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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 19 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    A STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF GENERALIZING ABILITY IN CLASSIFICATION BETWEEN THE AGES OF 3 AND 6
    Lü Jing Pang Hong Wang Wenjun Lu Wanjun (Hangzhou University)
    . 1987, 19 (01): 3-11.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 85 )
    This study was made among 32-children between the ages of 3 and 6. The results showed that:1. Preschool children's generalizing ability in classification had 4 levels of development.2. The different levels of generalizing ability in classification between the age groups of 3、4、5 and 6 were not 'clearly defined, but transferred from one level to the next The level rose gradually with age.3. Different levels of generalization were found within the same-age group in the classification of different objects, requests and conditions.4. Generalizing ability was influenced by educational conditions.
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    STUDY ON CHILDREN’S PREDICTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SPACIAL POSITIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE AGES OF 8 AND 13
    Li Wenfu Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1987, 19 (01): 12-19.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 84 )
    This paper makes a further study of children's ability to predict andidentify spacial positional relationship. Two hundred forty pupils weretested; their ages were between eight and thirteen, they were dividedinto six groups, each group contained 40 pupils. Four kinds ofexperiments, varying in degree of difficulty were made. The resultshowed that perceptual experience of a special stimulative body was animportant factor to accelerate children's ability to recognize space.The pupils' spacial prediction records on their left side were lowerthan those on their right side and opposite sides. This experimentchecked the process of children's spacial cognitive development. Therewere indistinctive quantitative developmental changes between differentages. This phenomenon is identical with our past results.
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    DEVELOPMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF 3 TO 6—YEAR—OLDS’ ABILITY FOR BEHAVIORAL CONTROL AND THE FACTORS INFLUENCING IT
    Xu Zhengyuan,Wu Nianyang, Min Ruifang Beijing University
    . 1987, 19 (01): 20-26.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 188 )
    This article deals with an experimental research on 3 to 6-year-old children's ability to control their behavior under adults' oral directivesin different activities. The results indicate: 1. It is easy for pre-school children to control their behaviorto interesting activities. 2. Adults' clear and concrete directives and good orgnization of thechildren's activities have no effect on 3-year-olds' ability to controltheir behavior, but do affect 4 to 6-years-olds, with the effect becomingstronger as age increases. 3. Enhancing the effect of motives simply with oral directives byadults exerts no effect on children's ability to control their behavior inall the age groups but combining motive with role-situation obviouslyaffect children's behavior contral. The above results showed that children's conscious control overbehavior develops gradually. In order to raise the children's ability tocontrol their behavior, various effective measures must be taken.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH IN CULTIVATION OF INTELLIGENCE THROUGH INSTRUCTION IN ON THINKING METHODS
    Wang Xiaoping Beijing Normal University
    . 1987, 19 (01): 27-35.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 129 )
    In order to find whether or not normal children's level ofintellectual activity could be raised within a short time because of theirmastery of thinking methods, we managed to teach thinking in the fifthgrade of elementary school, and had an equivalent controlled group forcomparison. It was found that by learning the given thinkingmethods and having sufficient opportunities to practice and generalizethem, The pupils increased their intelligence and showed some traitsof creativity. Instruction in thinking methods not only develops cognitiveability, but also strengthens motivation and self-confidence.
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    COGNITIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN’S AWARENESS OF INTENTIONALITY IN MORAL JUDGMENTS
    Cheng Yuanshan,Zhang Houcan Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University
    . 1987, 19 (01): 36-42.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 106 )
    By using paired moral-judgment stories, 64 children, from five toeleven years of age are tested for investigating their cognitive developmentin intentionality. It is found that five-year-old children can use somefeatures of intentionality to make moral judgments, such as consideringthe subject's action as being accidental or intentional, or prompted bydifferent motivations. Seven, nine, and eleven-year-old children can usemore features such as voluntariness or involuntariness to make judgments.These are interpreted as the development of children cognitivenetwork usage of features of intentionality.
