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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 18 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    DEVELOPMENT IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR STUDY IN CHINA
    Xu Liancang
    . 1986, 18 (04): 4-9.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 254 )
    A brief history of the development in organizational behaviorscience in China is introduced. The state of organizational behaviorstudy at the present time is discussed in the context of trends,theoretical arguments, research works and applied practice. Researchworks have been carried out to cover such issues as the motivation ofworkers, organizational development, management performance diagnosisand leadership study. Activities of the recently established society inbehavior sciences are also reported.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF DISCRIMINATION ON FACIAL EXPRESSIONS OF ADULTS
    Wang Lei,Meng Zhaolan Peking University
    . 1986, 18 (04): 10-161.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 165 )
    This experiment was based on the study and analysis of thepictures of adults with their facial expressions of ten kinds of emotionswhich Izard had suggested. The results of discriminative tests andcomparisons between the facial expression patterns of the adults andthose of the infants supported Izard's claim that objective biologicalfactors are basic in the process of generating and discriminating facialexpressions. The tests have proved the continuity between infant andadult facial expressions, thus substantiating the speculation that thereexists an element of predisposition in basic emotional expression patterns.
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    YOUNG CHILDREN’S COMPREHENSION OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS
    Zhu Manshu,Chen Guopeng,Zhang Renjun East China Normal University
    . 1986, 18 (04): 17-25.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 80 )
    This research investigated 2.5 to 5.5-year-old children's comprehe-nsion of the deictic meanings of personal pronouns including "I","You", "He (or She)", etc. Subjects were required to discriminate thereferents of these pronouns in different situations. In experiment 1. thesubject acted as an observer of a talk by a triad; In experiment 2. thesubject participated in the triad, he (or she) either played the listenerof the conversation or played the third person. The results indicate:(1) Children's comprehension of deictic meaning of personal pronounsdevelop chronologically from the age of 2.5 to 4.5, but there is nosignificant change between ages 4.5 to 5.5; (2) The readiness forchildren to comprehend pronouns varies with " Ⅰ " being the easiest,and "he (or she)" the hardest; (3) In comprehending the deicticmeaning of personal Pronouns, children often cannot properly alternatetheir reference frame required by situational change.
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    INFLUENCE OF ILLUMINATION ON SCHOOLCHILDREN’S VISUAL PERFORMANCE
    Pang Yunfan,Zhang Shaogang,Zhu Xuemei
    . 1986, 18 (04): 26-31.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 129 )
    In order to provide, scientific basis for the government ruling on"School Hygiene Standard of Daylight and Artificial Lighting", thispaper introduces three of the four visual tests which we have conductedto show the relationship between (1) vision sight and illumination,(2) visibility and illumination; and (3) readability of Chinese wordsand illumination. The fourth test will be introduced in another paperwhich is to follow.
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    THE RELATION BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST AND FAMILY FACTORS IN HYPERACTIVE CHILDREN
    Zhang Yao Song,Weizhen Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1986, 18 (04): 32-40.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 378 )
    The results of this study show significant differences betweenhyperactive children and normal children in a series of psychologicaltests-child's activity scale test, attention cancellation test, BenderGestalt test, Benton test and WISC-R or Draw-a-Man test. The studyshows that family influence is an important factor in the occurranceand development of hyperactivity in a child, and that parental attitudetoward a hyperactive child and his home education have a close bearingon the child's development in cognition, behavior and learning ability.The psychological tests provide an objective base for diagnosinghyperactivity.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON CONCEPT FORMATION PROCESS
    Yang Zhiliang East China Normal University
    . 1986, 18 (04): 41-48.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 168 )
    The purpose of this study was to explore the general process ofconcept formation. Two groups were tested; one consisted of 72 Chineseand the other, 72 American subjects, totalling 144 in all. Two groups oftest materials were used in the experiment. One was Chinese characterhypothesis testing model, and the other was English hypothesis testingmodel. The results show that the concept formation process is a gradual-mutative process-first, it progresses step by step, then comes to asudden change. No clear phenomenon of plateau.
