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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 June 1988, Volume 20 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    SOME THOUGHTS ON INTROSPECTI0N
    Chen Shu-yong Beijing University
    1988, 20 (02):  3-7. 
    Abstract ( 478 )  
    This paper argues that introspection is of various kinds. We shouldnot stand for or be against it indiscriminately. The introspection that wasconsistently subjected to criticism is the classical kind which has beendisused in laboratory practice since E. B. Titchener passed away in 1927.The introspection still generally used in psychological experiments, e. g.the subjects' evaluation or judgment of stimuli, has never been disappro-ved by anyone including the radical behaviorists. In fact, it has becomea laboratory routine. The subject could only report the results of hismental processes, not his mental processes per se. If there are no majordifferences in principle in the identification of introspection, we mighttreat the minor issues by adopting the principle of seeking commonground while reserving trivial differences. It is high time to put off thelong-standing debates over introspection until more new facts aboutthis topic become available.
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    THE ORGANIZATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF EMOTION——A LABORATORY REPORT ON EMOTION'S IMPACT ON COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE
    Meng Zhao-lan Beijing University
    1988, 20 (02):  8-16. 
    Abstract ( 724 )  
    On the basis of a set of laboratory experiments, this report deals withthe organizational functions of emotion with the conclusion that emoti-ons of variant hedonic tones produce organizational or disorganizing eff-ects of different characters on cognitive performance. The discussion cen-ters round (1) the general emotional arousal and concrete differentiation; (2)the effects of variant hedonic emotions on cognitive performance; (3) thefunctions of anger; (4) the functions of interest as an emotion; (5) thefunctions of emotions as interior experiences.
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    A CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARATIVE STUDY ON TEST ANXIETY BETWEEN CHINESE AND JAPANESE STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITIES
    Ling Wen-quan Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1988, 20 (02):  17-23. 
    Abstract ( 951 )  
    TAI was used on the cross-culture comparative research between theChinese and Japanese students in universities. The results indicated thattest anxiety in Japanese students is higher than Chinese students.The major expressions for Chinese students are "anxiety in testing" and"mind the results of examinations", and for Japanese students are "over-all anxiety for tests". The differences between the two may be related tothe social factors of the two countries.
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    INTR0DUCING THE MECHANICAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY
    Zhang Hou-can,Tian Guang-zhe Beijing Normal University Tianjin Vocational Technical Teachers' College
    1988, 20 (02):  24-31. 
    Abstract ( 509 )  
    The Mechanical Aptitude Test Battery is a set of aptitude tests ofmechanical technical operation designed to meet the actual needs for se-lecting, enlisting and training mechanical technician. It includes twoparts: the paper-and-pencil test and the manual test with altogether thirteensubtests. After pretesting, subject analysis and appropriate sampling,280 technicians were chosen from three technical schools in the Tianjincity and put through the tests. The results showed that the test-retestreliability coefficients of the paper-and-pencil test and the manual testwere 0.83 and 0.92 respectively; the multiple correlation coefficients ofthe two with the subjects' rating scores were 0.44 and 0.57 respectively.
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    NEW VIEWPOINTS ABOUT WANG CHONG'S PSYCH0LOGICAL THOUGHTS:SOME IDEAS ON THE METHODOLOGY FOR STUDYING HISTORY OF ANCIENT CHINESE PSYCHOLOGICAL TH0UGHTS
    Yin Wen-qing Shanghai Normal University
    1988, 20 (02):  32-39. 
    Abstract ( 484 )  
    The paper tries to describe a new method for studying Wang Chong'spsychological thoughts. The method includes two principles: (1) the pri-nciple of integration, and (2) the principle of inner-logic. By this method,the author discovered that the basic idea of Wang's psychological tho-ughts is his stress on the unique importance of facts and proofs. From thiswe can infer that (1) the essence of his psychological thoughts is that"mind is power", and (2) the distinctive feature of his psychological th-oughts is that "mind can be externalized". Both of these are embodied inhis theories of man and of mind.
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    AGE DIFFERENCE OF SEARCH TIME IN SHORT-TERM MENIORY AND THE RELATION BETWEEN SEARCH TIME AND AROUSAL LEVEL
    Wu Zhi-ping Institute of Psychology, Academica Sinica
    1988, 20 (02):  40-48. 
