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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 22 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    A TEN YEAR STUDY OF THE MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERNORMAL CHILDREN
    Zha Zixiu Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1990, 22 (02): 3-16.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 98 )
    This paper reports the main results of a ten year research of the men- tal development of supernormal children. Five parts are included: (Ⅰ) The historical development of the concept from prodigy to supernormal children. (Ⅱ) A summary of comparative studies on cognition and personality traits between supernormal and nor- mal children. (Ⅲ) Methods and procedures for identifying supernormal children. (Ⅳ) Description of the educational programs for the supernormal children. (Ⅴ) A few words about our nationwide cooperative research group, about its roles and contributions in the past ten years.
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    MEMORY AND ORGANIZATION OF MEMORY OF GIFTED AND NORMAL CHILDREN
    Shi Jiannong Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    . 1990, 22 (02): 17-24.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 74 )
    Figural and numerical materials were used to study the memory and memory organization of gifted children (n = 20, mean age = 11 years and 2 months) and of normal children (n = 20, mean age = 11 years and 3 mo- nths). The results show that (1) the gifted children are superior to the normal children not only in the amount of recall, but also in the speed of remembering and the organization of memory; (2) there are close re- lationships between the memory performance and the organization of me- mory, espacially between the speed of remembering and the memory orga- nization, (3) it is better to use both of the amount of recall and the speed of remembering as the index of memory performance.
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    TACTILE DISCRIMINATION OF DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO END-POINTS OF A CURVED LINE
    Wang Su,Zhang Ming Department of Psychology, Peking University
    . 1990, 22 (02): 25-30.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 80 )
    A set of metalic curved lines was used as stimuli which either tou- ched upon or moved with fast or slow speed across the index finger pad which remained immobile. Six subjects were tested. Their task was to ju- dge the distance between two end-points of the curved line and to repro- duce it on a rule. The basic findings were as follows: Ⅰ. The distance was always underestimated at fast speed, while it could be more accu- rately estimated at slow speed or at immobility ; the apparent distance in the first case was significantly shorter than that in the last two cases. 2.The apparent dietance at small height of the arc was significantly lon- ger than that at big height in all the three conditions of presenting sti- muli. The arc with big height seemed to shrink the distance between the two end-points of a curved line. This phenomenon might be refered to as an "arc effect". These results were discussed in relation to the heuri- stics used in performing the task.
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    VISUAL PERCEPTION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS-EFFECT OF PERCEPTUAL TASK AND CHINESE CHARACTER ATTRIBUTES
    Yu Bolin,Feng Ling,Cao Heqi,Li Wenling Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, Beijing Beijing Normal University, Department of Psychology
    . 1990, 22 (02): 31-38.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 137 )
    Three experiments were carried out to study the visual perception of Chinese characters. The results show that: 1) the order of response time (RT) in the recognition of Chinese cha- racters was: identifying the two components of a character>identifying the whole character>identifying the construction of the character. A si- milar results was obtained for the error rate. These results suggest that there was a perceptual task effect on the recognition of Chinese chara- cters, suggesting that these tasks represented different levels of processing complexity. 2) There was no difference between discriminating the left-rightco- nstruction characters and the up-down construction characters. 3) The surface attributes of a Chinese character such as its constructive and phonetic features did not have an influence on the recognition of the whole character, suggesting that the whole character was the perceptual unit in normal reading. 4) In decomposing the whole character and naming its components, the constructive and/on the phonetic features of a character had a great effe- ct: RT for the up/down characters was much longer than that for the right/left characters; RT for the pictophonetic characters was shorter than that for the unpictophonetic characters and the error rate for pictophon- etic characters was much smaller than for the unpictophonetic characters. The typical error was to name the whole character when the task was to name the components of the character
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    MULTIPLE LEVEL ANALYSIS OF CHINESE SENTENCES
    Li Li Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1990, 22 (02): 39-48.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 66 )
    The goal of this paper is to construct a expectation-based computer model in which syntactic and semantic components coordinate their info- rmation to facilitate the multiple level analysis of Chinese sentences. For this purpose, we propose some formalism and relevant semantic rules with which semantic relations can be integrated into formal syntax and lexic- on. This enables the model to accomplish simultaneous process on diffe- rent levels. An application to some sentence patterns has shown that the mechanism is feasible.
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    SOCIAL COMMUNICATION BY POSITURE AND FACIAL EXPRESSIONS IN GOLDEN MONKEY (RHINOPITHECUS ROXELLANAE)
    Ren Renmei,Yan Kanghui,Su Yanjie,Qi Hanjun,Bao Wenyong Psychology Department, Beijing University Beijing Raising and Training Center of Endangered Animals
    . 1990, 22 (02): 49-57.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 93 )
    Observation were made among 11 adult and subadult golden monkeys of both sexes in two breeding cages from December 1988 to July 1989 (in total of 494 observational hours, 112 days). Records were made for every social interactions between cage members which could be seen by observe- rs. According to different postures, facial expressions, and social meani- ngs of 9039 observed social interactions, we divided them into four cate- gories such as: aggressive, display, submissive and friendly behavior, inclu- ding 17 social repertories such as biting, hiting, chasing, threatening, ca- ge shaking, supplanting-avoiding, runing, crouching, mouth opening, lu- mbar holding, embracing, grooming, contact sitting, approaching, play and invitation.
