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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 23 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF 4.5—7.5 YEAR OLD CHILDREN'S COGNITION OF AGE
    Fang Ge,Fang Fuxi Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1991, 23 (01): 3-11.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 94 )
    The purpose of this study was to explore the developmental processand characteristics on the cognition of age. The results showed: 1. In the condition of showing the same amount of stimuli, the per-formances of preschoolers for recognition of fixed age-sequences were muchbetter than the performances for cognition of the relativity of age-seque-nce. the latter showed two obvious different stages between the pre-scho-oling period and formal schooling period. 2. The performancesfor cognition of the span of the age were muchbetter than for cognition of the born-sequences in preschoolers. 3. Cognition of the age for the future growing up in children showedtrends of divelopment from the short span of time to the long span oftime.
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    THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAP READING ABILITY IN CHILDREN OF 6—12 YEAR OLDS
    Xu Fan,Li Wenfu,Shi Jiannong Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    . 1991, 23 (01): 12-19.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 94 )
    The experiment was conducted in the attempt to understand the deve-lopment of children's map reading abilities. 96 children aged from 6 to12 years were asked to match a room model with two maps which haddifferent abstract level symbols and were shown in different angles (0°or 180°) . Ss were asked individually to match the maps with the model.The results have shown that: 1) the children's map reading ability deve-lopment is a process in which children first react egocentrically, and thenthey start to use landmarks, and at last they depend on mental rotation; 2)the abstractness of maps can influence the map reading process only whenchildren's map reading abilities were relatively poor; 3) the rotations ofmaps have significant influnces on map-reading reaction.of young childrenEven 6-year-old children can use non-rotated map properly, but theycan't use rotated maps until 8 or older.
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    INFLUENCE OF BACKGROUND WITH DIFFERENT COLORED LIGHTS ON THE COLOR APPEARENCE OF WHITE LIGHT
    Xu Zonghui,Lin Zhongxian,Guo Sumei,Pan Guangyue Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Beijing University of Science and Engineering
    . 1991, 23 (01): 20-26.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 126 )
    In this experiment the shifts of induced colors in a white test fieldwere measured on background of different colored lights by using haplos-copic methed.The color shifts were measured and shown on the CIE 1931color diagram. The results indicated that on the different inducing background of red,green, blue and yellow,a white light roughly appeared to have a hue com-plementary to those lights respectivly. There were some deviations of in-duced color from directions of complementary colors These results mayprovi de clues to further the understanding of the visual process.
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    SENSITIVITY OF RED AND GREEN LIGHT VISION LN CHROMATIC ADAPTATION
    Wang Donghui,Lin Zhongxian Jnstitute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, Beijing
    . 1991, 23 (01): 27-33.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 82 )
    The Sensitivity for red and green light vision under several chroma-tic adaption conditions were studied by using threshold method. The res-ults show that: (1) when the stimulus light target and the backgroundlight (adaptation light)are both steady, there exists obvious opponent ef-fects in sensitivity for red and green light vision; (2) when the stimuluslight target flickers and the background light is steady, the opponent eff-ect is obviously diminished; (3) when background light flickers whilethe stimulus light target is steady, there still exists obvious opponentresults in red and green light vision and sensitivity increases.
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    A VISUAL EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SELECTIVE ATTENTION MODEL
    Lin Zhenqiu Beijing University
    . 1991, 23 (01): 34-40.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 144 )
    By using adapted stroop effect, two experiments were carried out tostudy selective attention model. Experimental results showed that wordmeaning obviously affected the subjects color naming, especially whennaming language differed from written language. The relation of languagesbetween naming and writing played an important role in the color namingtask. Based on experimental results, the author regards language as aprocessing channel,and proposes that selective attention model is subjectedto conditions, selective attention is selective response within a channelbut selective perception is between channels.
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    HOW TO USE FORMULAS FOR ESTIMATING RELIABILITY CORRECTLY
    Chen Xizhen Putian Institute of Education, Fujian
    . 1991, 23 (01): 41-49.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 110 )
    In educational and psychological tests, there are many methods forestimating reliability based on a single test such as: splithalf correctionformula, Rulon's formula, Flanagan's formula, K-R_(20) formula, Hoyt'sformula, coefficient α and formula β, and so on. Are there any relationsamong these formulas? Which is more superior? These are problems thatrefers to how to use and explain them correctly. These problems are stu-died in this papers and some results are obtained: 1. In estimating reliability of internal consistency, Coefficient α ismore superior, and other formulas of estimation are either its equivalentform or its special example in some cases; 2. In estimating reliability coefficient D(T)/D(X), formula β is moresuperior to coefficient α; Finally, another new formula β_1, of estimating reliability coefficient isgiven and the relation of β and β_1 is discussed.
