children of these three nationalities and that of the Mongolian, Tu and Tibetan children bear marked dissimilarity. Also, facuities, of memory between the children of the Mongolian, Tu and Tibetan nationalities show marked distinctions, which stem from differences in their cultural relations with other nationalities in the past, their geographical and economic environments, their language facility and, most importantly, their educational backgrounds which exert a direct influence on the development of the children's memory.The result of the research also shows that there are certain common characters between the nationalities under study in the development of the children's faculties Of memory.
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    FAMILY ENVIRONMENT, ATTENTION TESTS AND PERIPHERAL ADRENALINE SECRETION IN HYPERACTIVE CHILDREN
    Lin Wen juan Tang Cimei(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1985, 17 (04): 74-81.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 272 )
    A series of investigations were undertaken to study the social factors in hyperactivity etiology and to develop reliable guides for the diagnosis of hyperactivity. A total of 200 children aged 8 to 13 served as subjects. Among these, 100 were control children and another 100 were found to be hyperactive after being examined by pediatricians. All were matched in age, sex and school grade. Studies were carried out on: 1. their family conditions (200 subjects); 2. performance in attention tests (46 subjects); 3. peripheral adrenaline secretion during 3 different periods(46 subjects): a) rest period before attention test, b) attention test period, and c) rest period after attention test.The results showed: 1. Hyperactive children were significantly disadvantaged by factors such as. parents' education, family relations, parental attitude toward the child and the father's smoking and drinking habits. 2. Hyperactive children showed inferior performance in attention tests. 3. The majority of control children and some hyperactive children exhibited a specific pattern of change in adrenaline excretion during rest-test-rest periods, i. e., the adrenaline excretion during the test period showed an increase over that during the rest periods before and after the test. However, some hyperactive children did not exhibit this pattern of change. 4. Level of disorder (as measured by adrenaline analysis and attention test in this experiment) was correlated with the disadvantages in family environment. The results suggest that family environment is an important factor in hyperactivity etiology and attention tests as well as urine adrenaline dynamic analysis might be useful guides for the diagnosis of hyperactivity.
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    A STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SLEEP QUALITY AND SOME PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF COLLEGE STUDENTS
    Li Deming(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1985, 17 (04): 82-86.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 710 )
    The sleep qualities of 268 college students were investigated by using questionaire. Then, 20 good sleepers and 20 poor sleepers were given the tests of psychological function as the following 4 items: digit span, digit symbol, cube figure and digit cancellation. The tests showed that the short-term memory of digit span of the good sleepers was markedly better than the poor sleepers. The results indicate that it is possible that sleep quality is closely related to short-term memory in human beings. The relationship between, sleep behavior and psychological function will be further studied.
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    TEACHERS' EXPECTATION OF THEIR PRICIPALS' OUTSTANDING TRAITS
    Kong Dihua(Guangdong Educational College) Zeng Guihua(Wuhua Normal College, Guangdong)
    . 1985, 17 (04): 87-92.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 126 )
    The survey shows that teachers prefer principals who have a high sense of responsibility, keep in close contact with their staffs, concern themselves with the teachers livelihood, choose the right persons for various posts, and are fair and just. Teachers are found to strongly dislike pricipals who flatter their superiors, cheat their subordinates and are unjust, arbitrary and indifferent to the problems and difficulties of the staff. It is up to the principals to continuously cultivate moral qualities and combat unhealthy tendencies in their conduct so that they can live up to the expectations of the teachers, win their confindence, turn their initiative to good account and, in this way, run the schools well.The study also indicates that a gap exists between what principals expect of themselves and what the teachers expect of their principals. The principals tend to stress the operational requirements of the school and underestimate the importance of human relations.What the teachers expect from a good principal is found to vary between teachers of different age groups and professional status.
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