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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 22 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    EXPLORING CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS IN HUMAN COMPREHENSIVE FUZZY CONCEPTS
    Ma Mouchao,Li Wenfu,Meng Qingmao Institute Psychology, Department of Psychology,Academic Sinica, China Beijing Normal University
    . 1990, 22 (04): 3-10.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 93 )
    This paper explores characterization of dynamics in human compre-hensive fuzzy concepts as qualifiers or modifiers under given different con-ditions. It is considered that variables such as assigning numerical inter-val (discouse universe), cardinal numeral of comparision and contextfactor exert an influence on comprehension of the fuzzy concepts. Empha-sis is placed on the examination of nature of age shown in between adultand child the point in question.
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    A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE TAKING IN CHINESE AND AUSTRALIAN CHILDREN
    Fang Fuxi,Daphne M. Keats Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Department of Psychology the University of Newcastle, Australla
    . 1990, 22 (04): 11-20.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 95 )
    A traditional Chinese children's story, "The Master and the Wolf",was used to create stimulus material to examine social perspective takingin Chinese and Australian children. The children were 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8years of age, with 30 in each age group. The results showed that though the subjects came from different soc-ial and cultural background, the order of acquisition of the concepts wassimilar in each culture: 1. Asimple elemantary perspective taking was first developed in pre-schoolers. For instance,they could take another person's visualperspectiveinto account, they could differentiate their own view from the other's,or one person's from the third person's, but they did not know that theproperties of thought had to do with the recursive nature potentiallyuntil they reached middle childhood. 2. For evaluating personalities in the characters of the story,the pre-schoolers first developed a general global stereotyped idea in terms ofthe circumstances and extrinsic behavior of characters. They could notmention the personality traits until the age of 7 or 8. 3. There were no significent differences between male and femalesubjects in both countries for the above acquisition. However, the levels of acquisition in Australian children was delay-ed at least one to two years compared with Chinese children. This diver-gence might partly be attributed to the effects of different social environ-ment they live in and the material conteat they are familiar with.
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    THE MODERATOR ROLE OF REFLECTIVITY-IMPULSIVITY COGNITIVE STYLE IN CHILDREN'S LOGICAL REASONING
    Zhou Run-Min Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
    . 1990, 22 (04): 21-27.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 131 )
    Fisrt grade children (mean age= 6 years 7 months) were classifiedinto reflective (n=33) and impulsive(n=31) by Matching Familiar FigureTest. They were also tested on logical reasoning tasks in three periods:pretest, training and posttest. Analysis of children's spontaneous tenda-ncy of self-explanation suggests that: 1)The reflective children paid muchattention to the sureness of their judgments during all the three periodsof testing; 2)The impulsive children were eager to respond quickly at thepretest, but during the training, owing to the explanation of the experi-menter, they changed their reflectiveless habit and focused on the surenessof their answers, at the posttest however, they resumed their quickresponding tendancy. At the pretest both groups did equally poorlybecause the tasks proved to be too difficult, during the training both didequally well,and at the posttest the impulsive children regressed while thereflective children did not. The educational implications of the findingsare discussed in this paper.
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    THE COMPARISON OF MIRROR-WRITING BETWEEN DEAFMUTES AND NORMAL CHILDREN
    Xu Zhenlei,Li Xintian Department of Medical Psychology, Beijing Medical University
    . 1990, 22 (04): 28-33.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 96 )
    133 normal children and 113 deaf-mutes in Kindergarten, primary schooland deaf-mute school were asked to write Arabic numerals 1--10 and eightChinese words with eight writing patterns. The result reveals that firstgrade deaf-mute school childen wrote less mirror-words than normal Kin-dergarten children, but in the other compared grade groups there were nosignificant differances. In the age group of 8--10 the deaf-mutes wrotemore mirror-words than normal children, but in the other compared agegroups there were no significant dtfferances. Through analysis we proposetwo key periods of the development of mlrror-writing: 1. development ofthe regulation and control of the brain of 5--6 year olds, 2.first two yearsof education due to the development of writing-skill.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE SENSATION SEEKING TRAIT OF SPECIAL TEEN-AGERS
    Zhang Yuching,Chen Zhonggeng Child Development Center of China Psychology Department of Beijing University
    . 1990, 22 (04): 34-42.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 205 )
    This paper examined the Sensation Seeking trait, Cognitive Complex-ity, the Rod and Frame Test and the Heart Rate for superior teen-agers,juvenile delinquents and general teen-agers. The major objective is toverify F.Farley's theory and to go further into the cognitive and physiolog-ical characteristics. Farley's theory is that high sensation seekers possesstwo behavior completely opposed as a result of their different stimulationseeking ways. The results of the experiment were that juvenile delinquents and superiorteen-agers possess high sensation seeking trend compared to the generalteen-agers; the stimulative ways that the superior teen-agers and the juv-enile delinquents seeking were different; the superior teen-agers scoredhigher in cognitive complexity, tending to Field-Independence andstronger orienting reflex to novel stimulation, whereas the juvernile del-inquents displayed cognitive simplicity and Field-Dependent charaeter-istics.
