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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 June 1991, Volume 23 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    PRELIMINARY RESEARCH ON IMPLICIT MEMORY
    Yang Zhiliang East China Normal University
    1991, 23 (02):  3-9. 
    Abstract ( 859 )  
    The present research explored the characteristics of implicit memoryon the learning of meaningless letter strings. The results were analyzedusing Signal Detection Theory. There were two series of materials in theexperiment. According to the ratio of key letters "SCT" in each series,the experiment was derided into 6 groups. There were 11 subjects in eachgroup. The subjects totaled 66. The results showed. 1. There were signi-ficant differences between groups.The priming effects were obvious in thehigh ratio "SCT" learning material. It suggested that there exists anindependent implicit memory process; 2. The new findings in this experi-ment is unlike the explicit memory process, the mental state undulatedvery slightly,and the emotional state was stable in implicit memory pro-cess.
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    THE STEREOSCOPIC AND ANALYTIC IDENTIFICATION OF SPACE PROTOIMAGE OF GHOSTED VIEW
    Wang Xifu College for Workers & Staff of the Housing Management Office in Beijing
    1991, 23 (02):  10-20. 
    Abstract ( 470 )  
    The ghosted view is a two-dimensional figure with specific physio-psychological effect,being classified as four several types: antinomy type,coordinate-lack type, transit-deformation type and double type. Some ofthem depict an impossible unreal object on a two-dimensional plane,some-thing like three-dimensional, and hence in strong contradiction with thevirtually three-dimensional perceptive experience; and the others, withmultiple meaning produce various illusion from caprice occurring underconditions of psychological manipulation or dynamic figures. In studies onphysiological psychology and cartography, illusive phenomena of ghostedview for a long time had only been touched and the hallueination mecha-nism has hardly ever been dealt with. The ghosted view has not onlythrown the three-or multiple-dimensional geometric theory into confusion,but also brought about some false senses, and hence even some failures inthe depiction and interpretation of engineering drawings In this paper thehallucination mechanisms are quantitatively and qualitatively analyzedfrom stereoscopic theory and cartographic analysis, developing somehallucinating theories as body projection overlapping mechanism, collinea-tion-combination mechanism, spher transition mechanism and orientationshifting mechanism, concretely demonstrating the cartographic, geometricand physio-psychological processes of the formation of illusion byapplying the foregoing hallacinating theories to the common ghosted viewsin our country and other countries, thus revealing the hallucinationmechanisms of ghosted view.
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    EAR DIFFERENCES IN DISTINGUISHING CONSONANT FEATURES AND LEXICAL TONES
    Yang Yufang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1991, 23 (02):  21-28. 
    Abstract ( 629 )  
    Using dichotic listening technique, in terms of articulation indexesand structure indexes of perceptual configurations of both ears in Chineseconsonants and lexical tones as analysis procedures, the experiment inve-stigated ear advantage in distinguishing consonant features and lexicaltones.The results showed that (1)the right ear advantage in consonantrecognition, the effect of sound levels on the lateralisation degree. (2) Theright ear advantage in distinguishing consonant features,(3) similarity inconsonant perceptual configurations and in distributions of consonants inthe two configurations of both ears, (4) no difference between performancein lexical tone recognition and resemblance in both ears in perceptual con-figurations of lexical tones.
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    THE RECOVERY OF MEANING OF CHINESE CHARACTERS IN THE CLASSIFYING PROCESS
    Zhang Jijia,Peng Danling,Zhang Houcan Psychology Department, Beijing Normal University
    1991, 23 (02):  29-34. 
    Abstract ( 600 )  
    The study is a further exploration of semantic recovery of Chinesecharacters in the classifying process. The material used are two-characterChinese words. The study showed (1) the effect of Yi Fu also exists insemantic recovery of two-character Chinese words, (2) in processing oftwo-character words the subjects used parallel processing, (3) high-gradeinformation in the subject's mind has significant effects on semantic reco-very.
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    THE EFFECT OF CHINESE SENTENCE CONTEXT ON WORD RECOGNITION
    Zhu Xiaoping Shanghai Institute of Education
    1991, 23 (02):  35-42. 
    Abstract ( 468 )  
    The experiment was designed to study primarily the effect of Chinesesentence context on word recognition using naming task. It was discoveredthat the type of sentence context, the defined degree of sentence contexton target word, word frequency and number of strokes all influencedword recognition and that the magnitude of contextual effect also dependedon the defined degrees of context, word frequency and number of strok-es. These findings illustrate that: (1) the locus of contextual effect maybe changed with different conditions; (2) subjects employ different str-ategies in different degrees of contextual definition on word. Some predic-tions from the Verification Model, Logogen Model and Two-process The-ory respectively were not supported by this research. The mechanisms ofChinese contextual effects on word recognition needs further research.
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    THE PARALLEL PROCESSING IN UNDERSTANDING NATURAL LANGUAGE
    Lei Xiaojun Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1991, 23 (02):  48-56. 
    Abstract ( 475 )  
    The traditional paradigm of natural language understanding is that thesyntactic structure of a sentence is analysed first,according to the structure,then the semantic structure is produced, which is apparently differentfrom the process of human language understanding.There is some psychol-ogical evidence that syntax and semantics played a parallel role in under-standing language. This article proposes a new model of natural language comprehension,that is, syntax and semantics are parallel in comprehending sentences.When analysing the sentence by syntax,it might produce some ambiguoussyntactic structures, in which only one is correct.If semantics isput in work-ing with syntax at the same time,only the correct result could be ob-tained. Connectionism is becoming popular in the field of cognitive science,it provides a parallel method in processing sentences. In our work,a localconnentionist model was used to realize the paradigm of natural languageunderstanding. The model has been simulated by computer,which can pro-cess simple Chinese sentences.
