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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 21 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    SIZE EFFECT OF LANGUAGE UNITS IN SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM MEMORY
    Yu Bo-lin Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, Beijing
    . 1989, 21 (01): 3-10.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 122 )
    The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of Chinese lan- guage units of different sizes on short-term and long-term memory. Sin- gle Chinese characters, two-characters, idoms with four-characters and setences with seven-characters were chosen as experimental materials. The experimental results showed that: (1)The size effect of units existed mainly in STM, it concreatly expressed that STM capacity decreased when unit extended. This means that surface structure of language (mainly the numbers of pronounced syllables) affects STM significantly. Deep struc- ture of language also affected their STM to a certain extent, other- wise STM capacity should conform to Baddeley's model (2)The results of LTM experiment on meaningful Chinese materials show that size eff- ect did not exist in LTM; and sematic features strongly influenced LTM, for example, closeness of sematic features and difinition and so on. These sematical features are deeply conditioned by positions of the vari- ous units in language structure, pragmatical customs and frequencies. (3) The results of the comparative experiments on relatively non-meaningful numeral material is shown to confirm with the analysis and deduce men- tioned above.
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    The DL Theorem
    Chen Wen-xi Shanxi Mining College
    . 1989, 21 (01): 11-19.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 82 )
    Schemes intending to improve Weber's law have been often proposed during the past hundred years. Yet none of them can be regarded as a successful rule to reveal the general relationship between stimulation inte- nsity and difference threshold of a certain receptor. The DL theorem derived from the model of stimulation and effect fo- rmerly given by the author is shown to be in sound agreement with sensa- tion experiments from simple hand weighing to that of illumination with Weber's ratio varying more than a hundredfold. Besides, examination of the verified data gives evidence that the accomodation of visual sensibility under daily life illumination of 10~(-3) --10~3 millilambert is mainly accomplished by the change of the pupil; that in the range of intermediate vision, the chief analyzer of the eye is the cone itself; and that the illumination intensity about the upper limit of the mentioned range can also be estimated by the DL theorem.
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    CAPACITY LIMITATION AND STRATEGY OF IMAGE PROCESSING
    Ji Gui-ping,Luo Chun-rong Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1989, 21 (01): 20-25.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 101 )
    The experiment was performed to investigate the capacity limitation for and strategies 1 in image processing. The Chinese character was de- composed into its parts (stroke units) as stimulus, and these parts, arr- anged either in the same sequence as the stroke order of writing the cha- racter or in the random sequence, were exposed to the subjects by a ta- chistoscope. The subjects' task was to find the original character which was composed of these parts. There were 56 well-selected characters which were decomposed into 2,3,4 or 5 parts. The results show that the capacity for image processing is quite small, limited to 3±1 items, and indicate that image processing is a kind of parallel process which operates simultaneously on all the items in image storage.
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    HUMAN SENSITIVITY TO THE CONTRAST OF RED-GREEN SINUSOIDAL CHROMATIC
    Lin Guo-bin Institute of Psychology, Acadenmia Sinica
    . 1989, 21 (01): 26-30.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 123 )
    A PDP11/73 computer and a ONE/80 color graphic display were used to produce green and red-green sinusoidal chromatic gratings. The subjects could manipulate the grating variables and their own responses. by using the keyboard of the computer. In Experiment One, contrast se- nsitivities to green and red-green gratings were measured as a fun- ction of spatial frequency. Both green and red-green contrast sensiti- vity function had similar low-pass characteristics with low-frequency attenuation. In Experiment Two, contrast sensitivities to red-green gra- tings were measured as a function of both the red-green luminance ratio in the grating and the spatial frequencies. The results show that, as the spatial frequency was reduced, the contrast sensitivity increased, and under the same-spatial-frequency condition, the sensitivity was the grea- test when the stimulus had only luminance contrast, the lowest when there were color differences in the stimulus.
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    THE VOWELS AND THE PERCEPTION OF CHINESE TONES
    Yang Yu-fang Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
    . 1989, 21 (01): 31-36.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 90 )
    In this experiment the effects of a vowel's duration and of a vowel's quality on the perception of Chinese tones were investigated by using as stimuli the first-second tone and the second-third tone continua carried by the vowels /i/ and /ao/ of durations ranging from 100ms to 500ms, and by using as index the first and the second tone response curves and the average response percents. The main results are: (1) a vowel's duration significantly affects tone perception; (2) the data concerning the firstsecond tone continua show that a vowel's quality plays no role in tone perception, while the results concerning the second-third tone continua show that tone perception is remarkedly affected by a vowel's quality. The different outcomes of the two groups of continua were disc- ussed and compared with the results from relevant studies.