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    THE WORKLOAD EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ABOUT THE FIGURE DISCRIMINATION
    Fang Liluo,Gao Jing The Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1990, 22 (02): 58-65.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 94 )
    This experiment was done with 30 young and 9 middle age subjects on the IBN PC/XT computer. The results showed: (1) The number of fi- gures presented simultaneously, the discrimination time allowed and the age were factors which influenced the subjects'performances. (2) It is not advisable to use middle age persons in discrimination tasks which consist of many figures and which demand high speed response. (3) The experi- ential formula of figure discrimination: Y = De~(B/X); D (N) = 183.1441 - 2. 3206N + 0.0249N~2; B (N) = - 2.0379 0.1427N + 0.0008N~2; was made from the results of this experiment. By using this formula we can obtain a cor- rect discrimination rate for a certain number of figures in a certain ti- me limite.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF BRIGHTNESS GRADE FOR WHITE AND BLACK SERIES AMONG CHINESE PEOPLE
    Sun Xiuru,Lin Zhongxian,Jing Qicheng,Li Yazhang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Institute of Physics, Academy of Architecture Science
    . 1990, 22 (02): 66-72.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 59 )
    The brightness grade for white and black series among Chinese peo- ple was studied in this experiment. There were equal number of males and females among the 220 Chinese Ss aged 18--34. The results showed that there was an unlinear relation between the brightness values (V) and the luminance factors (Y). Compared with the Munsell white and black series system, the values of luminance factors in the brightness grade fo white and black series were different.
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    FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HEMISPHERES IN RECOGNIZING THE PHONOGRAMS AND IDEOGRAMS
    Wang Kehong,Xu Shitong,Qu Yiqi Neurophysiology Research Laboratory,South China Normal University Guangzhou
    . 1990, 22 (02): 82-86.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 82 )
    This experiment studied the recognition of phonograms (Tibetan and Uighur characters) and idiograms (Chinese characters) in Tibetan and Uighur people (n= 60 for the two groups respectively). The results show that in recognizing the Chinese characters, whether a character was pres- ented to the right visual field or to the left visual field made no differe- nce to any of the two groups of subjects, while there was a significant difference between the two groups in recognizing the Tibetan and Uihgur characters: for those Tibetan subjects who had mastered and used Chinese for many years (more than 5 years), both visual fields worked equally well, but for those Tibetan subjects having learned Chinese for about one year and the Uighur subjects having learned Chinese for about 4 years, there was a left visual field superiority. The results show that both hem- ispheres worked equally well in recognizing the ideograms while there was an influence of learning Chinese on the recognition of the phonograms, causing a change from the left visual field superiority to the equality of both visual fields.
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    EFFECTS OF PERSONALITY TYPE ON STRESS RESPONSE (Ⅰ) (SECTION OF NATURE STRESSOR)
    Cheng Sha,Tang Cimei,Li Xintian Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1990, 22 (02): 87-94.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 183 )
    In the present experiment four groups of 14 high N scores, 14 low N scores, 16 introverts and 16 extraverts were chosen by using Eysenck Pe- rsonality Questionnaire (EPQ), and subjects' urine CA concentrations under both testing and resting conditions were estimated quantitatively (involving noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A), and dopamine (DA)). Before the test subjects assessed themselves according to Test Anxiety In- ventory (TAI). Relations among personality type, TAI scores and CA excretion were analysed and individual differences in stress response due to personality type were explored. The data showed that high N scores had a higher resting NA excre- tion than low N scores. Under the testing condition high N scores sho- wed a very signifficant increase in CA excretion, while the increase in low N scores was not signifficant. There were signifficant differences in CA excretion between high and low N scores. The data also showed that introverts had a higher NA and DA excretion than extraverts in stress situation. The introverts had higher TAI scores than the extraverts and high N scores than it's control group. The results indicate that personality type may be an important factor in stress response. Cognitive assessment and personal experience may ser- ve as mediators between personality and stress response.
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    COMPARING SDT AND IRT WITH MONTE CARLO APPROACH
    Yu Jiayuan Department of Education Nanjing Normal University
    . 1990, 22 (02): 95-100.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 62 )
    Response matrixes of subjects were generated with Monte Ca?lo appr- oach under 80 experimental conditions, and the subjects' abilities were estimated with signal detection theory (SDT), Rasch model and three- parameter Logistic model of item response theory (IRT) respectively. The results showed that there was a high correlation between the true abilities. And those estimated by any of the three methods.
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    BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Guan Lianrong Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
    . 1990, 22 (02): 101-106.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 86 )
    This paper analyses the development of psychology by means of bibl- iometric method. It deals mainly with: 1) the increase in the psycholo- gical documents since the 2nd World War; 2) the advances in the rese- arch of applied psychology in the past 20 years; 3) the main research topies from 1969 to 1988; 4) the "half life" of psychological documents; 5) the most cited journals of psychology in 1988.
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    THE ADAPTABILITY OF COPING STRATEGIES AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS
    Zhang Yuxin,Fang Xin Beijing University
    . 1990, 22 (02): 107-113.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 209 )
    The present study investigated subjects' adaptability of coping strate- gies in relation to their mental health. The adaptability of coping strat- egies was measured with Coping Strategies Inventory which asked subjec- ts to describe how they coped with stressful events falling into three ar- eas of academic work, interpersonal relation and social/family interacti- on. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Symptoms Check List 90 (SCL -90) were used to measure psychological symptoms of the subjects. It was found that the use of unadaptive coping strategies across the three areas correlated significantly with depression (r = 0.396, p<0.002) and phobic anxiety (r = 0.369, p<0.002); and the use of unadaptive coping st- rategies correlated with depression (r = 0.373, p<0.002) and somatization (r = 0.320, p<0.002) for social/family interaction, and with phobic anx- iety (r = 0.323, p<0.002) for the area of interpersonal relation; and it showed no relationship (r<0.120, df = 90, N.S.) with psychological sym- ptoms when coping with academic stressors. The article also discussed the issue of the cross-situational consistency of coping strategies.
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