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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 18 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    THE DEPENDENCE OF REACTION AND MOVEMENT TIME UPON RESPONDING MEMBERS AND ATHLETIC TRAINING
    Chen Shuyong,Yang Bomin,Han Zhao Department of Psychology, Beijing University
    . 1986, 18 (01): 3-9.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 182 )
    The simple auditory reaction time (RT) and movement time (MT)of 60 amateur athletes and 20 non-athletes were determined throughtheir hand and foot responses. We confirmed:(1) RT_n was reliablyfaster than RT_F, but the speed between MT_H and MT_F proved thecontrary. (2) The relationships between hand and foot responses inRT, MT and RT+MT were all positive and significant with coefficientsof correlation at 0.72, 0.68 and 0.79 respectively. (3) There was nosignificant difference in RT between athletes and non--athletes. Whetherdifferences in MT and RT+MT exist between the two categories ofsubjects depended on the athletic events undertaken. (4) Althougha significant and positive correlation between simple RT and MT wasmanifested, the coefficient of correlation was too small to warrant anymeaningful prediction.
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    A FUZZY SET APPROACH TO THE ESTIMATION OF RESPIRATORY SENSATION
    Ma Mouchao,Zhang Lifan,Wu Xingyu,Jiang Shizhong Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Fourth Military Medical College, Xian
    . 1986, 18 (01): 10-18.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 118 )
    Psychological magnitude associated with respiratory resistive loadis considered as a fuzzy one in this study. A fuzzy set approach calledMultistage Evaluation Scale (MES) was adopted to reveal a possibilitydistribution of this fuzzy magnitude, and a formula for treatment of thedata-- --was used to estimate psychological.magnitude associated with respiratory resistive load. Thirty--seven.healthy young male subjects experienced six levels of suprathresholdadded resistance, loaded at different phases of the breathing cycle. The results revealed that the relationship between resistive load. and perceived magnitude can be expressed by psychophysical powerfunction. The data showed that the severity of the sensory experiencecaused by equal resistive intensity differed significantly when loaded atdifferent phases of the breathing cycle, but the speed of sensory growthdid not manifest significant change. The experiment also showed thatthe physical and physiological magnitudes were correlated to eachsensory category grade of the scale, which may be useful for establishingresistive standards for respiratory protective equipments. We also com-pared and discussed methodology related to MES and classicalcategory scale.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF WAYS OF TRAINING AND PREDETERMINED CRITERION OF THE NUMBER OF HITS ON SHOOTING PRACTICE
    Yang Bomin Peking University
    . 1986, 18 (01): 19-26.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 49 )
    Two simulated experiments were performed to investigate somepractical problems in marksmanship training. The main results were asfollows: (1)The score of those making half an hour's practice in twoperiods of 20 trials separated by 14 to 18-minutes rest interval wassignificantly better than that of those making 100 trials in succession,and virtually equalled the score of those making 100 trials with severalrest intervals in between. (2) The important role of kinestheticdiscrimination training in improving the method of shooting practicewas evidently manifested.(3)The score of those aiming at fulfilling apredetermined criterion qf the number of hits greatly surpassed that ofthose having no such criterion in mind. This study would have somesignificance to raising the efficiency of shooting practice and cuttingdown bullet consumption, and might also be helpful to training programsin other sports.
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    ANEXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF VISUAL FATIGUE UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHTINGS
    Liang Baoyong,Xu Liangen Bethun Medical College Hangzhou University
    . 1986, 18 (01): 27-36.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 104 )
    Using accommodation and convergence time of the eye, brightnessdiscrimination and subjective estimations of fatigue as indicators ofvisual fatigue, this experiment compared 8 lightings at two levels oflighting power (anit, 10 nit) and 4 color temperatures of light 630nm,and white lights at 1800K, 2400K, 3000K. The following results wereobtained: 1. When the nature of lighting is under control, visual fatigue ismore marked under 2-nit lightings than under 10-nit lightings. 2. With the same level of lighting power, the visual fatigue underred lightings is more marked than that under white lightings. Thedifferences among white lightings at the three different color temperaturesare not significant. 3. The differences between the 10-nit red lighting and the 32-nitwhite lightings are also not significant. The authors have come to the following conclusions: 1. It is necessary to conduct the right kinds of tests so that theindicators used in the tests will sensitively reflect the degree of visualfatigue. 2. It is necessary to aim at high precision in the detection oflowered capacity due to fatigue.
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    THE COVARIANCE DECOMPOSITION OF THE MEAN PROBABILITY SCORE IN DECISION THEORY AND THEORY OF SIGNAL DETECTION
    Zhu Ying,Pan Kaiyu Peking University
    . 1986, 18 (01): 37-44.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 135 )
    The purposes of this paper are twofold. First, to introducea covariance decomposition of the mean probability score in decisiontheory (abbreviated as CDMPS). Secondly, to explore the relationbetween the CDMPS and TSD. Two experiments have been madeaccording to the confidence rating method of TSD. The results of theexperiments proved: (a) The CDMPS can discriminate a person's abilityof judgement from his or her attitude when a decision is made. (b)TheCDMPS has the same effect as the TSD in dealing with sensory eventssuch as the sensation of weight.