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    EFFECTS OF SCREEN LUMINANCE AND LUMINANCE CONTRAST OF VDTS ON VISUAL FATIGUE
    Zhu Zu-xiang,Wu Jian-ming Department of Psychology, Hangzhou University
    . 1989, 21 (01): 37-42.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 100 )
    This paper is the experimental results of our study on the relation- ship between the luminance contrast of a VDT and visual fatigue. The accommodation and convergence time of the subjects' eyes were used as an evaluation oriterion in our experiment. The screen luminance was 20, 30 and 40 cd/m~2. The range of contrst was from 3 : 1 to 15 : 1. The results were as follows: (1) The visual fatigue was not serious within the range of luminan- ce contrast from 9 : 1 to 11 : 1; The more contrast levels deviated from the range, the more the degree of visual fatigue became greater. (2) The level of screen luminance significantly affects visual fati- gue. When the contrast was under 7:1, the visual fatigue caused by high level lunminace had less than that caused by low level luminance. When the contrast was above 7:1, the visual fatigue caused by high level lun- minace was more serious than that caused by low level luminance.
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    AN EXPLORATION ON THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL INTERRELATIONS AMONG"SHAPE", "SOUND"AND"MEANING"OF CHINESE WORDS IN THE READING PROCESS OF ALEXIA PATIENTS
    Hu Chao-qun Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1989, 21 (01): 43-48.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 108 )
    Through analysis of the reading behavior of seven cases of reading disorder caused by brain damage, this paper preliminarily explores the cerebral processing route of three informational dimensions in the cognit- ive process of reading, namely, the "shape" "sound", and "meaning" of a Chinese character/word, and speculates on their dynamic interrelations. Our conclusions are: 1) In the reading process, the cerebral processing route of the graphic, phonic, and semantic information begins with the visual perception of the shape of a character, which is then separately associated with its pronunciation and meaning; 2) the meaning of a ch- aracter is more strongly associated with its shape than with its pronun- ciation; and 3) the stronger association between shape and meaning may be attributed to some peculiarities of Chinese characters, as well as to various psychological factors involved.
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    EFEECTS OF STRATEGY TRAINING IN WORD RECALL OF THE AGED
    Sun Chang-hua,Xu Shu-lian,Li Rong-ping Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Beijing Institute of Neurosurgery
    . 1989, 21 (01): 49-56.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 145 )
    Using free recall of words and free recall of charaeters, and associa- tion learning as three experimental tasks, categorizing rehearsal method, association method and association making method were applied to these tasks respectively to conduct memory training research. Subjects were 60 elderly (mean age: 66.5 years old) and 40 younger adults (mean age: 26.8 years old). Both were divided into a training group and a control group, according to the performances of pretest, age and educational le- vel of Ss. The results were as follows: 1. The memory performances of the elderly group were significantly poorer than those of the younger group. 2. After training, the memory performances of both training groups improved obviously. 3. The elderly training group performed as well in the post-test as the younger group did in the pre-test, and the differences decreased as compared with the younger group. 4. The subjects used memory strategies increased significantly both in the elderly and in the young, however, the good user were still less in the former group. The subjects' performances were highly correlated with whether they used suitable memory strategies or not. 5. Not looking for strategy actively is an important phenomenon of the encoding defect of information in the elderly, this defect can be im- proved through training. Encoding defect might only be one of the reas- ons in memory inefficiency of the elderly.
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    RESEARCH ON LEXICAL REPRESENTATION IN CHINESE-ENGLISH BILINGUALS (Ⅱ)
    Wang Cui-xiang,Peng Dan-ling Electronic Industral Management College, Beijing Beijing Normal University
    . 1989, 21 (01): 63-69.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 71 )
    In the present experiment, we added imagery as a variable. Chinese- English bilinguals were tested in a lexical decision task. Interling- ual repetitions were found to have effects identical to those of intralingu- al repetitions for high-imagery words, whereas only intralingual repetition effects were found for low-imagery ones. This experiment and the previ- ous one taken together showed that lexical information was tagged and stored into two seperate linguistic systems corresponding to the two lan- guages. Under the condition that the subjects were unable to translate actively the equivalents, no automatic direct transfer (or activation) occured between logogens in the two systems. The only connection between them was via an image system.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON CHILDREN'S REPRESERNTATION DEVELOPMENT
    Xu Fan Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    . 1989, 21 (01): 70-77.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 86 )
    In this experiment on the development of spatial representation, chil- dren's mental rotation and their use of reference information in real sp- ace were observed under the following conditions: 1) object-location in free movement of Ss, 2) person - and object-locations in photos and 3) locations in sketches. Ss were aged 4, 5 and 6. The results showed that the task of sketch was more difficult than that with free movement, and the photo task was the most difficult; the factor of rotation functioned diff- erently under different conditions; and children's egocentric responses were related not only with age but also with landmarks in real space.