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    THE EFFECT OF WINDOW SHAPE ON HUMAN LOCAL MOTION PERCEPTION
    Wu Xinnian,Wang Yunjiu and Yao Guozheng Institute of Biophysics, Academic Sinica
    . 1991, 23 (01): 50-54.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 76 )
    According to the Aperture Problem in human motion perception,when a moving grating is viewed by the subject through a small ap-erture, the only motion that could be perceived by the human visual sys-tem is the motion component orthogonal to the bars of the grating. In this paper we designed a family of windows with diffrent shapesto deal with human local motion perception. The results reveal that hu-man local motion perception, including sujective motion direction andspeed, depends on the shapes of the windows and some constraints onorientations of the grating. It is quite evident that the viewpoint of thetraditional Aperture Problem is one-sided.
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    ADVANCES IN THE STUDY OF ELEMENTARY THEORY AND HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY IN THE PAST 10 YEARS IN CHINA
    Che Wenbo Jilin University
    . 1991, 23 (01): 55-63.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 212 )
    (1) The main progresses are as follows: focus on the explorationof a series of problems in elementary theory; plenty of outcomes in thestudy of the history of Chinese psychology; distinguished outcomes inWestern psychology; some progresses in research on psychology in the USSRa good beginning on the study of Panshu's psychological thought. (2) The study on several main theorical problemes are as follows,relationship between psychology and dialectical materialism; the essenceof the mind; contradictions and dynamics of mental development; the re-lationship between activity and practise; consciousness and unconscious-ness; the division of primary categories of mental activity; personality;history of Chinese psychology (for example: category, comparison, inhe- ritance, measures, etc.); the assessment of Western psychology (for exa-mple: assessment of humanstic psychology, psychoanalysis, Piajet's geneticepistemology and cognitive psychology) . (3) Feature directions for further development: conscientiously persis-ting instructions of dialectical materialism; persisting the style of studyof integrating theory with practice; vigorously enhancing the study ofChinese psychology; persisting the policy of "widely gathering everybody'sadvantages" and "making foreign things serve China"; further improvementof the diathesis of researchers of elementary theory.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF NERVE TYPES AND FIELD DEPENDENCE-INDEPENDENCE OF CHINESE MALE HIGH JUMP MASTERS OF SPORTS
    Liu Wenhao Wuhan Institute of Physical Education
    . 1991, 23 (01): 64-70.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 74 )
    A preliminary study of nerve types and field dependence-independenceof Chinese male high jumpers has been made by using Nerve Type Test andRod-Frame Test respectively. 81 present male high jumpers were used assubjects, 25 of them belonging to 2nd grade athletes with records from1.83m.to 1.99m, 33 belonging to 1st grade athletes with records from 2.00to 2.11m. and 23 to masters of sports with records of 2.12m. and above. The results of mathematical statistics show that 1. There is a signif-icant difference in the distribution of nerve types among the male mastersof sports in high jump, 47.83% belong to the quiet type and 43.47% tothe excited type, whereas there is no difference in the distribution of ne-rve types among the other two grades; 2. There is significant differenceamong the atheletes of the three grades in field independence, the fieldindependence of the masters of sports is the strongest. Basedon the above results and according to the theory of sports psy-chology and the characteristics of high jump, this paper has preliminarilyrevealed in theory the internal relations between the two above psycholog-ical diathesis and high jump, expounded the superiority in high jump ofathletes with quiet nerve type or excited nerve type and stronger field in-dependence. The above findings have referential value to psychologicalselection and training of male high jumpers.
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    DIRECT PROOF OF CNV AS A COMPOSITE WAVE
    Wei Jinghan and Fan Silu Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1991, 23 (01): 71-75.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 79 )
    Three items of CNV were performed on fourteen subjects aged 19-22.The items are as follows: Usual CNV (U.CNV) , Nonmotor CNV (Nm.CNV) and Half-probability CNV (Hp. CNV). It is observed that. (1)The late section and full CNV of U.CNV amplitude are larger than Nm.CNV, the difference of the late section is the largest, and the differencewave between U.CNV and Nm. CNV is the component of conation thatisa pure psycho-genous wave and is the Readiness Potential of Kornhuber etal. in CNV; (2)The early section and full CNV of Hp. CNV amplitudeare larger than U. CNV; (3)The early section, late section and full CNVamplitude of Hp, CNV are larger than Nm. CNV. These results sugg-est that the conation is a psychological factor in CNV; the Readiness Po-tential is a component of CNV. This experimental result is a new directevidence of the latest view that CNV is a composite wave.
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    THE ROLE OF N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE RECEPIOR IN DEVELOPMENT OF LEARNING-DEPENDENT LONG-TERM SYNAPTIC POTENTIATION
    Xu Shitong,Yi Li,Ou Yingqi(Neurophysiology Research Laboratory,South China Normal University. Guangzhou)
    . 1991, 23 (01): 76-82.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 113 )
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of microinjecti-on of 2-amino-5-phospho-novalerate (APV), N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMD-A) receptor antagonist, to the CA_3 region of the rat hippocampus on thesynaptic efficacy and relative conditioned behavior during establishmentof conditioned drinking response. The results showed that microinjection of APV caused significantlysuppression of the synaptic efficacy and the establishment of conditioneddrinking response. Moreover, the development level of long-term potenti-ation (LTP) is in advance of the development level of correlative condi-tioned behavior. These results indicated that the NMDA receptor is in-volved in the development of learning-dependent LTP.
