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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 September 1990, Volume 22 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SENTENCE COMPREHENSION
    Chen Yongming,Peng Ruixiang Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    1990, 22 (03):  3-9. 
    Abstract ( 494 )  
    This paper presents a study on the verification process of Chinesesentences under three different conditions, conclusions are as follows:(1 ) The sentence-picture verification and the sentence-common-sense ver-ificaiton have the same time pattern as TA Related Articles | Metrics
    EFFECT OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHONETIC WHOLE PERCEPTION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS ON THE PERCEPTION OF COMPONENTS
    Yu Bolin,Cao Heqi,Feng Ling,Li Wenling Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, Beijing Beijing Normal university, Department of Psychology
    1990, 22 (03):  10-17. 
    Abstract ( 903 )  
    The present research began with analysing of the concrete representa-tive forms for the whole perception of Chinese characters, 3 experimentswere carried out in order to explore the effect of character's whole perceptionon the perception of components. Taking the decomposing models as thevariable, Experiment 1 explored the influence of morphological wholeperception upon the identification of components, and we found that theperformance of the identifying components was affected by the lines ofthe perceptual decomposition. The authors suggested that this effect of thedecomposing models may be concerned with the position of component, and itsanalysis was confirmed in Experiment 2 .The mechanism of the effect of theposition has concern with the degree of closeness between the position andthe morphological whole perception. Taking the phonetic code as varia-ble, It was found in Experiment 3 that the performance of decomposing perc-eption for the consistent with the phone between the component and wholecharacter (i. e. pictophonetic character) had more obvious advantage thanthose for the non-consistent (i .e .unpictophonetic character). This meansthat the perceptual singleness of the phone for the whole character affectsthe component's perception. Finally, the present research also examined the effectiveness of themethod of component identification, and this method could be taken asone new experimental paradigm in the study of the whole-part rela-tionship in the perception.
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    FUZZY THEORY OF PSYCHOPHYSICAL THRESHOLD
    Ma Mouchao Institute of Psychology, Academica Sinica
    1990, 22 (03):  18-24. 
    Abstract ( 602 )  
    The present paper has analysed classical threshold theory in psychophy-sics thereby a fuzzy theory of threshold has been developed. The theoryregards the threshold as a critical point between possibility distribu-tions of categories which is characterized by belonging partically to thiscategory, partically to another one on category scales. The ceitical valueis stimulus intensity corresponding to the critical point. Scaling techniqueof the multiple critical points among categories and procedure of determi-nation of the critical value have been given in the work, too.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PROCESSING MECHANISM OF STORY SCHEMA TO STORY COMPREHENSION
    Lu Zhongyi,Peng Danling Hebei Teachers College Beijing Normal University
    1990, 22 (03):  25-32. 
    Abstract ( 489 )  
    This paper studies preliminarily the processing mechanism of storyschema to story comprehension using two-episode stories and twodifferent recalls. 120 subjects included 40 primary school pupils of thefifth grade. 40 higk school students of tke first grade and 40 collegestudents. The results show that (1 ) the processing mechanism of storyschema is mainly two-level editing, especially the secondary editing;(2 ) the story schema can process some irrelevant information undercertain ways; (3 )the strength of the processing units in the story schemasorresponding with the nodes is not equal and it varies from age to age.
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    TONE SANDHI AND TONE PERCEPTION
    Fang Zhi Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    1990, 22 (03):  33-37. 
    Abstract ( 406 )  
    Tone sandhi occurs in Chinese, when two tones are pronounced toge-ther. This phonological rule may give some constraints on the perceptionof tone. 10 subjects took part in a traditional psychophysical experimentto recognize two sets of continua of standard Chinese sounds in whichthe tones of their monosyllables and disyllables Were varied in steps fromthe second tone to the third tone. The experimental results of both setsof continua are similar: when compared with the monosyllable, the pho-neme boundaries between the second tone and the third tone of disyllableare shifted to the end of the second tone. The constraints suggested abo-ve are thus verified.
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    THE EFFECTS OF TARGET SIZE AND LUMINANCE ON COLOUR CODING IN A CRT DISPLAY
    Xu Wei,Zhu Zuxiang Department of Psychology, Hangzhou University
    1990, 22 (03):  38-44. 