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    FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN-CHINESE REVISION(WISC-CR)
    Dai Xiaoyang,Lin Chuangding,Zhang Houcan Hunan Medical University Beijing Teacher's College Beijing Normal University
    . 1990, 22 (04): 43-48.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 168 )
    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Chinese Revisiot(WISC-CR) was analyzed using principal-component analysis and alphafactor analysis followed by oblique rotations of two and three factors.Three meaningful factors were present for each age group. The VerbalComprehension factor consisted of Information, Similarities, Vocabulary,and Comprehension, while the perceptural organization factor was com-posed of picture Completion, picture Arrangement, Block Design, ObjectAssembly and Maze. The Memory/Freedom from Distractibility factor hadmajor loading on Arithmatic, Digit Span, and Coding. Factor structureof the WISC-CR and WISC-R were very similar. The coefficiets of corre-lation between the WISC-CR and WlSC-R factors were high, the VerbalComprehension factor correlated .971, Percepture Organization factor co-rrelated .969, and the Memory/Freedom from Distractibility factor corr-elated .832.
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    THE VISUAL RECOGNITION AND CAPACITY OF STM FOR CHINESE DISYLLABIC WORDS
    Zhang Wutian,Feng Ling Institute of Psycology Academia Sinica
    . 1990, 22 (04): 49-56.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 122 )
    Two experiments investigated the impact of three variables of Chin-ese disyllabic words (word usage, complexity of stroks and spoken dur-ation) on the capacity of STM in a serial recall task. In experiment 1,word usage and the complexity of storks presented a significant effect onthe capacity of STM and words that have different spoken duration hadno effect on it. In experiment 2, there was a substantial negative corr-elation between recognition time and the capacity of STM. Finally thepossible relation between the effect of complexity of stroks on STM andthe identification of disyllabic words was discussed.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION ON THE RECALL OF ABSTRACT AND CONCRETE SENTENCES OF CHINESE LANGUAGE
    Zhang Hao,Peng Danling Beijing Normal Univeresity
    . 1990, 22 (04): 57-62.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 111 )
    The influence of contextual information on the recall of abstract andconcrete sentences of Chinese language was studied in a series of experi-ments.In the first experiment,concrete target sentences and abstract targetsentences were presented in either a coherent paragraph context oraran-dom paragraph context. Subjects recalled more concrete sentences thanabstract ones in the random context, but there was no difference betwe-en the two groups of students when the sentences were presented in acoherent context. In the second experiment, a moderately coherent con-text was added, which included many of the same nouns as the coherentparagraph, but was not as thematically coherent. The result showed thatthe moderately coherent context provided intermediate facilitation for therecall of abstract sentences relative to the random context and the coher-ent context, but the context structure did not affect the recall of concre-te sentences. The result were interpreted in accordance with the differ-ential availability of contextual information for abstract and concrete sen-tences of Chinese language in support of the context avalilability model.
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    THE RECOVERY OF MEANING OF CHINESE CHARACTERS IN THE CLASSIFYING PROCESS
    Zhang Jijia,Zhang Houcan,Peng Danling Psychology Department, Beijing Normal University
    . 1990, 22 (04): 63-71.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 159 )
    The study used methods of classfying to explore the recovery of ca-tegorical meaning of Chinese single-characters. The subjects are under-graduates or graduates. Results show that the Yi Fu of Chinese charac-ters have a significant role in meaning recovery of single-character wor-ds. Word frequency and semantic distance also have important effect onthe time of semantic recovery. The whole study showed that semanticrecovery of Chinese characters may concern two network systems: lexicalnetwork and semantic network.
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    IS THERE ANY CONSISTENCY OF EMOTIONALITY MANIFESTATION AMONG DIFFERENT EMOTIONS?
