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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 19 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF BEHAVIORS BETWEEN THE ONLY-CHILD AND THE NON-ONLY-CHILD
    Mao Yuyan Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1987, 19 (02): 3-13.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 160 )
    151 kindergarten children of 3-4(1/2) years old participated in thisstudy. Among them 96 were main subjects: 48 non-onlies and 48 pairedonlies. The methods here used were observation, evaluation and questio-nnaire The results showed that there were no significant differences incharacter between the onlies and non-onlies among 3-4(1/2)-year-olds.The reasons why the onlies do not have specific and the so-called"two-extremity-characteristics" were discussed. Besides, the author foundthat different environment feedbacks and the child's control ofbehavior caused the child to behave differently before different people.
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    REPORT ON THE NORM OF WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN-CHINA REVISED(WISC-CR) IN SHANGHAI PROPER(WISC-CRs)
    Li Dan,Jin Yu,Zhu Yuemei,Tang Caihong East China Normal University Shanghai Sixth Hospital
    . 1987, 19 (02): 26-34.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 166 )
    In this research we formulated the norm in Shanghai proper on thebasis of WISC-CR. It represents children's intelligence levels in bigcities where economic and cultural development is advanced. Thesample consists of 660 school children aged from 6 to 16. The normincludes two forms: (1) "Scaled Score Equivalents of Raw Score" ofeach age group; (2) "IQ Equivalents of Sums of Scaled Score". Having examined the reliability and validity of the norm, WISC-CRproves to fit school-age children in China. The difference between the results of our sample and U. S. sample(WISC-R) in subtests is also analysed in the paper.
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    RELIABILITY OF SERIES TESTS AND CRITERION—RELATED VALIDITY BETWEEN TWO SERIES TESTS
    Li Weiming Educational Management Department, Shanghai Normal University
    . 1987, 19 (02): 35-39.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 81 )
    If two series of psychological tests X and Y involve p and q subtestsseparately, we can take ρ_(XY)=1/r sum from i=1 to r λ_i as the validity coefficient betweenX and Y, where λ_i is the ith nonzero characteristic root of matrixM=V_(YY)~+V_(YX)V_(XX)~+V_(XY). When p=q=1 or p=1, q>1, the generalized correlationcoefficient ρ_(XY) is just the ordinary validity coefficient of psychologicaltests. This ρ_(TT) may be a measurement of the reliability of series test T.A practical example is in the paper.
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    ALTITUDE SYMBOLS IN HEAD—UP DISPLAYS ON AIRPLANES
    Cui Daige Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1987, 19 (02): 40-47.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 94 )
    This experiment in engineering psychology studied altittidesymbols of airplane head-up displays. A mini-computer was used in theexperiment. An optimum altitude was selected among six differentaltitude symbols on the basis of their dynamic display on the screenand their response to the signals. Adequate data were thus obtained tomeet future specifications of head-up displays.
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    TELEOLOGY,INTENTIONALITY,AND CONSCIOUSNESS
    Arthur W. Burks University of Michigan, U. S. A.
    . 1987, 19 (02): 48-56.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 94 )
    The author gives a computer model of intentional goal-seeking, which has two parts. The static part consists of a goalrepresentation and a plan for achieving it. The dynamic part is arepeated feedback cycle of sensed input, internal information processingand action output. Human intentionality is accompanied by consciousness,but there could be an intentional robot which is not conscious. Using robotic models of goal-seeking systems, we define a teleologicalcontinuum of goal-seeking systems; this continuum runs from simpledirect response systems to intentional systems. There are two traditionalexplanations of this teleological continuum: the final cause theory ofPlato, Aristotle, and Plotinus, and the reductionist theory of the Greekatomists and modern evolutionary biologists. The writer comments onthese doctrines. The author surveys several types of conscious functioning andproposes a theory of consciousness that is automaton based, involvingcomparisons between the human person, with mind and body, and theorganization of a computer having a central control. Viewed from theperspective of computer architecture, human consciousness is a particularkind of computer control system, a relatively simple real-time controlwhich, when the system is awakened, directs short-term activities andplans longer-term activities.
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    THE PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF TRAFFIC SIGNS IN BEIJING
    Zhan Meisha Beijing Institute of Physical Education
    . 1987, 19 (02): 57-65.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 161 )
    The present research contains three parts: In Part Ⅰ, a driverquestionnaire was used to determine the interpretability of 80 trafficsigns in Beijing. The 85% correct interpretation rate was used as thereceptible standard. In Part Ⅱ, those traffic signs, which failed to reachthe receptible standard in Part Ⅰ, were examined with a long-termmemory test, also using the 85% correct recognization rate as thereceptible standard. These signs were examined with a short-termmemory-recognization test in Part Ⅲ. Then a correlation analysis wasmade with the results in Part Ⅱ and Part Ⅲ. The results showed: 1) 65 of the 80 traffic signs reached or exceeded the receptiblestandard; 2) The interpretability of the traffic signs depended on theirvisibility and simplicity. It also depended on the experience, knowledgeand attitude of the driver; 3) In the long-term and short-term memory tests, 14 of the 15 signs,which did not reach the receptible standard in Part Ⅰ, reached thereceptible standard of correct recognization; 4) The "END NO OVERTAKING" sign failed to reach the receptiblestandard in all tests. It was therefore recommended that this signshould not be used as a formal traffic sign; 5) The correct recognization rate and the correct reaction time inthe long-term and short-term memory tests were of the same effectwhen they were used as criteria to evaluate the traffic signs.