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    RESEARCH ON SELECTION OF THE SUPERNORMAL CHILDREN FOR A SPECIAL CLASS AT AGE 10
    Zhou Lin,Zha Zixiu Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Beijing No. 8 Middle School
    . 1986, 18 (04): 49-56.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 85 )
    Screening supernormal children from a population by appropriatemesaures is a process of significant empirical value. For this report weselected 35 top pupils from more than 700 caudidates in the urban areasof Beijing and established a middle school curriculum for the 10-year-olds. Besides considering the recommendations of teachers and parents,eight tests-mathematical knowledge, mathematical ability, languageknowledge, language ability, thinking ability, analogical reasoning ofnumbers, analogical reasoning of words, and creative thinking-were usedin the screening procedure. The results indicate that to choose superno-rmal children by means of multiple standards, multiple methods and incomparison with normal children can bring better results.
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    A STUDY OF RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FACILITATED EFFECT OF DGAVP ON MEMORY CONSOLIDATION PROCESSES AND CEREBRAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN MICE
    Lin Ling,Wu Fumei,Xiao Xinsheng Nanjing University
    . 1986, 18 (04): 57-63.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 82 )
    The effects of desglysinamide-arginine-8-vasopressin(DGAVP) onfacilitating memory consolidation processes and alleriating amnesiainduced by the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin (ANI) werestudied. The effects of DGAVP on protein synthesis at the level ofhippocampal synaptosomes were also observed. The main results of the experiment are as follows: 1. The mice treated with DGAVP took shorter time to arrive atthe destination than the saline-treated controls 72 hours after complexappetitive maze training. 2. ANI impaired retention as the mice injected with ANI requiredlonger time in the maze test. But the impairment can be prevented byadministering DGAVP in advance, in which case the mice ransignificantly faster to the food than saline ANI-treated animals. Theobservations on passive avoidance response coincided with those onappetitive maze test. 3. ANI reduced the incorporation of [~3H]-leucine into the synapto-somes (P<0.01). DGAVP prevented the inhibitive effect of ANI andkept the memory consolidation processes at normal level. The resultsobtained in vivo and in vitro were completely identical. These resultssuggest that DGAVP's effect on facilitating memory consolidation proc-esses is associated with the regulation of protein synthesis.
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    COMPARISON OF AUDIOGENIC SEIZURES INDUCED BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF INFERIOR COLLICULUS WITH THOSE BY ACOUSTIC PRIMING
    Xu Xiaodong,Shao Jiao Beijing University
    . 1986, 18 (04): 64-69.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 102 )
    Electrical stimulation of inferior colliculus can bring aboutaudiogenic seizures in normal rats. This was proved in a group of 28wistar rats. Through implanted electrodes their inferior colliculi werestimulated with AC current of 50 Hz, 0.1mA. for 1-3 seconds induration once a day. After twenty times of stimulation, the animalswere subjected to auditory test by a bell of 115 dB. 75% of themshowed typical seizures to the sound. This percentage approximates thatof the acoustically primed group.
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    CONTINGENT NEGATIVE VARIATION AUDIOMETRY
    Li Xingqi,Gu Rui,Mei Shichang Laboratory of ENT, Postgraduate Medical College of PLA
    . 1986, 18 (04): 74-78.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 109 )
    Contingent negative variation audiometry (CNV-A) has been usedto determine the threshold of perception of an auditory stimulus(Prevec et al., 1973). The present study measured CNV on 17 volunteerswith 2000,4000Hz pure tone. The results show that the range ofthreshold difference between CNV-A and subjective tonal audiometry(ADG) was about - 10~10dB. The mean value of the absolute differenceof the results between CNV-A and ADG was 5.9±3.9dB but the meandifference between the results of both methods was only 3.3±6.3dB at2000Hz. At 4000Hz, the mean value of the absolute difference and meandifference between CNV-A and ADG was 5.0±2.9dB, 3.5±4.7dB respecti-vely. The results indicate that the improved CNV-A is useful forclinical purposes.
