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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 June 1986, Volume 18 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF THE MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN FROM BIRTH TO 36 MONTHS
    Mao Yuyan,Zhou Zhifang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1986, 18 (02):  3-121. 
    Abstract ( 455 )  
    This is a longitudinal study. Using a tentative mental scale, theauthors administered the mental tests to 29 children each month frombirth to 36 months. At the same time they recorded and analysed themothers' detailed reports. The purposes of this study are: (1) to collectthe children's normative data in five areas (gross motor, fine motor,language, adaptive behavior and personal-social behavior) in their firstthree years; (2) to study the factors which affected the mentaldevelopment of children under three years of age. The authors also discussed topics such as: patterns of thedevelopmental process, mental activity levels of performing cognitivetasks, influences of personality upon mental development of childrenand the main indicators of mental abilities, etc.
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    A FIVE-YEAR STUDY OF THE MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERNORMAL CHILDREN
    Zha Zixiu Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1986, 18 (02):  13-22. 
    Abstract ( 489 )  
    In step with China's four modernization programs, research on thedevelopment of supernormal children began since 1978 as a nationwidecooperative project. A dynamic logitudinal comparative study using multiple criteria andvarious methods have been carried out, with emphasis on the child'sthinking process, and paying attention to his or her personlity traits. The results of five years of study: 1) The differences betweensupernormal and normal children are found not only in the pace anddimension of development, but also in the developmental process, modeand characteristics. 2)There are many different types of supernormalchildren. 3) They share certain psychological characteristics and havethe same need for support and assistance in connection to theirdevelopment.
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    STM CAPACITY FOR CHINESE CHARACTERS AND PHRASES
    Zhang Wutian,Peng Ruixiang,Si Mahe Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Carnegie-Mellon University
    1986, 18 (02):  23-29. 
    Abstract ( 671 )  
    The simplest information processing theory of STM asserts thatSTM has a capacity for a fixed number of chunks. To gain a deeperunderstanding of STM capacity, it would be useful to compare theimmediate recall span using Chinese characters and phrases with thatusing English words. Here, contral experiments were conducted forcomparison, using three kinds of Chinese materials: one-character words,two-character words and four-character phrases, each with two levelsof familiarity, two manners of expression and two learing methods. Theresults indicated that STM capacity approaches more closely to constancywhen measured in chunks than when measured in other units, but theSTM span decreases slightly with increase in chunk complexity. Relativechunk constancy was also observed in the time required for rotelearning of stimuli. The degree of familiarity of stimulus materials playsonly a moderate role in STM capacity. The visual STM span is largerthan the auditory span. Analysis of the serial position of STM capacityshows that for the first half, STM through vision is better than thatthrough audition. Some speculative explanations were offered.
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    RELATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SENIANTIC AND PHONETIC ENCODIGN IN VERBAL MEMORY
    Yu Bolin Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1986, 18 (02):  30-38. 
    Abstract ( 477 )  
    Two experiments were carried out, using control subjects to encodemodes and loads of information. The purpose was to explore the relativeefficiency of semantic and phonetic encoding in verbal memory. Theresults showed that perfomances of semantic encoding were better thanthose of phonetic encoding in either short-term or long-term memory,and this is also true in either one-trial recall task or multi-trialreconstructing-word-pairs tasks. The reason is perhaps to be found inthe depth of processing information by the subjects. Another result of this research demonstrated that both semanticand phonetic information can be stored in either short-term orlong-term storing system. Thus it can be seen that, there is no inherentrelation between the encoding of information and of memory in the twokinds of memory systems.
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    A PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT ON PRESCHOOLER S ABILITY OF CLASSI FICATION
    Fang Fuxi,Fang Ge Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1986, 18 (02):  47-55. 
    Abstract ( 636 )  
    A modified Piagetian's class inclusion task and a simplifiedclassification task were presented to prechoolers. The results indicated: 1. The ability of solving class inclusion problem was facilitatedby three factors(1)endowing general class with the common attributionsof perception, (2)highlighting the common attributions in instruction,(3) comparing sub-class with general-class by counting performance. 2. Several stages were involved in solving the class inclusionproblem: First, children around the age of 4 could only compare theindividual attributions of a subclass with those of another one. Theydid not know that generality exists in individuality. Secondly, childrenbetween 5-6 could compare sub-class with general class bearing theattributions of perception, and the whole through the senses perceived.Finally children around the age of 7 and above could solve classinclusion problem in the abstract and recognize the logical relationshipbetween the part and the whole. 3. The hierarchical structure of class was shown in the 3 to4-year-olds when familiar stimuli were manipulated in a simplified task ofclassification.