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    THE CHANGES OF LEARNING-DEPENDENT LONG-TERM POTENTIATION IN THE VARIOUS PHASES OF LEARNING
    Liang Weiguo,Xu Shitong,Ou Yingqi Neurophysiology Research Laboratory, South China Normal University, Guangzhou
    . 1991, 23 (01): 83-89.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 77 )
    The changes of synaptic efficacy in the CA3 region of the rat hippo-campus during establishment, consolidation, extinction and re-estiblish-ment of the conditioned discrimination response have been examined. It is shown that the long-term potentiation (LTP) which appeared inthe CA3 of the hippocampus with the establishment of conditionedresponse, persisted with the consolidation of conditioned response andextinct with the experimental extinction of conditioned response.Yet, it reappeared with the reestablishment of the conditioned response.The development level and alteration of LTP were in advance of the dew- elopment level and alteration of conditioned behavior. The continuous in-vestigation made in one experiment substitutes for several experiments inthe past. The relevant appearance and alteration of the learning-dependentLTP in the CA3 that is a controllable effect on conditioned behavior wasobserved in the various phases of the continuous and rapid alteration inthe learning. All these are fresh and convincing evidences indicating thatthe learning-dependent LTP might be one of the neural substrates of lear-ing and memory.
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    THE BEHAVIORAL EFFECT OF A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY TO [ARG~8] VASOPRESSIN INJECTED CENTRALLY OR PERIPHERALLY IN MICE
    Zhang Yanping,Zhang Shiyi,Zhang Minlei,Sun Huiqiao,Huang Xingya Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical sciences, Beijing
    . 1991, 23 (01): 90-95.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 74 )
    Previously the authors reported on peripheral or central injection ofAVP facilitated memory retention in an inhibitory avoidance (IA) taskin mice. In the present study, we investigated the behavioral effect ofendorgenous vasopressin by using Monoclonal Antibody to [Arg~8] vasopr-essin (AVPMcAb), which was made by another group in the same lab-oratory injected centrally (icy) or peripherally (iv). Male Kunming mice were used in two sets of behavioral experiments,one set was IA task, another was Swimming Test (ST). The retentionlatency (in IA) or percentage of hindlegs immobile time (in ST) wasrespectively recorded as a measure of behavior retention. Results. 1) immediately after IA training, administration (icv)of AVPMcAb (1.5 and 4.5 ng/mouse) impaired retention (p<0.05). 2)AVPMeAb (0.15-1.50 μg/mouse) given iv injection immediately after I Atraining, had no influence on retention (p>0.05). 3) The behavior ret-ention of ST was depressed by AVPMcAb (4.5 ng/mouse) injection(icv). The data suggests that the central but not peripheral endorgenous va-sopressin might have some physiological influence on the animals' memoryfacilitation.
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    A FURTHER STUDY OF MEMORY DISORDER IN STROKE
    Wang Xiaoming,Cheng Weihua,Xu Shulian Beijing Neurosurgical Institute Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, Beijing
    . 1991, 23 (01): 96-100.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 112 )
    A further study of memory disorder was carried out on 113 strokepatients with the Clinical Memory Scale, The results showed: 1) MQ of50% patients were below average level. As compared with the control gro-up, there was significant difference. 2) Memory performances were worsein the cerebral hemorrhage group than the cerebral infarction group. 3)MQ and 4 subtests related to verbal memory decreased significantly inthe left cerebral stroke group. Among them,results of the associate learningtest was the worst. 4) There was no positive correlation between thedegree of memory disorder and the size of cerebral infarction or hemorrh-age.
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    THE MEASUREMENT OF EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED AFFECTS
    Zhang Yuxin,Peking University
    . 1991, 23 (01): 101-108.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 150 )
    A Multiple Affect Adjective Check List in Chinese, which consistsof three sub-scale measures of hostility,depression, and anxiety, has beendeveloped through three independent experiments that occured in class-room situations.The results reported here showed that the three measuresh ave good internal consistency respectively, and good validity. Somerelevant issues were also discussed.
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    THE REPORT OF USING RAVEN'S STANDARD PROGRESSIVE MARTRICES IN DEAF CHILDREN
    Su Yonghua Education Department, Central-China Normal University
    . 1991, 23 (01): 109-114.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 132 )
    Raven's Standard Progressive Martrices has been proved to be a goodnon-verbal intelligence scale. This study used Raven's Stand-ard Progres-sive Matrices to measure the intelligence of deaf children, in which thesample was selected from school for the deaf children in Hubei province,(aged from 9 to 17). The results show that: 1) intelligence of the deaf-mute children develope as they grow up; 2)the intelligence level of thedeaf children is lower than that of normal children in cities in China.The reasons may be due to their physiological defects, conditions of theirsocial and living enviroments and educational conditions; 3) there is nodifference in intelligence developemental level between deaf children whohave a little sound hearing ability and those who have no ability to hear;4)Difficulty, discrimination, reliability and validity tests show that thisscale is reliable and effective. Meaning that this scale is suitable for mea-suring the intelligence of deaf children.
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