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    AN ANALYSIS OF MASS MEDIA AUDIENCE
    Zhang Lixing,Zhang Duxing Neijiang Teacher's College Neijiang Pedagogical Institute
    . 1986, 18 (04): 79-85.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 94 )
    This article tries to analyze mass media audience by applyingresults of studies in psychology and communication. It is hoped thatreaders will gain some understanding of the characteristics of theaudiences and the general principles in the selection ofinformation. This may lead to improvement of the impact of masscommunication.
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    A SHORT COMMENT ON THE TWO GREAT DEBATES ABOUT-BRAIN MECHANISMS OF MEMORY AND THEIR REP RESENTATIVE HYPOTHESES
    Luo Shengde Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1986, 18 (04): 86-91.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 125 )
    At the centennial anniversary of research on memory experimentalpsychology which dates back to the book "Memory" by H. Ebbinghausof Germany, the author comments on the mystery of engram whichhas been regarded as the core cf the mystery of the mind, andbriefly reviews the history of research on the brain mechanisms ofmemory. The paper also deals with the two great debates in this centuryand their representative hypotheses, such as I. P. Pavlov's conditionedreflex theory, K. S. Lashley's integration theory, M. R. Rosenzweig'scorrelation hypothesis, G. Ungar's nervous codes hypothesis, K. H.Pribram's hollogram hypothesis (1969), Jose M. R. Delgado's constellat-ions hypothesis (1981), and the hypothesis of electrical codes, chemicalcodes, and structural codes of acquired informations and engrams inthe brain.
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    THE CHINESE REVISION OF HALSTEAD—REITAN NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TEST BATTERY FOR ADULTS
    Gong Yao--xian The Cooperative Group of H. R. Neuropsychological Test
    . 1986, 18 (04): 94-103.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 172 )
    This paper is a'summary on the work of the revision of Halstead-Reitan Battery for Adults in China. Due to convenience and Chinesecultural background, some instruments and subtests or items were modi-fied. Samples consisted of two groups, one group included 885 normalscollected from six main areas in China and the other included 350patients suffering from different kinds of brain lesions. Normals appro-ximated patients in sex,age and education. Means and standard deviatio-ns of results of ten subtests such as Category Test, Tactual PerformanceTest (TPT), etc, were. computed separetely in two groups, by which thecut-off scores of each subtest ahd the impairment index were determined,these are the norms of our battery. Neurological diagnostic validity of our battery were demonstrated intwo ways: one used impairment index combining with the results ofsensory-perceptural disturbance test and aphasia test to diagnose the 350subjects with brain damage in which 218 subjects' diagnoses were identi-fied by this approach; the other used the lateral hemisphere signs ofthis battery to separate the right hemisphere lesion versue left versusdiffuse for a cross-validity, among 55 patients with focal brain damage24 were in the right cerebral hemisphere and 31 in the left. The hitrate for the right hemisphere lesion were 17 of 24 and 14 of 31 for theleft, 51 normals were tested on the same subtests such as TPT, RhythmTest, Tapping Test, Speech Sound Test and Category Test with aninterval of ten days for test-retest correlation for respectively. validityand reliability is discussed by the writer.
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    EFFECT OF VISUAL INFORMATION OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION ON TELEVISION INSTRUCTION
    Wang Erping Beijing College of Economics
    . 1986, 18 (04): 104-111.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 127 )
    From the standpoint of nonverbal communication of social psycho-logy, this research analyses television instruction (TVI), infering thatdeprivation of visual information of nonverbal communication (VIONC)of the teacher is possibly one of the causes that impair the quality ofTVI. The hypothesis was tested by imitated TVI. Subjects acceptedinstructions of the same contents under three different conditions:Condition Ⅰ was traditional instruction; Condition Ⅱ was TVI containingVIONC of the teacher; Condition Ⅲ was TVI depriving VIONC of theteacher. Exams of instructing contents and attitude questionnaires weregiven after class. The results indicated that adding VIONC of theteacher in TVI promotes the achievement of the learners, and makesthe learners' attitudes more active. The negative influence of deprivityof VIONC is named "Screen Effect". Some new proposals are raised.
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