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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 18 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    PSYCHOLOGY AND INTROSPECTION
    Shen Decan Peking University
    . 1986, 18 (03): 3-10.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 930 )
    The article centres on the topic of introspection as a basic problem inpsychology. Making reference to history of psychology in the West, itdiscusses the early controversies over introspection and the views held byclassical. modern and Chinese psychologists towards the subject. Theauthor approves the value of introspection. Meanwhile he points out itsdifficulties and obstacles and the ways to overcome them. In conclusion,the author calls for treating introspection adequately, exploring andimproving introspection to speed up the development of psychology inChina.
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    ON THE SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN TEACHERS AND STUDENTS
    Chen Mei Taizhou Teachers' College, Zhejiang
    . 1986, 18 (03): 14-23.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 105 )
    The author of this paper attempts to discuss the problemsconcerning communication between teachers and students from the angleof socio-psychology, holding the view that the structure of communicationbetween teachers and students in the course of teaching is composed ofthree principal aspects-intefaction, exchange of information, and mutualrecognition, and of three principal levels-personality, role and comm-unity. Therefore, the author proposes a communication pattern called"triangular prism of three aspects and three levels." Each of the three aspects in this pattern consists of some factors,and each factor plays a role in the communication between teachers andstudents on every level. Various problems may occur on every aspectand on every level which would affect the process of education. In thispaper, a preliminary analysis of these problems is made and some generalsolutions to them are also suggested.
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    FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCURACY OF DEPTH PERCEPTION AND DISTANCE JUDGMENT
    Lin Zhongxian,Sun Xiuru Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1986, 18 (03): 32-39.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 89 )
    Some factors affecting the accuracy of depth discrimination anddistance judgment were studied in this experiment. The results showedthat depth discrimination and distance judgment were found to be mostaccurate normal binocular observation at 0°. Errors increased obviouslyin binocular observation at 45°sidewise, and the largest errors occurredwhen using one eye only. To compare the accuracy of relative distancejudgments, it was found that judgment of the relative distance of 2/4 wasmore accurate than that of the 1/4 and 3/4. The coordinative movementof both eyes looking through binocular are very important factorsaffecting depth discrimination and distance judgment.
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    THE RETRIEVAL OF INFORMATION IN CHINESE CHARACTERS IN MAKING SIMILARITY JUDGEMENT UNDER RECALL CONDITIONS
    Peng Danling,Guo Dejun,Zhang Shulan Beijing Normal University
    . 1986, 18 (03): 40-47.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 70 )
    Following the paper "The Retrieval of Information in ChineseCharacters in Making Similarity Judgment under Recognition Conditions",the authors have done this new experiment dealing with the sameproblem under recall conditions. Main results in the present study show that the RT of look-likejudgment is the shortest, next comes sound-like judgment followed bysynonymous judgment. The difference between look-like and sound-likejudgements is greater than that of control distractors. These resultsindicate an increase in the effect of phonetic recoding under recallconditions as compared that under recognition conditions.
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    A COMPUTER SYSTEM THAT LEARNS TO SOLVE SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS FROM EXAMPLES
    Chen Yongming,G. Bradshaw Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica CMU, U. S. A.
    . 1986, 18 (03): 48-54.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 237 )
    This paper describes a computer system learning to solve simultan-eous linear equations by examining examples. The system creates a seriesof productions from examples. These rules are stored in productionmemory and become a set of knowledge for solving equations, thusachieving the goal of learning. Almost all good equations could be solvedby 15 productions that are created by the system in a run section.Creating and applying productions are also general forms of humanlearning and problem solving. So the study of computer learning wouldfurther help us in the understanding of the psychological mechanism ofhuman learning and problem solving.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRUCTURE OF KNOWLEDGE AND COGNITION
    Zhang Meiling Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1986, 18 (03): 62-70.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 203 )
    The paper presents a preliminary study of the relationship betweenstructure of knowledge and cognition, carried out on the basis of fouryears of systematical teaching and clinical experiments. The results showthat the structure of knowledge constructed under the part and whole relat-ionship in number and mathematics with " 1 ", as the underlying basispermits the child's forming of a better cognitive structure, which wouldcontribute to the learning of new knowledge, the choice of strategies aswell as the increase of transfer ability in learning mathematics.
