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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 21 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    INFLUENCES OF VISUAL FIELD SIZE ON THE CRITICAL FUSION FREQUENCY FOR THE CHROMATIC AND ACHROMATIC LIGHT
    Xu Zong-hui,Ji Gui-ping Institute of Psychology Academia Sinica
    . 1989, 21 (03): 3-7.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 166 )
    This experiment was undertaken by using flicker method with 3 no-rmal vision experienced adult subjects. A white light and 3 spectral lights(670、560 and 450 nm) were used as stimulus lights; 4 visual feilds wereused about 2°、1°、0. 5°and 0. 25°; 3 levls of luminance were 200、20 and 2cd/m~2. The results indicate that 1) At any given luminosity level and withinthe same size of visual field, all CFF of green light turn out to be higherthan those of red and blue lights significantly. 2)Under the same lumino-us condition, CFF of both white light and various monochromatic lightsincrease as the visual field become larger. Furthermore, these changes tendto be linearly interrelated, that is to say, CFF increases with the logari-thim area of visual field nearly. 3)At various luminosity levels, slops oflines denoting CFF to log area of visual field varied, The slop at 2 cd/m~2is smaller than those of others.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SUBJECTIVE CONTOURS AND BRIGHTNESS CONTRAST
    Ma Zhen-hua Beijing College of Traditional Chinese Medicine
    . 1989, 21 (03): 8-14.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 62 )
    Using the reaction time as the indicator and presenting the stimuli ina tachistoscope, these experiments changed systemically the area and refle-ctance of the inducing fields. The purpose was to investigate the perceptionof subjective contours. The results showed that the subject's reaction timeincreased with the decrease of the area and the increase of the reflectan-ce of the inducing field. The difference was very significant among thereaction times. These demonstrate that the area and reflectance of the in-ducing fields cause a systematic change of the subjective contour, mediatedby brightness contrast. This suggests that the brightness contrast producedby the lateral inhibition in the visual system plays a very important rolein the perception of subjective contours.
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    AN EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR MENTALLY RETARDED PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN BEIJING
    Mao Yu-yan Institute of Psychology,Academia Sinica
    . 1989, 21 (03): 15-24.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 79 )
    The purpose of this research project is to collect experimental datafor further investigation of the benefit of early intervention of preschool-aged mentally retarded children. It has three parts: (1)to testify the effe-ctiveness of an early intervention program; (2)to identify the psypholo-gical characteristics and behavior disorders of these retarded children; (3)to find out factors related closely to children's learning progress. Twenty mentally retarded children(2-7 years old)participated in thisprogram. The results of one-year intervention show that this programis effective in a few ways. 17 of 20 subjects have had much progress. Discussions also focus upon the following issues: (1) advantages anddisadvantages of three teaching techniques; (2)characteristics of languageproblems of these retarded children and effective strategies used in theteaching of spoken language of them; (3)the reasons why there are 3 chi-ldren who did not make much progress.
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    SOCIAL INTERACTIONS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN'S RIGHT-LEFT CONCEPT
    Zhou Run-min Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing
    . 1989, 21 (03): 25-31.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 97 )
    5-6 years old children, chosen by a pretest and classified into two di-fferent levels, participated in a right/left judgement training task eitherwith a peer, or with an adult, or alone. An immediate posttest was admin-istered to see how much progress would be induced by the different typesof training. Analysis was focused on 1)whether a conflict of judgementcould occur between peers of the same level and how they eventually so-lved such conflicts; 2) whether a child could benifit from the interactionwith the adult who gave him explanations as well as contersuggestions;3) whether a child working alone was aware of the contradictions in hisown judgements; 4) in what way the above problems were related to chi-ldren's initial level and to their progress as identified at the posttest.
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    CHILDREN'S MIRROR WRITING
    Li Xin-Tian,Xu Zhen-lei,Cui Yue,Wu Ren-gang,Guang Dong-Xiu,Dong Jing-yu Department of Medical Psychology,Beijing Medical University
    . 1989, 21 (03): 32-38.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 164 )
    133 5-to-12-year olds from kindergarten and primary school wereasked to write their names, Arabic numerals from 1 to 10 and eight Chi-nese words. In the meantime, they were tested on their right/left spatialorientation. The results show that the frequency of mirror writing appe-ared to decrease with the increase of age. When writing in a habitual le-ft-to-right direction, the subjects produced fewer mirror words than whenwriting in a non-habitual right-to-left direction, writing with both handsproduced more mirror words than writing with a single hand, and writingwith left hand produced more mirror words than writing with right ha-nd. The subjects having good spatial orientation wrote fewer mirror wordsthan those having poor spatial orientation. After reviewing various hypo-theses of mirror writing, we propose a hypothesis of skill: the more ski-llfully a child writes, the fewer mirror words he produces. The mechanismof mirror writing is very complicated and affected by many factors.