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    AN EXPERIMENT ABOUT THE ENCODING MODE OF SHORT-TERM MEMORY
    Mo Lei South China Normal University
    1986, 18 (02):  56-63. 
    Abstract ( 950 )  
    In this experiment, research was made on the encoding mode of short-termmemory in the way of signal detectability, using Chinese characters asmaterial. The result shows that generally speaking, Chinese charactersare encoded mainly according to their forms. This conclusion differsfrom that of Conrad's, whose experiment used English letters asmaterial. Moreover, the encoding mode changes in some degree withdifferent Chinese characters committed to short-term memory. Theaforesaid result supports the hypothesis that the encoding mode ofshort-term memory varies with situations.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF ILLUSIONAL FIGURES
    Zhang Tiezhong,Sun Gang,Ma Jianhong Hangzhou University
    1986, 18 (02):  64-74. 
    Abstract ( 757 )  
    A relatively systematic experiment and detailed analysis were madeto find out the law of visual illusion and the structural component offigures of horizontal-vertical illusion and Muller-Lyer illusion. The results of the experiment showed that the major structuralcomponent of the induced horizontal-vertical illusional figures was thevertical and interval horizontal line and not simply the isolated verticalline and horizontal line themselves. The Muller-Lyer illusion wasmainly induced by the angle of horizontal line and oblique lines andthe length of oblique lines. The amount of illusion was larger when bothhorizontal and oblique lines were in the same color, and it was smaller ifdifferent colors were used for the two kinds of lines. An experiment was made to compare various variation of figures.The nature and function of the various structural components of figureswere found, the regular changes in several visual illusions werehighlighted. Based on the facts of this experiment, a relatively detailedanalysis of the eye-movement and visual field theories was made.
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    PERCEPTIBLE DISTANCE OF A ROAD SIGN VARIES W TH THE CAR SPEED
    Guan Lianrong,Gao Jing,Xu Liancang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1986, 18 (02):  75-79. 
    Abstract ( 512 )  
    The study shows that to a driver, the perceptible distance of a roadsign is inversely proportional to the speed of his car. The higher thespeed, the shorter the perceptible distance. Compared with walking pace,a car travelling at 100 kilometers an hour cuts down the perceptibledistance by 35-45%. Our experiment shows that this is possibly causedby the driver's psychophysiological stress when driving at speed.
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    COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFICIENCY OF EMG AND THE THERMAL BIOFEEDBACK TRAINING THE COMBINATION OF BIOFEEDBACK AND AUTOGENIC TRAINING IN REDUCING TEST ANXIETY
    Sun Zhongxian,Zhao Jiecheng,Xia Meili,Ren Ruzheng,Yan He jin,Yang Lineng,Gao Song,Wang Song zhuang Shanghai Institute of Mental Health East China Normal University, Shanghai
    1986, 18 (02):  86-92. 
    Abstract ( 994 )  
    This paper compared the efficiency of EMG and thermal biofeedbackand that of the combinations of biofeedback and autogenic training inreducing test anxiety. 48 high-school students who were going to joinuniversity entrance exams were selected according to their state-anxietyscores of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI). All Ss were assignedrandomly into 6 groups with 8 students in each group: Group 1. EMGfeedback plus sutogenic training; Group 2. EMG feedback only; Group3. thermal feedback plus autogenic training; Group 4. thermal feedbackonly; Group 5. false feedback, Group 6. training-delayed. 40 Ss in thefirst 5 groups received 4 separate 30-minute training sessions everyday.The changes of EMGs and tempertures and the state-anxiety scores ofSTAA in stressful situations before and after training were recordedand compared. The results showed that biofeedback training, both EMGand thermal. were effective in reducing anxiety,that the combinationsof biofeedback and autogenic training seemed to be more effective, thatfalse feedback training was no more effective than no training and thatthe most anxious Ss benefited most from the training in so far as thestate-anxiety scores were concerned.