    Abstract ( 786 )  
    In this research, an experiment was carried out to investigate therelationship between the target colours with various sizes or luminanceson a CRT display and the performance of people's colour-identificationon the CRT display. The effects of absolute colour-identification on co-lour coding in the CRT display were examined. The purpose was to de-termine how to improve the ergonomics of visual performance of colourcoding in CRT displays. The results showed that the performance of thecolour-identification was significantly affected by the target size and lu-minance, and that the number of the colours and range of selected colo-urs for the colour coding could be expanded with the expansion of thetarget size and the increase of the target luminance. Three to six colou-rs can be chosen to make up the colour coding systems with the varioustarget sizes.
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    AN INTRODUCTION TO THE TEST THEORY PROPOSED BY RASCH
    J. A. KEATS University of Newcastle, Australia
    1990, 22 (03):  45-49. 
    Abstract ( 438 )  
    The aim of this article is to provide the reader who is unfamiliarwith latent trait item response theory with a simple account of the Ras-ch theory of psychological tests. After a brief theoretical introductionand some elementary derivations, an example using artificial data is pres-ented, analysed and tested for goodness of fit by .graphical methods. Someadvantages of using the simple Rasch model and disadvantages of pr-oposed extensions are discussed. The article concludes by pointing out theadvantages of this technology for the situation in China and a referencefor those who wish to take their knowledge of this topic a stagefurther.
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    THE BINOCULAR STEREOSCOPIC VISION TO THE PICTURES PRESENTED ALTERNATELY ON STEREOGRAMS
    Fang Liluo,Gao Jing,Zhu Jichao Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    1990, 22 (03):  50-54. 
    Abstract ( 454 )  
    The color and black-white stereograms for medical use were viewedby 30 Ss through an amblyoscope, which was controlled by Apple Ⅱ com-puter. The results indicate that (1) binocular sterescopic vision is for-med when alternate frequency of alternate flash phase of binocular picturesis over 7 Hz; (2) when binocular stimuli are presented alternately, thestereoscopic flicker fusion threshold to the color stereogram approximatesto 33 Hz and that to the black-white stereogram approximates to 25 Hz.The different of the two thresholds is very significant (P<.0001).
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    SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG GOLDEN MONKEYS IN BREEDING CAGES
    Ren Renmei,Su Yanjie,Yan Kanhui,Qi Hanjun,Bao Wunyong Department of Psychology, Beijing University Beijing Raising and Training Center of Endangered Animals
    1990, 22 (03):  55-60. 
    Abstract ( 458 )  
    Observations were made among 10 adult and subadult golden monkeys(Rhinopithecus roxellande) of both sexes in two breeding cages from De-cember 1988 to July 1989 (a total of 440 observational hours in 98 days).All the observable social interactions among cage members were recorded.The data of aggressive and submissive interactions between cage memberswere calculated with the method of dominance index. The relationship ofdominant hierarchy was shown in both cages basically. The alpha mal?played obviously the role of intervenor in the group.
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    A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE SHIFT NURSES' WORKLOADS AT INTENSITVE CARE UNITS AND GENERAL WARDS
    Li Deming,Wei Xing,Tang Cimei,Chen Sukun Institute of Psychology. Chinese Academy of Sciences No. 1 Hospital, Beijing Medical University
    1990, 22 (03):  61-67. 
    Abstract ( 786 )  
    The workloads of 36 shift nurses at ICU and at GW (medical andsurgical wards) were compared by the quantitative analysis of urinary CAusing high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated thatthe workloads of ICU nurses were heavier than GW nurses during the day(8:00--16:00) and at the second half of the night (2:00--8:00. ) ICU nurseswere mainly loaded mentally while GW nurses physically. There was nosignificant difference in the workloads of the nurses at ICU and GW atthe first half of the night (18:00--2:00). The subjects' self-assessment ofthe workloads, mood changes and sleep were also analysed.
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    EFFECTS OF INTRADORSACHIPPOCAMPAL MICROINJECTION OF SOME TRANSMITTERS RECEPTOR AGONIST AND ANTAGONIST ON OPERANT DEFENSE CONDITIONING IN RATS
    Qi Huixin,Wang Bin Department of Biology, Beijing Normal University
    1990, 22 (03):  68-74. 
    Abstract ( 548 )  
    We adopted the method of embeding the chronic canal in brain tomicroinject Acetylcholine and Atropine, GABA and Picrotoxin, L-Glutam-ate and receptor agonist kainic acid, Quinolinic acid, antagonist kynare-nic acid to dorsal hippocampus. The effects of such injection on the con-solidatory operant defence conditioning in rats were investigated. Theresults showed: (1 ) Acetylcholine, low concentration of picrotoxin, L-Glutamate,kainicacid and Quinolinic acid improved the complication of conditionedreflect activity. (2 ) Atropine, GABA and kynurenic acid impaired the above mentio-ned activity. These results suggested that some transmitter system in thehippocampus may be involved in memory retrieval modulation in rats.
