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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 20 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    A STUDY ON COMPUTERIZED INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT CHINESE AND RELATED PROBLEMS
    Chen Yong-ming,Li Jia-zhi,Cai Shan Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, Beijing
    . 1988, 20 (03): 5-13.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 71 )
    This paper describes an ancient Chinese language understanding system(ACLUS) in processing ten proverbial stories written in ancient Chinese. The system consists of a knowledge base and three subprograms. Theknowledge base includes two parts, one is a dictionary; the other consistsof a few sets of rules for processing sentences. The words in the dictio-nary are annotated with their lexical meanings and syntatic and semanticfeatures, and also with information on semantic match between some verbsand nouns. The syntatic analysis subsystem makes sentence parsing and providesspecial treatment of function words (FW), The translation subsystem trans-lates stories from ancient into modern Chinese, The question-and-answersubsystem behaves like a dialogue between teacher and student about themeanings of words and the meanings or grammatical construction of somesentences. The paper discusses the problems about case analysis, the tense of theverb and the addition or deletion of words in a sentence in ancient Chineseso as to facilitate interpretation and translation. The authors point outthat there is a remarkable difference between Chinese and Western langu-ages, and that the Chinese have their own way of understanding theirmother tongue. To identify the case of a noun or the tense of a verb, theChinese do not depend on the morphological signs of the word, but on abroad understanding of the context.
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    STOP CONSONANTS AND TONE PERCEPTION
    Yang Yu-fang,Jin Ling-juan Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
    . 1988, 20 (03): 14-20.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 101 )
    Two experiments reported here were conducted with Standard ChineseCV-syllables as stimuli to investigate the interinfluence between tone andstop in consonant perception. It is shown that the manner of stop consonantarticulation, aspirated or not aspirated, has a significant effect on toneperception, that is, unaspirated stops make listeners more responsive to toneswith higher onset F? foo and that the tone of a syllble strongly affects theidentification of stop manners. When the cue of VOT is ambiguous forjudging higher onset F? of tone one and tone four, it leads, to more respo-nses of unaspirated stops.
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    EFFECTS OF ILLUMINANCE AND VDT LUMINANCE CONTRAST ON VISUAL PERFORMANCE
    Zhang Hua-zhong,Jing Qi-cheng Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
    . 1988, 20 (03): 21-30.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 92 )
    This research was intended to explore the effecs of VDT luminancecontrast, illuminance and two different light sources on visual performa-nce. Results of a series of related experimental studies show that VDTluminance contrast is the major parameter affecting the speed of readingChinese characters on the VDT screen. The results also suggest that thereading speed decreases as VDT illuminance increases. In order to improvevisual performance under the condition of VDT, we could either increaseVDT luminance contrast or decrease VDT illuminance,. or both. In thelight of these results, our recommanded VDT illuminance ranges from 50to 200 lux. At this VDT illuminance level, the illuminance of the hori-zontal working plane is 70-340 lux under our experimental condition.
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    A STUDY OF VISUAL DISCRIMINATI0N ABILITIES OF NEONATES
    Feng Xiao-mei,Zhang Xiao-dong,Zhang Hou-can,Xu Ya-wen,Zhang Zhi-fen Beijing Normal University Beijing Friendship Hospital
    . 1988, 20 (03): 31-37.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 135 )
    This paper explores the developmental level of visual discriminationabilities of new-born babies by utilizing habituation method. A sampleof 176 neonates were randomly selected from the infants born in BeijingFriendship Hospital. The subjects' ages ranged from 8 minutes to 13 days.All the babies were awake and in normal physical condition when tested. Theexperimental materials consisted of 8 pictures with the following patterns:grey circle, red circle, black annulation, normal human face, abnormalhuman face, and three kinds of alternate white and black stripes ofdifferent widths. These original pictures were grouped by combining theminto 10 pairs for comaprison. The results indicate: From the time of birth the infants are able tovisually discriminate some pictures with different patterns; the new-born babies have also developed colour discrimination abilities to a certainextent; two pictures, different only in one dimension, are easier for neona-tes to distinguish; newborn babies' visual discrimination capabilities arenot significantly correlated with their sex.
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    A COMPARATIVE RESEARCH ON THE CONCEPT FORMATION OF CHILDREN FROM DIFFERENT AREAS AND ETHNIC GROUPS AGED 7-11
    Zuo Meng-lan,Wei Chang Study Group on Intercultural Development of Children's Cognitive Power in Yunnan Province
    . 1988, 20 (03): 38-45.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 505451 )
    This paper is a comparative study of the concept formation of 290children from different areas and ethnic groups aged 7-11. They com-prised of a group of Han children from Kunming and another group of Han,Dai and Jingpo children from Ruili. Experiments on the cultural influenceover children's concept formation showed that in all the five researchitems, all the children in the Kunming group had a higher score than thoseof the Ruili group. Among the three nationalities in Ruili, such differe-nces were not so significant. This paper discusses the major reasons forthe differences from three perspectives: school education, family education,and social background.