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    A WAVE RELATED TO PSYCHOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
    Wei Jinghan,Zheng Lianxing Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1986, 18 (03): 71-78.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 101 )
    The Usual CNV and Non-motor CNV were investigated on fourteenyoung men. A wave (EML) which followed the extrication of mentalload was discovered. The EML which is different from wave V formedafter Usual CNV, does not contain any exogenous components of EP ormotor components and is just a pure mental brain wave elicited bypsychological factors. At the present stage, it is too early to considerEML as a component of LPC. The Psychological factors in CNV havebeen inferred because of the increase of mental load which is syntheti-clly composed of expectancy, conation, motivation, orientation, attention,arousal, etc., while engaging in an identical task. In this experiment theoff-line artireject procedure and grand average records were used.
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    CHARACTER ISTICS OF STRESS RESPONSE IN GYMNASTS
    Tang Cimei,Zhang Kan,Xing Daigao,Lin Wenjuan,Sun Lihua,Zhao Huiling,George Singer,Waldemar Fibiger,Ding Xueqin Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Department of Psychology, La Trobe University, Australia Training Bureau, National Sports Committee of
    . 1986, 18 (03): 79-88.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 76 )
    Physical and mental effort results in changes in urine catecholaminesecretions, heart rate, cardiac rhythm, respiration rate and level ofrespiratory integration, however little is known about individual differ-ences in these parameters resulting from subject's history. In the presentexperiment 12 gymnasts and 12 age-matched non-gymnasts were comparedon a task involving complicated discrimination reactions. The gymnastsshowed a small non-significant increase in urine CA concentrationswhereas the increase for the non-gymnasts was larger and significant.The differences in catecholamine concentrations for gymnasts andnon-gymnasts were significant. Data showed significant heart rate incre-ase, decreases in standard deviation of R-R interval in both groups.Heart rate of gymnasts was lower during rest and performance than in non-gymnasts, and standard deviation of R-R interval was higher ingymnasts which suggests that sinus arrhythmia in gymnasts was morepronounced than in non-gymnasts. Respiration rate increased significantlyin both groups during performance. The value of respiratory integration,as a parameter of relative ventilating flow, decreased significantly bothin gymnasts and non-gymnasts during performance. All of the values ofrespiratory integration in gymnasts were lower than that in non-gymn-asts during corresponding condition, but the difference between twogroups was not significant. These results suggest that some stress-inducedphysiological responses, such as urine CA secretion, heart rate, cardiacrhythm, relative respiratory ventilating flow etc. could be influenced bylongterm training and experience of stress.
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    CHANGES IN HIPPOCAMPUS POWER SPECTRUM ARRAY DURING LEARNING IN RABBITS
    Wu Qine Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1986, 18 (03): 89-93.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 64 )
    It was the purpose of this paper to study the role of hippocampusin the formation of conditioned reaction during learning. The hippoca-mpus electro-activity spectrum power array was analyzed with the computer.The results indicate that the hippocampus plays an important role inthe early period of learning. In the later phase, although the appearancerate of conditioned reaction decreased, the hippocampus electro-activitypower increased gradually and significantly. This suggests that hte hippoca-mpus has been active during the whole process of conditioned reaction.
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    EFFECT OF NATIONAL SPIRIT ON THE FORMATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SCHOOLS
    Han Zhongtai
    . 1986, 18 (03): 100-107.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 85 )
    Psychology is a science for studying the law of the activities ofman's mind. Thus, the study of psychology is unavoidably affected bynational spirit. The structural and the gestalt schools of psychology inGermany and the Functional and Behavioristic schools in the U. S.cannot be isolated from the national spirit at that time. In China, the na-tional spirit will have a positive effect on forming a school of psycho-logy with Chinese characteristics.
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