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    A STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROPORTIONAL REASONING AND COGNITIVE STRUCTURE IN CHILDREN
    Miao Danmin Psychology Section, the Fourth Military Medical University
    1991, 23 (02):  57-67. 
    Abstract ( 712 )  
    This study aims at investigating into the general law of the develop-ment of proportional reasoning and internal cognitive structure in Chi-nese children between 4 and 14 years of age. Results: (1) seven stageshad been differentiated through multiple statistical method of cluster analysisof ordered sample and factor analysis with SPSS programs; (2) the gene-ral law indicated: the developmental advance is from one-dimensional,additionally qualitative operation to two-dimensional, multiplicationallyquantitative operation; from one-level integration of additional operation,to two-level integration of operation of the functional relations of anyinteger-multiple equal proportion, finally to top-level integration of ope-ration of the functional relations of non-integer-multiple non-equal pro-portion in the level of proposition. The development of proportional rea-soning is a gradually constructed and integrated process of the four-structure-relations from low to high level; (3)comparing the rate of success betweenChinese and Canadian 11--14 year old children showed that the teachingon ratio and proportion in China was very effective.
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    ANALYSIS OF THE STUDENTS'SUCCESSFUL EXAM RESULTS——A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY OF ATTRIBUTIONAL THEORY
    Sun Yuming Nanjing Normol University
    1991, 23 (02):  68-77. 
    Abstract ( 379 )  
    This paper was based on questionnaire method on six different culturesusing an English exam, attributional characteristics were compared. Itwas found that perceived causes of success were much in common, therewere three common properties as causal structures and emotional experien-ces. The differences among the six cultures in their attribution showedrespective characteristics. Comparing the three-level groups which scored3, 4 and 5, the greater the average abiiity,the more evident the inter-nal, stable and uncontrol factors were in dimension, and the strongertheir self-related feelings. This investigation testified that the attributio-hal model and the structure of dynamic of feeling and action by B.Weiner could be used in different cultures, it offers theoretical evidencefor the prevalent cross-cultural study on attribution.
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    CROSS-CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY:METHODOLOGY AND CURRENT TRENDS
    Daphne M.Keats,Fang Fuxi Department of Psychology, The University of Newcastle Australia Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, China
    1991, 23 (02):  78-87. 
    Abstract ( 550 )  
    The studies of cross-cultural developmental psychology could contrub-ute much not only in exploring the relationship between environment andheredity in explaining mental development but also to the practice of rear-ing children.Cross-cultural developmental psychology pays great attention tomethodology, otherwise the data obtained would be invalid. The most im-portant issue in methodology would be cross-cultural comparatility. Questi-ons of cultural equivalence permeate cross-cultural methodology. Severa 1necessary conditions for cross-cultural comparabitity were discussed in thispaper. Many studies on cognitive development and socialization of child-ren have been made in recent years. The effects of social-cultural varia-bles of individualism or collectivism on the child's development are beingincreasingly investigated, advocating the indigenisation of psychology andemphasizing on exploring the universality becomes the main trends. Rese-arch approaches of emic and entic have given rise to much controversy,however they are not contrary to each other, they are compensatory bec-ause universality can not be found if one does not study the culturallyspecific, and the specific could not be identified until we know somethingabout universality. As research strategy one might emphasize one approachor another, but both would give contrubitions to cross-cultural develop-mental psychologly.
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    EARLY RELATIONS AND EXCHANGES IN THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY IN CHINA AND JAPAN
    Zhao Liru Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    1991, 23 (02):  88-96. 
    Abstract ( 414 )  
    This article expounds the historical facts that both Chinese andJapanese earliest psychological translations came from the same originalworks of American Psychology. The translated psychological terms wereof influence to each other and were used in both countries, The earliestpsychological magazines were published successively about the same period.
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    A STUDY ON THE MMPI PROPILE CHARACTERITICS OF PATIENTS WITH NEUROSIS
    Wu Caiyun,Zhao Jiecheng Suzhou Medical College Shanghai Mental Health Center
    1991, 23 (02):  97-105. 
    Abstract ( 481 )  
    The authors studied the results of MMPI in 1112 patients with neuro-sis, the MMPI profile characteristics of neurosis was evaluated. Results suggest that in patients with neurosis all primary scores wereremarkably higher than norm scores except scales K and Mff scores. TheMMPI profile for the majority of neurosis patients was characterized pri-marily by the elevations on scales 1 , 2,3 and 7,on Chinese T-scores of60. The two-point code type included 12/21, 13/31, 23/32, or 27/72 codetype. The basic and entire concordance rate was over 70% .The MMPI co-de characteristics was concordant with clinical symptoms of neurosis. It isbelieved that the use of MMPI in evaluation of the psychological state forneurosis would provide an objective basis for diagnosis and treatment ofneurosis.
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    AN OUTLINE OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH ON LEGAL PSYCHOLOGY IN U.S.A. AND U.K.
    Wu Zongxian Section of Criminal Psychology, China University of Politics and Law, Beijing
    1991, 23 (02):  106-114. 
    Abstract ( 487 )  
    This article outlines contemporary research state of legal psychologyin U.S.A. and U.K.,it lays emphasis on the major research fields: eye-witness testimony, interrogation and confession,psychology of courtroom.,jury research, criminal psychology, psychology of victim and psycho-logy of legal procedures. Two problems in their research are pointed outlastly: low external validity in some researches and unbalanced researchdistribution.
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