    Abstract ( 746 )  
    Twenty-four old-age subjects (mean age at 65) and 24 young subjec-ts (mean age at 24) were chosen to perform the short-term memory searchtask according to Sternberg's procedure. The heart rate (HR), finger pulsevolume (FPV), and electrodermal response (EDR) were recorded bothduring their performance on the search task and at the rest period.The results indicated that the search time of all subjects increased withthe searching items, and the aged showed significantly longer RT than theyoung subjects. In performing search tasks, the aged group showed gene-rally lower reactivity in HR, FPV, and EDR than the young group. Theseresults tended to support the hypothesis that the aged were underaro-usal rather than overarousal in performing cognitive tasks. There weresignificant correlations between the reactivity in autonomic nervous sys-tem (FPV and EDR) and the search time, which might be explained bytwo possibilities: (1) the longer search time among the aged was the re-sult of the lower arousal level; (2) both long search time and low arousallevel were caused by changes in the central nervous system of the agingpeople.
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    THE COLOR SHIFTS OF THE SAME COLOR APPEARANCE OF WHITE LIGHT AFTER ILLUMINATING WITH DIFFERENT COLORED LIGHTS
    Xu Zong-hui,Lin Zhong-xian,Pan Guang-yue (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica) (Beijing Institute of Technology)
    1988, 20 (02):  49-55. 
    Abstract ( 814 )  
    In this experiment the haploscopic method was used to test the changeof color vision after illumination of different colored lights. The colorshifts were measured and shown on the CIE 1931 color diagram. It was found that colored lights similar to adapting colors took thesame color appearance of white light. The results also showed that, afteradaptation to an adapting colored light, a white light appeared to have ahue complementary to that light. These results may provide clues to fur-ther our understanding of visual process.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENCES IN THE PROPORTIONS BETWEEN THE FULFILLING-QUOTA BONUS AND EXCEEDING QUOTA BONUS ON PERFORMANCE
    Xu Xiao-dong Hangzhou University
    1988, 20 (02):  56-62. 
    Abstract ( 606 )  
    In our industrial establishments, the majority of bonus systems consistof both the fulfilling-quota bonus and the exceeding-quota bonus. Theinfluence of the different structures of the proportion between the fulfil-ling-quota bonus and exceeding-quota bonus on performance was studied.The results showed: Incentive powers differ with different proportionalstructures of bonus systems; the key factor is the ratio between the ex-ceeding-quota and the fulfilling-quota bonuses. Generally, the higher theratio, the better the performance. The paper went on to discuss the cau-ses leading to the results.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOLCHILDREN'S COGNITI0N OF THE STRUCTURES OF APPLIED ARITHMETICAL PROBLEMS(Ⅱ)
    He Ji-quan Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1988, 20 (02):  63-68. 
    Abstract ( 439 )  
    This paper is a continuum of (I) with the same title. It continues toanalyze the developmental characteristics of schoolchildren's cognition ofthe structures of applied arithmetical problems. This analysis is made fromthe part-and-whole relationship point of view between numbers based onthe solving process of 36 different types of applied problems. The authorclaims that the different levels of relationship between two comparingnumbers constitute a "net". The children's acquisition of the "net" is aprocess of transformation of cognition from simple to complex, whichplays an important role in problem solving. It suggests that a teacher ofarithmetic must pay attention to the children's knowledge of the quanti-tative relation in applied problems. The author also advances some newideas for analyzing the structure of quantitative relation in simple ari-thmetical applied problems.
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    TRANSCULTURAL STUDY OF DIFFERENCE IN THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN LI AND HAN SCHOOLCHILDREN ON HAINAN ISLAND
    Zheng Xue Psychology Department, South China Normal University, Guangzhou
    1988, 20 (02):  69-75. 
    Abstract ( 762 )  
    This paper is intended to explore the differences in the intellectualdevelopment of school boys and girls of Li and Han nationalities onHainan Island and the causes that lead to the differences. The subjectsconsist of 120 11 to 15-year-old such schoolchildren in Baoting and Tongza,two culturally different areas on Hainan Island. Four tests were used, i.e, the Reven's progressive matrice test, perceiving ability test, memoryability test and thinking ability test. We also applied individual trait qu-estionaires and family environment questionaires. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the gene-ral intelligence, perceiving ability, memory ability and thinking ability ofthe schoolchildren in the two areas. These differences were correlated tocultural differences and individual traits, but not to ethnical differences.
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    FACTOR ANALYSIS OF INTELLIGENCE TEST BASED ON WISC-R & CRT MEASUREMENT FOR SHANGHAI SCHOOLCHILDREN
    Hong Ge-li Department of Education, Central China Normal University, Wuhan
    1988, 20 (02):  76-84. 