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    ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE VALIDITY OF THE CHINESE VERSION OF MMPI
    Zou Yizhuang & Zhao Chuanyi,Jiang Changqing Beijing Hui Long Guan Hospital,Beijing,China Beijing Anding Hospital,Beijing,China
    . 1989, 21 (03): 44-51.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 110 )
    This paper used factor analysis to assess the structure validity of aChinese version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory(MMPI)which was administered to 1095 subjects: 633 normal subjects and 462 psy-chiatric patients. Separate factor analysis were performed on six groups ofsubjects: four groups of normal subjects divided according to their sexand educational level and two groups of psychiatric patients divided acc-ording to their sex. Principal component analysis(with varimax rotation)of the 13 standa-rdized scale scores that sequentially extracted three, four, five and six fa-ctors generated almost the same factor structure in all six groups. Thesix-factor solution generated the following factors: psychoticism, neuroti-cism, introversion-extroversion, overcontrol, antisocial characteristic andmasculinity-femininity. The main MMPI factors found in China are consi-stent with those found in America and other countries, The result has alsobeen used to form six factor-scales of the MMPI to assist MMPI inte-rpretation.
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    INVESTIGATION ON THE VALUES OF CHINESE OF FIVE CITIES ADOLESCENT STUDENTS
    Huang Xi-ting,Zhang Jin-fu,Zhang Shu-lin Southwest China Normal University,Chongqing
    . 1989, 21 (03): 52-61.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 229 )
    Rokeach Value Survey was administered to 2125 Chinese undergradua-tes and middle school studentes. The results show that the pattern of va-lues was considerably consistent among Chinese adolescent students. As forthe terminal values, a sense of accomplishment, true friendship, self-respe-ct, and national security were consistently ranked among the four mostimportant values, inner harmony, a comfortable life, an exciting life, and sa-lvation were consistently ranked among the four least important values.As for the instrumental values, being ambitious, capable, and broadmindedwere consistently ranked as very high in importance, and being clean, self-controlled, and obedient ras very low. And there were some differences amo-ng groups and individuals.
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    PHONETIC SIMILAR AND GRAPHIC SIMILAR PRIMING EFFECTS IN PRONOUNCING CHINESE CHARACTERS
    Zhang Hou-Can,Shu Hua Beijing Normal University
    . 1989, 21 (03): 62-67.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 194 )
    Naming task has been employed to investigate the phonetic similarand graphic similar priming effects. The result indicated that there was apriming effect between the primes and targets which were both phoneti-cally and graphically similar. A large priming effect was also found forthe characters which were phonetically similar. It suggests that there arephonological connections in the Chinese reader's lexicon. No significantpriming effect was observed for those which were graphically similar butphonetically different under the present experimental condition. The roleof graphic similarity is worth for further study.
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    THE APPROCAHES OF NATURAL LANGUAGE UNDERSTANDING
    Chen Yong-ming Institute of psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1989, 21 (03): 68-76.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 95 )
    This paper has described and discussed some main approaches of com-puter understanding natural language in relation with Chinese languageprocessing. The author has pointed out that: (1 )although these approachesare proposed for processing English, they are also suitable for processingchinese language to certain degree; Of course, Chinese language has its ownfeature. Underst anding Chinese depends more on semantic and pragmaticknowledge (2 ) Natural language understanding not only is a problem oflinguistics but mainly is a problem that cognitive psychology should studyThere is a close relation between cognitive psychology and computer und-erstanding natural language. The actul process of understanding naturallanguage by human must be explored in more detail in order to developmore powerful computer system of understanding natural language.
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    CONDITIONAL ABSTRACT JUDGEMENT WITH NUMEROUSNESS CONCEPT BY RHESUS MONKEYS
    Lin GuoBin,Gong wenHe Psychology Institute of Academia Sinica
    . 1989, 21 (03): 77-83.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 82 )
    With nonnumerousness dimensions (eg. pattern, size area and configur-ation) controlled, three cards with 2 to 7 black-filled circles were presentedon each trial, If a conceptual red figure was presented on the screen ofthe revised WGTA as the conditional cue, the monkey was reinforced forselecting the cards with the fewest circles. If a green one was presented.response to the card with the most circles was reinforced. And if a blackone was presented, the card with the intermediate number of circles wasthe correct one. At first, the monkey was trained under only one conditionper session (40 trials a day), then two and finally all the three conditio-nal cues were presented randomly and concurrently per session. Only onemonkey met the criteria on all training tasks. Another monkey succeededthrough selecting the lowest or the highest number when red or green co-nditional cue was used concurrently. And the last one terminated her pr-ogress when red conditional cue and green conditional cues were used ina session. It is concluded that the rhesus monkeys are not only capableof relative numerousness judgement, but also capable of relating the num-erousness conception with conceptual color cue. Additional discussion isconcerned with the relationship of our study with language learning in pr-imates.