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    DECISION-MAKING IN SMALL GROUPS: THE INFLUENCE OF MEMBER STATUS DIFFERENCES AND TASK TYPE ON GROUP CONSENSUS
    Teng Gui-rong Beijing University
    . 1989, 21 (01): 78-87.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 156 )
    This experiment studied how member status differences (equal group (4--4--4), conditional group (3--4--5), outstanding group (3--3--5) and excellent group (3--5--5))and task type (mystery problem, person selec- tion, resource arrangement and risky decision) influenced group consens- us in decision-making in small group. It predicted five decision making models: truth model, power model, majority model, and teh weaker's coalit- ion model. The results show that the truth model best fits mystery pro- blems, while the power model fits the oustanding group (3--3--5). These patterns correspond to some Western results and are also representative of some Chinese people's decision making in small groups.
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    METACOGNITION AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH IN MEMORY-MONITORING ABILITY OF PUPILS FROM 10 TO 15
    Li Jing-jie Educational Department, Beijing Teacher's College
    . 1989, 21 (01): 88-96.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 121 )
    The development of 10-15 year old pupil's ability to prediot accur- ately in memory-monitoring was studied by adopting the procedure of "Learning-Judging-Recognizing" and by combining "Rating Scale" with "Re- cognizing Test". The experiment tried to explore whether or not 10-15 years old pupil's ability to predict accurately in memory-monitoring wo- uld develop with age and to analyse its function in their intellectual development. The results showed that: 1. 10-15 years old children's ability to predict accurately in memory- monitoring increased basically in pace with their growing age, but this development was not smooth. 2. Such experience as "The feeling of knowing" played a role of "guiding implements" and "activation implements" in informational coding, storing and recovering in memory. These findings not only provide a theoretical basis for developing pupils' intelligence, but also a scientific basis for daily teaching.
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    LEFT THALAMIC HEMORRHAGE AND AMNESIA
    Zhao Jia-lin,Gao Su-rons Department of Neurology, First Teaching Hospital,Beijing Medical University
    . 1989, 21 (01): 97-100.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 142 )
    9 cases with left thalamic hemorrhage (LTH), 9 cases with right thalamic hemorrhage (RTH), and 18 cases without cerebral organic lesion (control), as was demonstrated by CT scan, were examined by using a clinical memory scale, and through clinical aphasic examinations and sp- atial functional examinations. None of the cases had aphasia and distur- bance of spatial function. But the result. by the memory scale demonst- rated that all subtest scores and MQ in LTH sroup were sisnificantly lo- wer than those of the controls This suggesfs that left thalamic damage may cause long-term amnesia.
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    PRELIMINARY REPORT ON EPQ TEST OF 519 MALE YOUTH OF UYGUR, KAZAK AND HUI NATIONALITIES IN XINJIANG
    Yang Zheng,Zhang Zhi-bin,Wu Xin-huai,Xu Qin Xinjiang No.23 Military Hospital 36243 Army Unit Hygiene Statistics Section, Xinjiang Medical College
    . 1989, 21 (01): 101-107.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 105 )
    This report, in accordance with the results of examinations of 519 young men (at the age of 16 to 29) of Uygur, Kazak and Hui nationali- ties in Xinjiang in response to EPQ test papers in Uygur, Kazak and Han languages, indicates that the relevant conditions among all rating scales of EPQ and the general trend are similar to those of the English mode and Chinese Gong's mode, the marks of all P rating scales lies in the mimimum and those of all the L ration scales in the same maximum as Gong's mode, the personal features of Uygur and Kazak nationalities are clearly extrovert, particularly the Kazaks. It is suggested that various factors such as national historical development, socio-cultural tradition, labour style and the way of life is the basis on which the personal cha- racters of Uygur and Kazak nationalities are formed and that Gong's mode and its delimiting mark is further modified and perfected.
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