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    A NEW SCHOOL OF LEARNING PSYCHOLOGY
    Chen Changqin Northwest Teachers College
    . 1987, 19 (01): 43-50.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 138 )
    This article gives a brief introduction to the cognitive theory of lear-ming suggested by David P. Ausubel, a famous contemporary Americancognitive educational psychologist. It also gives a bird's eye view of thedifferences and relationships between Ausubel's and other schools oflearning theory, which include the neobehavioristic position, the gestalttheory, Bartlett's theory of memory and the information processingtheory. Ausubel's "assimilation theory" on school learning and retentionof organized bodies of subject knowledge is reflective of the developmentaltrend that research in learning psychology is being combined with thatin teaching theories.
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    THE TRAINING EFFECT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE AGED IN“DIGIT—SYMBOL”TEST
    Wu Zhenyun,Xu Shulian Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1987, 19 (01): 51-58.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 87 )
    The effect of digit symbol training was tested with digit symbol andits two variations- "write from memory"and "copy test" in the aged (30 Ss,aver. 66 yrs old) and the young (20 Ss, aver. 25 yrs old)training groupsrespectively. Two control groups, matched in age, sex and educationallevel with the trained ones were used. The results indicate: 1. Theperformance of the aged group was significantly worse than the youngergroup; 2. After training, performance improved significantly in bothgroups, and the performance of the trained aged group was better thanthat of the younger control group. This shows that the mental ability ofthe aged might be improved by functional training, and the abilityrelated to memory is more responsive to training than that related toreaction time.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF TWO FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS’MORAL BEHAVIOR
    Chen Xinyin,Shi Ronghua Shanghai Normal University East China Normal University
    . 1987, 19 (01): 59-64.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 383 )
    The present study sought to examine the ettects of the chiedren'smodeling after their teachers and peer interaction in students' rule-violating and donating behavior. The results indicated: 1. Subjects at age 6 readily modeled themselves after their teachers.The imitation rapidly decreased with the advance of age. Conformityto peer group remained salient and consistent before 17 years of age. 2. The tendency of imitation and conformity could be seen in allage groups. Conformity is more obvious than imitation among 10-and13 year-olds.
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    INFORMATION INTEGRATION MODEL AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF IMPRESSION FORMATION OF CHINESE SUBJECTS
    Wang Dengfeng,Chen Zhonggeng Dept. of Psychology, Beijing University
    . 1987, 19 (01): 65-71.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 96 )
    24 university students did independently an impression formationtask of 3×3 factoral design with personality adjectives in Chinese. Theresults of the experiment indicated that: 1. In social and behavioral science research, information integrationtheory may be applied to Chinese culture background, but must be com-bined with the characteristics of Chinese culture. 2. The average integration model of impression formation of theChinese students, is very similiar to that attained by western authors.The Chinese subjects have unique characteristics in impression formation.These characteristics were discussed in the paper.
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    A COMPARISON OF FACTOR ANALYTIC STUDIES AMONG WECHSLER ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE—REVISED IN CHINA(WAIS—RC),WAIS AND WAIS—R
    Dai Xiaoyang,Gong Yaoxian Hunan Medical College
    . 1987, 19 (01): 72-80.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 139 )
    A factor analysis using average correlation matrices of threestandardized age groups in four sample-sizes such as the urban and ruralresidets of WAIS-RC, WAIS and WAIS-R, were performed usingprincipal component analysis method. Main results are as follows: 1. Number of factors: In most age groups of the four sample sizesonly one principal factor was found, while the other age groups hadtwo principal factors. 2. Results of two different factor analytic methods: In general, allverbal subtests had higher loading on factor A, while all performancescale subtests except digit symbol had higher loading on factor B. 3. Results of the three different factor analytic methods: the highestloading on factor A is found in the following subtests: information,comprehension, similarities and vocabulary Medium loading is foundin picture completion. The highest loading on factor B is found in objectassembly, medium loading in picture completion, block design andpicture arrangment; the highest loading on factor C is found in digitspan, medium loading in arithmetic and digit symbol. 4. Results of analysis of g factor: Some subtests such as information,similarities, comprehension, vocabulary, block design and picturecompletion have the highest loading on g factor, other subtests of fullscale have a medium loading. 5. Factor models between WAIS-RC and WAIS of WAIS-R arevery similar.