    Abstract ( 747 )  
    This paper makes a factor analysis of the development and changein schoolchildren's intelligence. Three groups of children at the ages of6, 12 and 16 respectively from urban Shanghai were subjects of this cross-sectional study. WISC-R and CRT tests were used. The "general factor the-ory" and the "g_f-g_c theory" served as frameworks for the analysis ofthe results and the study of the developmental process of intelligence. Theauthor considers that the results supported to a certain extent the "diffe-rentination theory" on intelligence.
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    C0NSULTATI0N WITH THE AUTHOR 0F THE ARTICLE “PROBLEMS ON REVISING WAIS AND OTHER TESTS”
    Xu Yun,Dai Xiao-yang Department of Psychology, University of Hangzhou Hunan Medical College
    1988, 20 (02):  85-90. 
    Abstract ( 523 )  
    Mr. J. Tan publisbed an article in Acta Psychologica Sinica, 18 (3).p.333-341, 1986, and considered that there were inadequacies in the work ofthe National Mental Tests Cooperation Group, Headed by Gong Yao-xian,in the revision of some mental tests, such as the Wechsler Adult Intelli-gence Scale. In this paper, the authors discuss problems related tothe representation of the norm samples, the defining of the norm group,the equivalence of scaled scores and the misuse of Tellegen formula.
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    RELATI0NSHIP BETWEEN PERF0RMANCE SCORE AND LEU-ENKEPHALIN OF RAT BRAIN
    Kuang Pei-zi,Chen Shuang-shuang,Guan Lin-chu,Dai Xiao-hong,Xiang Xiao-kuan,Kuang Pei-gen,Ren Tao,Wang Guo-ping,Zhang Feng-ying Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Neurotransmitter Research Laboratory Postgraduate Medical College, Chinese PLA General
    1988, 20 (02):  95-100. 
    Abstract ( 864 )  
    Rats were trained in a shuttle avoidance task. Brain LEK levels weremeasured in rats after 5 training sessions. LEK level of stritum increasedin the rats with low performance score compared with rats with highperformance score (P<0.05) and controls (P<0.01). No difference in LEKlevel between rats with high performance score and controls was found.The data indicated that the foo?-shock stimulation was not attributableto the difference in LEK level. These results suggest that endogenousLEK may be involved in the modulation of acquisition of shuttle avoid-ance responses.
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    THE EFFECTS OF PIRACETAM,HUPERZINE A,GYNOSTEMMA PENTAPHYLLUM MAKINO,HELICID AND ANISODINE ON OPEN FIELD BEHAVIOR IN RATS
    Guan Lin-chu,Yao Lin (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1988, 20 (02):  101-104. 
    Abstract ( 504 )  
    Pracetam, huperzine A, gynostemma pentaphyllum makino, helicid andanisodine are neural drugs prepared recently. Except piracetam, they arenew alkaloids and potent components isolated from traditional Chineseherbs by Chinese phytochemists. In this paper the effects of piracetam,huperzine A, gynostemma pentaphyllum makino, helicid and anisodine onopen field behavior in rats are reported. The results showed that piracetam, huperzine A, gynostemma penta-phyllum makino and helicid caused remakable inhibitory behavioral rea-ction in rats, however, anisodine caused the animals' excitatory behavio-?al reaction.
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    SOME FACTORS RESEARCH ON THE GYMNAST'S ABILITY OF SELF-CONTROL OVER OPPORTUNE MOMENT
    Chai Wen-xiu,Wang Cheng-wu Tianjin Physical Culture College
    1988, 20 (02):  105-113. 
    Abstract ( 558 )  
    An apparatus was made by connecting the switch of a round springboard to a timer. 17 excellent gymnasts of national-level and 20 gym-beg-inners (all children) jumped at the same spot repeatedly. With thisapparetus, the accuracy and duration in the reproduction of his or herjumps, the symmetry of the turns both to the right and to the left, thetransfer and interruption of the reproduced stay above duration, the rhyth-ms of movements, the errors in duration, distance and angle when thebody turns 90 quickly and slowly are tested. According to a formula thetime and space index of each of the tested gymnasts are found. Amongthe many factors which can be used to analyse a gymnast's ability of selfcontrol over the opportune moment, it is important to determine whichare potential factors and which are factors acquired through learning andtraining, and how can these two kinds of factors develop coordinately.With this knowledge, gymnasts can be helped to build up and developtheir ability of self-control over the opportune moment.
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