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    AN EXPERIMENT IN THE FUNCTIONAL ASYMMETRY OF THE TWO CEREBRAL HEMISPHERS IN RECOGNIZING CHINESE CHARACTERS
    Guo Nianfeng,Yin Wengang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1986, 18 (02):  93-99. 
    Abstract ( 527 )  
    Our past experiments showed that in correctly recognizing isolatedChinese characters, neither of the two hemispheres played a dominantrole, but we were not ready to draw any final conclusions. In the present study, we selected eight Chinese characters and setthem against four different background noise. The signal to noise ratioswere ∞, 6.66, 4 and 2.85 respectively. The subjects of our experimentwere 20 college students, 10 males and 10 females, whose ages ranged from19 to 20. The time of appearance for the stimuli was 60 msec. The results of the experiment were as follows: 1) Without noise interference, there was no marked differencebetween the left and right visual fields, nor was there any differenceswhen the signal-to-noise ratio was 6.66. 2) It was only when the signal-to-noise ratio was 4 and thedifficulty of recognition reached a fairly high level that the dominanceof the right visual field became obvious. 3) Whatever the degree of difficulty, reaction time of the leftvisual field was shorter than that of the right, but in the correctnessof recognition of the right visual field displayed some dominance.
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    THE EFFECT OF VASOPRESSIN ON PROCESSES OF MEMORY CONSOLIDATION Ⅲ.THE EFFECT OF GABA—NERGIC DRUGS ON PASSIVE AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR IN AVP—TREATED TATS
    Wan Ruiqian,Du Kunda,Ji Xin,Xiao Xinsheng Department of Biology,Nanjing University
    1986, 18 (02):  100-104. 
    Abstract ( 581 )  
    The relationship between facilitating effect of vasopressin onmemory consolidation and GABA-nergic system in CNS was furtherinvestigated. The arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP) and GABA-nergic receptor'sagonist muscimol or antagonist picrotoxin were administeredintracerebroventricularly (icv). The step-down passive avoidancebehavioral paradigm was used. 1. The acquisition processes were not accelerated, but the memoryconsolidation processes were facilitated significantly after administrationof AVP 1 hr. prior to acquisition session. The animals which weretreated with AVP showed a higher capacity of retention than thecontrols. The effective dosage of AVP is about 30ng/rat. 2. The muscimol (100ng/rat) was injected icv. immediately afteracquisition session, the retention of the experimental group injectedwith AVP was still significantly higher than control of saline in thepassive avoidance behavior. However, after administration of picrotoxin(100ng/rat)in the same way, the effect of AVP decreased when thedosage of picrotoxin was increased to 300ng/rat, the effect of AVP waseliminated entirely. These experimental results suggested again that the effect of AVPfacilitating memory consolidation processes was a central effect, and theaction of GABA-nergic system in CNS might be involved in thefacilitating effect.
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    RECENT DISCUSSIONS ON THE THEORY OF ACTIVITY IN PSYCHO-LOGICAL CIRCLES IN THE SOVIET UNION
    Chen Huichang Shanxi Institute of Educational Science
    1986, 18 (02):  105-113. 
    Abstract ( 416 )  
    This paper summarizes recent discussions in the psychologicalcircles of the Soviet Union on the theory of activity advanced by A. N.Leontiev. Three different views have emerged from the discussions:(1) those that support the theory; (2) those dissenting from thetheory and advocating its replacement by the theory of systemidentification;(3) those that neither support nor disagree with thetheory entirely. The discussions indicate that the theory ofactivity still commands a big following in the Soviet Union and thatA. N. Leontiev is generally recognized as one of the founders of Marxistpsychology in the Soviet Union who has made an important cont-ribution to Marxist psychology. The present discussions are not somuch a negation of his theory as an effort to replenish, revise, developand perfect it. The author goes on to point out: (1)Soviet psychologistshave no essential difference in taking Marxism as the basic methodologyin developing psychology; (2)Chinese psychologists have yet to developtheoretical discussions and contentions and foster their own theoreticiansin this field; (3)A primary need is to determine the direction of thedevelopment of psychology in China, and it is for this reason that weshould pay attention to studies of fundamental psychological theories.
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