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    THE EFFECT OF CHINESE CHARACTER’STROKE NUMBERS ON THE CAPACITY OF STM
    Zhang Wutian,Yang Dezhong Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1987, 19 (01): 81-87.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 296 )
    The chunking theory and rehearsal loop theory are two hypothesesfor measuring the STM capacity. This paper includes three experimentsand the results indicate that the complexity of the strokes should beconsidered in measuring its effect on the capacity of STM. In experiment1 which compares the characters of less strokes with those of multiplestrokes, matched for frequency of usage, the STM capacity for the formeris larger than that for the latter. Japanese kanjis of different syllablelengths with approximately similar number of strokes were used in thesecond experiment. Their effect on STM capacity was insignificant. Inexperiment 3 the characters were presented to vision and auditionseparately under the condition of articulatory suppression, and the resultindicates that the STM capacity of both modalities is reduced, but thevisual performance is better than auditory performance. Again itsuggests that the measuring of STM capacity should involve the visualfeature of the characters. Finally the passable reasons for the effect ofcomplexity of character strokes on STM capacity are discussed.
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    THE VISUAL EFFECTIVNESS OF DIFFERENT VISUAL AREAS ON THE MAIN INSTRUMENT PANEL SIMULATING FIGHTER COCKPIT
    Liu Baoshan,Bai Deming Institute of Aviation Medicine
    . 1987, 19 (01): 88-93.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 78 )
    The visual field of the fighter cockpit is an important factor in theinterface of man-machine system. There has been a lot of work done onthe visual field out of the fighter cockpit, but very little on the visualfield within the cockpit. In this study, the reaction time to 32 visualtargets distributed on a main instrument panel simulating the conditionof the fighter cockpit was tested in 100 aircrew with self-designedtachistoscope and visual target box. The main instrument panel wasdivided into 8 areas(4 upper and 4 lower), and the data obtained werestatistically sorted out. It was found that the two upper middle areaswere the best visual areas, the right lower one was moderately good,and the rest were good when the main instrument panel was dividedinto 4 areas (2 upper and 2 lower), the visual effectiveness of the upperareas was better than that of the lower ones, and the left ones werebetter than the right ones. The result of this study accords with thegeneral law of psychotechnology.
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    A STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SLEEP AND MIND HEALTH
    Li Deming Institute of Psychology Academia Sinica
    . 1987, 19 (01): 94-101.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 494 )
    Studies in recent years have shown psychological and behavior aldifferences between long and short sleepers and between good and poorsleepers. The studies have also proved close relationship betweenpsychosis and sleep disturbance. This paper studied the relationshipbetween sleep and mind health in normal and in abnormal states.
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    VISUAL—EVOKED POTENTIALS ON CONTRAST SENSITIVITY
    Jin Guichang,Zheng Zhuying Institute of Biophysics, Academia Sinica
    . 1987, 19 (01): 102-106.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 105 )
    Gratings, the luminance profiles of which varied sinusoidally, wereflashed and displayed on a monitor. An electrode recording thetransient visual-evoked potential was placed 5 cm above inion. Fourhealthy subjects wete tested on four levels of contrast of gratings atten spatial frequencies and VEP was recorded by NICOLET CA-1000system. The result shows that amplitude of (C_1-C_2)differs with differentspatial frequencies, and becomes larger as contrast increases. The maximum amplitude of VEP is at approximately 3-5 c/deg,which tallies with the results of Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)obtained in psychophysical experiment. It is found that the amplitude of(C_1-C_2)is sensitive to contrast change. From VEP, one can see that in human visual system, sensitivitydiffers with different spatial frequencies, which is similar to the resultsof MTF.
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    THE CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CONTINGENT NEGATIVE VARIATION(CNV)AND REACTION TIME
    Jiang Deming,Yang Wenhua,Deng Fenghua,Wang Baiyang Departmenf of Physiology, Fudan University
    . 1987, 19 (01): 107-110.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 84 )
    The correlations between the area of contingent negative variation(CNV)and reaction time (RT) were studied by means of selectivesummation technique on 15 subjects. The results indicated that when significant differences were obtainedbetween the longest and shortest RTs CNVs associated with the slowestRTs were also significantly smaller than CNVs associated with theshortest RTs. The differences were mainly in the later part of CNV. The possiblecause of this phenomenon was discussed.
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