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    LEARNING TO BUILD PRODUCTIONS FROM EXAMPLE AND BY PROBLEM SOLVING
    Zhu Xinming,Qin Yulin,Shi Tieru,Herbert A. Simon Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Beijing Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Guang dong Institute of Education Carnegie-Mellon University
    . 1987, 19 (02): 66-73.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 117 )
    In this paper we report one of a number of experiments with highschool students on learning from examples and learning by workingthrough problems. The test results and protocols indicate that as longas the examples are appropriate and the problems are well arranged,most of the students master the knowledge quite well within a shorttime by working through some examples and problems. The students notonly learned how to solve problems, but also could induce problem solvingstrategies, the symbolic production rules, with which they direct furtherproblem solving. Thus speeding up the problem solving procedure. We also discussed the process of learning from examples andlearning by working through problems.
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    THE GLOBAL PRECEDENCE IN VISUAL INFORMATION EXTRACTION
    Luo Chunrong,Ji Guiping,Fang Lujiang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1987, 19 (02): 74-79.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 113 )
    This experiment is performed to investigate the RT difference inrecognition between the global-directed attention and local-directedattention, with compound Chinese characters made up of many smallerones as material. Visual angle of the stimulus is varied systematically tosee if the relative size of global pattern and local elements contributeto the occurrence of the RT difference between the two attentionconditions. The results show that in normal situation, the response toglobal pattern is significantly faster than that to local elements, and theinfluence of different visual angles on the RT difference is notsignificant. This suggests that the process of visual informationextraction begins with the global processing. In other words, globalprecedence exists, and it is the global precedence, not the relative size,which causes the significant RT difference between the global-directedattention and local-directed Attention.
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    FAMILIAR COLOR TEST CHART FOR PHOTOGRAPHY
    Sun Xiuru,Lin Zhongxian,Peng Ruixiang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1987, 19 (02): 80-88.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 85 )
    The familiar color test chart for photography has 8 differentcolor patches. The 8 colors are Chinese men's skin color, Chinesewomen's skin color, sky blue, foliage green, orange yellow, light violet,deep purple (rose purple) and olive green. The chart is to be used asstandards in quantitative analysis of color reproduction in variousphotographic techniques.
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    CONSTRUCTION OF CPM SCALE FOR LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT
    Ling Wenquan,Chen Long,Wang Deng Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    . 1987, 19 (02): 89-97.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 214 )
    Research on the pattern of leadership behavior assessment in foreigncountries uses the two factor theory: one factor is the performance ofthe object in achieving the aim of the organization, and the other isgroup maintenance. This study based on cluster analysis demonstratesthat there is at least one more factor: personal moral character. Theresult verified our three-factor hypothesis. This difference of assessmentpattern probably is due to the cultural difference between China andWestern countries.
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    A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON OBSERVATION ABILITY BETWEEN SUPERNORMAL AND NORMAL CHILDREN AT AGE 3—6
    Zhang Lianyun Hebei Normal University
    . 1987, 19 (02): 98-104.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 89 )
    This report is based on the results of one of a series of expe-riments on the cognitive ability of supernormal children organized by anational joint research group for the study of such children. Ourpurpose is to explore quantitatively and qualitatively the levels andcharacteristics of the ovservation ability of normal children at age 3-6in order to establish an index to screen the supernormal children. The test was designed on the basis of children's characteristics. Theresults proved high validity and reliability of the test in screeningsupernormal children between the ages of 3 and 6. It was found that the development of the observation ability of 3to 6-year-old children was uneven. The development in the 3-year-oldgroup was faster than that in the other age groups in both quantityand quality. Through comparative study between normal and supernormalchildren, it was found that between the four-year-old groups ofsupernormal and normal children, the difference in quality was muchmore significant than that in quantity. The result is useful to furtherresearch on supernormal children.
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    DETERMINATION OF CATECHOLAMINE IN URINE BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH ELECTROCHEMICAL DETECTION
    Lin Wenjuan,Tang Cimei,Wang Yumei Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Institute of Biophysics, Academia Sinica
    . 1987, 19 (02): 105-109.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 102 )
    This report outlines a procedure for the quantitative analysis ofurinary norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine by high performanceliquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Bio-Rex cationexchange resin was used to remove catecholamines from urine specimens.The recovery was 97±5% for norepinephrine; 97±9% for epinephrine;76±8% for dopamine(n=5). Meanwhile, a determination was made byHPLC for urinary catecholamines under different psycho-physiologicalconditions.
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