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    CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARISON OF MATHEMATICAL ACHIEVEMENTS OF CHILDREN FROM CHINA, JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
    Fang Ge,Tong Le-quan,Liu Fan Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, Beijing
    . 1988, 20 (03): 46-54.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 155 )
    This work was conducted cooperatively by the Institute of Psychologyof the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the University of Michiganin the United States. The group maths test was part of a larger study,The purpose of this preliminary study was to compare the mathematicalachievents between children in Beijing, Chicago, Sendai (Japan) and Taibei(Taiwan). The results indicate that Asian students get higher scores thantheir American counterparts. We tried to compare American textbooks with those of other countries.Teaching time seems to be an important factor affecting Chinese child-ren's performance. Their attitude toward study might be another factor.Other factors such as family condition, teachers' style, mothers' conceptand the way the class is conducted also influence the level of their achieve-ment. All of these factors are being analysed and the results will bereported later.
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    COMPARISON OF SENSITIVITY OF SEVERAL SECONDARY TASKS IN WORKLOAD MEASUREMENT
    Wang Hui-li,Guo Su-mei,Zhao Hui-ling Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
    . 1988, 20 (03): 55-60.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 84 )
    This is an experiment on workload measurement of human operators.Its purpose is to determine which secondary task is more sensitive in work-load measurement. Our experiment treats tracking performance as theprimary task and mental arithmetic, recall of random digit and associationas the secondary tasks. The change in the operation of the secondarytasks is used as a measurement of different difficulty levels in the primarytask. The results show that mental arithmetic is most sensitive.
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    INTELLIGENCE OF MASTER SPORTSMEN IN SHANGHAI
    Zhu Pei-li,Fang Xing-chu Department of Physical Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai Shanghai Sports Technics College
    . 1988, 20 (03): 61-68.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 87 )
    This paper studies the intelligence of master sportsmen in ShanghaiThe subjects of the investigation were 31 master sportsmen, 17 males and14 females, whose ages ranged from 19 to 29. They are from basketball,handball, baseball, acrobatic gymnastics, archery, track-and-field and deca-thlon teams. The purpose was to explore the intelligence quotient (IQ)of master sportsmen in Shanghai by the use of factor analysis technique. The results of the study were as follows: 1. Average VIQ, PIQ and FIQ for the master sportsmen were all be-tween 105-110, and there was no difference between men and women. 2. Those sportsmen whose IQ were above 120 had higher movementskills too, especially among acrobatic gymnasts, basketballers and decathlonathletes. 3. All the master sportsmen's intellig ence structure were perfect, andthe A, B, and C factor quotients were all high and well coordinated.
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    STUDY ON ONTOGENY OF FUNCTIONAL ASYMMETRY OF THE TWO CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES IN RATS——AN EXPERIMENT ON ROTATIONAL BEHAVIOR INDUCED BY AMPHETAMINE IN NEONATAL RATS
    Li De-ming Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, Beijing
    . 1988, 20 (03): 77-82.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 78 )
    168 Wistar rat pups were assigned to 11 age groups from 0, 2, 4, 6……to 20 days. All subjects were tested for the rotational behavior inducedby amphetamine (50mg/kg i. p.). The purpose is to study ontogeny offunctional asymmetry of the two cerebral hemispheres in rats. The test showed that the rotation with low level in O-day-1 old (post-natal 0-12 hrs) pups can be induced by amphetamime, and the level ofrotation was enhanced with each passing day. The results indicate that inrats the two cerebral hemispheres were characterized by asymmetry atbirth.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON IMPROVING THE THINKING ABILITY OF FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF JUNIOR HIGH SCH00L
    Zhang Xu-yang Beijing Teachers College
    . 1988, 20 (03): 98-105.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 126 )
    This is an experimental study on the effect of thinking lesson on stu-dents' thinking ability. The results show that thinking lessons can signifi-cantly raise the speed of thinking, broaden the scope of thinking,strengthen the ability to elaborate and improve creative thinking. Increase in the ability to generalize is not significant. We found that the potential of cultivating students' thinking abilityexists in school teaching, and the breakthrough point to tap the potentialis to teach correct thinking procedures and make them a habit. Becausethe general procedure and the one related to specific subjects are bothimportant, we suggest that the two kinds of thinking lessons be integra-ted.
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