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    CHINESE ACQUIRED DYSLEXIA——TYPES AND SIGNIFICANCE
    Yin Wengang Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    1990, 22 (03):  75-83. 
    Abstract ( 766 )  
    Several Chinese acquiring dyslexia were studies in the way of cognitivemeuropsychological approach. The materials used in the study were selec-ted in accordance with the linguistic properties of Chinese characters,and methods were chosen for the purpose of detecting cognitive processesin reading disorders. The study revealed several types of Chinese acquired dyslexia, and the-refore revealed some special features of Chinese reading disorders. There are two types of dyslexia resulting from a blockage in the co-nnections made between character form, sound, and meaning. These areFORM SOUND DYSLEXIA and FORM MEANING DYSLEXIA. Because of the sp?cial properties of Chinese characters there areASSOCIATIVE DYSLEXIA and COMPOUND DYSLEXIA. Compatible with alphabetic acquired dyslexia there also exits SURF-ACE and DEEP DYSLEXIA, both have some distinguishing Chinesefeatures.
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    RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FACILITATORY EFFECT OF ORG-2766 ON MEMORY CONSOLEDATION PROCESSES AND CEREBRAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN MICE
    Chen Rong,Wang Xinguang,Xiao Xinsheng Nanjing Neuropsychiatric Institute Nanjing University
    1990, 22 (03):  84-89. 
    Abstract ( 469 )  
    The effects of Org-2766 on one-trial passive avoidance response andY-maze discrimination learning in mice were studied. The results showedthat Org-2766 facilitated passive avoidance response,increasedthe retentionof Y-maze discrimination learning and prevented amnesia induced byanisomycin(ANI). The effects of Org-2766 on cerebral protein syn-thesis inhibited by ANI at the level of hippocampal and thalamic syna-ptosomes were also studied. The results showed that ANI reduced hipp-ocampal and thalamic synaptosomes uptaking[~3H]-Leucine. Org-2766could prevent the inhibitory effecb of ANI and keep the [~3H]-Leucineuptaking at normal level. These results suggest that facilitatory effect ofOrg-2766 on memory consolidation possibly is associated with the proteinsynthesis.
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    ANALYSIS OF THE RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION FROM 1979 TO 1988 IN CHINA
    Shi Shaohua Insititue of Psychology, Academia Sinica, Beijing
    1990, 22 (03):  92-100. 
    Abstract ( 527 )  
    The database FCCDEP79-88 (File of China's Child Developmental andEducational Psychology 1979--1988)was built to analyse the advances in thisfield from 1979 to 1988 in China. The main findings are as follows: Therewas a significant progress in statistical uses. The number of subjects usedduring the ten years reached a considerable figure of 362665 and the focusof the studies was on children aged from 4 to 16 years. There were alsoadvances in research methods. The methods mainly used were experim-ent, psychological measurement and assessment and theoretical analysis. Arapid increase was found in studies using scales. In terms of the researchproblems, there was a decrease in high level studies of deep exploration,especially in 1988, while thele was an increase in replication studies. Or-iginal and creative studies showed an increase in number, which needsfurther analysis. The average number of citation was much smaller thanthe country's average and the world average. Books were more often ci-ted than journals, which is different from some citation analysis whichshowed that journals were most often cited in scientific literature bothat home and abroad. Most of the cited were in chinese and English,among which only a small number was published in the past 5 years.
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    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MEMORY & MEMORY MONITORING BETWEEN GIFTED AND NORMAL CHLDREN
    Shi Jiannong Institute of Psycholology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    1990, 22 (03):  101-107. 
    Abstract ( 453 )  
    In this experiment, 20 gifted children (11 years and 2 months old irsaverage) and 20 normal children (11 years and 3 months old in average l,were tested, and numerical and figural materials were used to detect thememory and the memory monitoring of the gifted and the normal. Theresults' of the two groups were compared. The results showned that ( 1 );the gifted are superior to the normal not only in the amount of recall andthe speed of remembering, but in some aspects of metamemory, such as.memory monitoring and memory organization~ etc. ~( g ) the reiationshipbetween the memory performance and the memory monitoring is compli-cated~ but the speed of remembering, as one important aspects of memo-ry performance, has a significant correlation with the memory monitor-ing~ (8) there is a close correlation between the two components of'metamemory, the memory monitoring and the organization of memory.
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