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    FORECAST OF DEGREE OF PREFERENCE FOR COMMODITIES BY USING FUZZY MATHEMTICS
    Jin Zhicheng,He Yanru,Cheng Zijuan,Wang Dongyi Northeast Normal University
    . 1986, 18 (01): 45-51.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 101 )
    The present study is an experimental exploration of the feasibilityof applying fuzzy mathematics forecasting the degree of preference forvarious commodities. The subjects' one-dimensional evaluation [R'_(ji)] and comprehensiveevaluation [B_j] for a certain commodity was obtained from experimentI. Then, the weight set [Ai] was derived from B_j=?[Ai·R_(ji)]. The subjects' one-dimensional evaluation[R"_(ji)] for another commodityof the same kind was obtained from experiment Ⅱ. Then, the weight ofone-dimensional evaluation [R"_(ji)] with [Ai] was obtained so that thesubjects' comprehensive degree of preference[Bj] for the second commo-dity could be forecasted. The experimentation proved that the procedure was feasible andmore precise and simpler than other methods.
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    EFFECTS OF CODE ADDITIVITY OF CHINESE WORDS AND PHRASES
    Yu Bolin Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1986, 18 (01): 52-59.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 75 )
    On the basis of Chinese double-phonetic compound words, codeadditivity was carried out according to morphological, phonetic, andsemantic relationships of Chinese words, it was confirmed that Chinesewords and phrases can be used as suitable verbal materials and toprovide a new way for the research of verbal memory. The effects of code additivity is not mainly reflected in the processof acquirement of verbal memory, since verbal materials of both multiplecode and single code all possess approximately equal acquirement levels.However, effects of code additivity manifested both in spontaneousrecovery and in fransition from short-term memory to long-termmemory.It could be considered that the effects of code additivity mainlyinfluence longterm retention and retrieval of information, and not ofmuch influence to the acquirement of information. In addition, thenumber of encoded dimensions of words, as an independent variable,seems unrelated to the serial-position curve under free-recall.
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    A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF READING DISABILITY CAUSED BY BRAIN DAMAGE ON THE COGNITIVE PROCESS OF READING
    Hu Chaoqun Institute of Psychology,Academia Sinica
    . 1986, 18 (01): 60-64.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 120 )
    On the basis of two typical case studies of different readingdisabilities caused by brain damage, this paper tries to maketwo inferences: 1. The reading process undergoes two different levels of informationporcessing: (1) The level of word recognition, i. e., of grasping theshape, phoneme and meaning of the words and the connections betweenthem; (2) the level of sentence comprehension, i. e., of syntactic analysisand semantic understanding. 2. The psychological activity at the sentence level plays a moreactive and effective dynamic role in the reading and understandingprocess.
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    THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
    Sun Ye Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1986, 18 (01): 73-80.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 170 )
    The paper presents a historical review of modern cognitivepsychology. It discusses the internal and external factors leading to thebirth of this particular discipline. The effects of related disciplines, in-formation theory, cybernetics, computer science and N. Chomskylinguistics are the external events leading first to major changes withinthe realm of psychology and eventually to the introduction of moderncognitive psychology. The historical development of psychology is theinternal factor. The author argues that it was the combination of thesetwo factor that have brought cognitive psychology into being.
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    USSR DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY IN THE EARLY 1980S
    Chen Huichang Shanxi Institute of Educational Science
    . 1986, 18 (01): 81-89.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 83 )
    The article studies the development of personality psychology inUSSR since the 1980. The Development of the basic theories of person-ality psychology and questions pertaining to development and educationduring preschool, primary school, juvenile and adolescent periods arereviewed, with special emphasis on A. V. Petrovski's theory of socialpsychology in personality development, and D. Y. Feldstein's theory ofjuvenile personality. More than thirty pieces of work on personalityand moral psychology are discussed in the paper.
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    THE CONSTRUCTION OF “THE CLINICAL MEMORY TEST”
    The Cooperation Group for the Construction of “The Clinical Memory Test”(Written by Xu Shulian & Wu Zhenyin, Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1986, 18 (01): 102-110.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 135 )
    A battery of "the Clinical Memory Test" has been designed andconstructed to suit the need for memory assessment in practice andresearch. It consists of 5 subtests: directed memory, paired-associationlearning, free recall of pictures, recognition of meaningless figures, recallof the connection between portraits and their characteristics. Twomatched forms, A and B, were composed at the same time. For standar-dization of the test, we selected a literate sample with 2161 S's and aniliterate one with 1149S's, 20-89 years of age. The test result of the twostandardization samples appeared in normal distribution, and thecorrelation ratio between forms A and B in replication test was 0.85.The relationship between memory assessment and learning performance,or between memory assessment and age, is consistent with experience.The application of this test to brain tumor patients showed that therecognition of meaningless figures is related with the function of theright hemisphere while the paired-association learning with that of theleft hemisphere, a result in accordance with our prediction. These resultsindicate the qualified reliability and validity of the test constructed.
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