    Liu Xiaodong,Meng Zhaolan,Lu Weiping Beijng University
    . 1990, 22 (04): 72-78.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 126 )
    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis implied in manyearly temperament theories that the manifestation of emotionality wasconsistent among different emotions. A sample of 30 twelve months oldinfants were measured on some facial expression variables including latencyand duration of four kinds of primary emotions (i. e.happiness,interest,anger, and fear) elicited in an experimental situation. In addition, theheart rate variability (HRV) was also measured during the process ofemotion responses. After using factor analysis method,we did not find any consistency ofemotionality between any two of the four kinds of primary emotions.This result suggested that emotionality should be measured separately forTeach primary emotion. With regard to the HRV,we found a consistencyof emotionality between two positive emotions and between two negativeemotions,but no consistency between positive and negative emotions. Wedid not find any significent correlations between facial expression indexand physiological index.
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    EFFECTS OF PERSONALITY TYPE ON STRESS RESPONSE (SECTION OF LABORATORY STRESSOR)
    Cheng Sha,Tang Cimei,Li Xintian Institute of Pcychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1990, 22 (04): 79-86.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 127 )
    12 subjects with high neuroticism scores and 12 subjects with low Nscores were chosen by using Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and a complexchoicereaction task under time pressure. Urine catecholamine excretion,pulserate, breathing rate, breathing volume, galvanic skin response andsubjective psychological reactions were measured during and after the workperiod. The result showed large individual differences in the two groups.High N scores increased signifficantly at catecholamine excretion and fivephysiological indexes compared with low N scores, and high N scores hadgreater subjective psychological reactions. In the other hand, the resultalso showed signifficant positive correlation between catecholamine and pu-lse rate, When the result of the present experiment was compared withthe result got in section of natural stressor, same efficiency was foundbetween natrual stressor and laboratory stressor.
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    THE HEMISPHERIC COOPERATION IN MAN AFTER CALLOSOTOMY OF THE TRUNK OF THE CORPUS COLLOSUM
    Long Di,Li Xintian,Li Minggao China Medical University Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences China Medical University
    . 1990, 22 (04): 87-93.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 97 )
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    LEARNING AND MEMORY IN DROSPHILA
    Xu Bingxuan
    . 1990, 22 (04): 94-100.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 73 )
    Some researchers suggest that the ability of acquiring and storinginformation in the nervous systsm should be coded by genes. If certainsingle gene mutation on learning and memory can be dissociated, thenone might identify the gene and their products and thus elucidate the mo-lecular mechanism of learning and memory. Drosophila fits very well tothis research. This research has opened a complete new area in the studyof the neurobiological basis of learning and memory. This article is divided into three parts. The first part narrates themutants with defects in learning and memory. The second part ismolecular lesion. The third part includes three topics. 1.The definitionof mutant with defects in learning and memory. 2.The generality of theeffects on learning and memory. 3. The exploration of mechanisms.
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    BIOFEEDBACK, MUSCLE RELAXATION AND HYPERTENSION
    Cui Qiu-geng Institute Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1990, 22 (04): 101-106.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 743 )
    The purpose of this reseach was to explore the relation between bio-feedback and hypertension in clinically objective indices.39 hypertensiveswere randomly assigned into 3 groups; 1) the biofeedback group, 2) themuscle relaxation group, 3)the biofeedback-assisted with muscle relaxa-tion group. After one month's training, the systolic and diastolic bloodpressure (BP) in the biofeedback group decreased very significantly; butthe muscle relaxation group showed significant decrease only in systolicpressure. The effect of the therapy in the biofeedback assisted withmuscle relaxation group was similar to that of the biofeedback group. Theresults suggest that the biofeedback could play an important role inhypertension therapy but the function of muscle relaxation was limited.
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    COMPARISON OF THE PATTERNS OF SOCIAL BEHAVIORAL REPERTOIRE BETWEEN MACACA THIBETANA AND MACACA MULATTA
    Ren Renmei,Yan Kanghui,Su Yanjie,Wang Qingwei,Sun Yaozhong Psychology Department of Beijing University Shanghai Physiolgical Institute of Academia Sinica
    . 1990, 22 (04): 107-112.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 83 )
    Observations on the patterns of social behavioral repertoire of Thibet-an monkey were made in both natural habitat and experimental cage. We discoverad that many patterns of thibetan monkey are similar to the p-atterns of rhesus monkey which were published in articles concerning thepatterns of social behavioral repertoire of rhesus monkeys. But some patt-erns of social behavioral repertoire of Thibetan monkey, such as groundslaping threat, ear holding threat,non-sexual mounting, teeth chattering,embracing, male hugging young and licking genitals are different fromthose of the rhesus monkey.
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