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    PRELIMINARY RESEARCH ON VERBAL INSTRUCTIONS AND DEVELOPMENT OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S INHIBITION OF MOVEMENTS
    Xiao Xiao-ying Institute of Child Psychology, Beijing Normal University
    . 1989, 21 (03): 84-92.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 121 )
    Preschool children's control of motor movements and the effects ofdifferent verbal instructions on the control of motor movements are dis-cussed through the experiment in this paper. The conclusions are as fol-lows: The ability of children's control of motor movements increase gradu-ally. Different verbal instructions have different influences on preschoolchildren's control of motor movements. Under the conditions of the ex-periment on preschool children (3 years and 11 months old to 6 years and4 months old), the adult's verbal instruction during the children's activityis most effective on children's control of motor movements. But the eff-ect does not improve significantly with children's growth. The influenceof children's verbal self instruction on their control of motor movements increases rapidly, but it does not reach the level of adult verbal instruc-tion. No significant sex difference has been found in this experiment.There are still some uncertain questions. This paper suggests that early child education should pay attention tothe training of the control of motor movements. Children's self-controlmay be exercised by improving the abilities of children's verbal self ins-truction.
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    A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SLEEP QUALITY AND SLEEP REGULARITY BETWEEN SHIFT-WORK AND DAY-WORK NURSES IN DIFFERENT AGES
    Li De-ming,Shen Su-kun,Wan Qin-xia,Li Shu-xia,Sun Yang-zhen Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, Beijing First Hospital of Beijing First Medical University Beijing Hai Dian Maternal and Child Hygiene Hospital
    . 1989, 21 (03): 93-98.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 214 )
    We designed a questionnaire and investigated the sleep quality andsleep regularity of 433 nurses of 20-45 years old. The questionnare wasfocused on the following 6 categories: general evaluation of sleep, whetherthe subjects often lose their sleep and have to use spleeping pills, whetherthey can fall asleep easily, how well they sleep, to what extent they canremember what they dreamed, and their vigor condition when they areawake. The results show that in terms of total scores and for almost all thesix categories, there is a significant difference between the shift-workgroup and the day-work group. Poor sleep quality and poor sleep regula-rity are found with the shift-work nurses after their night work. The sleepquality of both the shift-work and the day-work nurses tends to deterio-rate with the increase of age and of work years. It is also found thatthere is a recuperation of sleep quality with the nurses who changed today-work 3 years ago after having worked on shifts for many years.
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    EVENT-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIALS (ERPs) REFLECT MISMATCH BETWEEN CHINESE CHARACTER AND ITS MENTAL TEMPLATE
    Lou Liang-gang,Fan Si-lu,Kuang Pei-zi Institute of Psychology Academia Sinica
    . 1989, 21 (03): 99-105.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 78 )
    10 male university students aged 19-24 participated in the experiment.A negative-going ERP component N400 peaking around 410 ms appearedwhenever the mehtal template to a specific Chinese character mismatchedthe presented character. In conditions where graphemic and semantic fac-tors were constant the phonological match or mismatch affected the extentto which the N400 was asymmetrically distributed between the two hemis-pheres. The N400 was also found to be overlapped by P300 component asa result of the influences from such non-linguistic factors as the ratio ofdifferent types of characters and the tasks for judgement and response.
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    GREY STATISTICAL PROCESSING OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DATA
    Bao Guo-qing Guangxi Educational Research Institute,Guangxi
    . 1989, 21 (03): 106-109.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 79 )
    Deng Ju-long, a Chinese professor, established a theory of grey systemin 1982, This paper tries to apply the theory of grey system to psycholo-gical measurements and proposes a method of grey statistical processingof psychological data.
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    SEMANTIC DESIRABILITY AS A SYSTEMATIC DISTORTION IN PERSON PERCEPTION STUDIES
    Zhao Zhi-yu,Yang Chung-fang Psychology Department,HongKong University Psychology Department,Hong Kong University
    . 1989, 21 (03): 110-114.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 70 )
    The present study is an attempt to investigate the systematic distorti-ve effect of an item's semantic desirability on person perception studies.The subjects were 83 college students. They were randomly divided intothree groups, and instructed to rate the importance of 121 personality tra-its in determining the successful performance in three occupations. Theprofiles of responses were correlated with the desirability index of thetrait terms otained from a previous study. The results show that sem-antic desirability of the trait terms would systematically distort subje-cts' ratings in person perception studies. The methodological issues arisi-ng from these findings were discussed.
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