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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 23 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE HANDEDNESS OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN
    Mao Yuyan,Zhang Zenghui Institute of Psychology, Academic Sinica
    . 1991, 23 (03): 3-13.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 123 )
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the handedness of menta-lly retarded children and the relationship between handedness and thecerebral lateralization. 100 mentally retarded children(2-12 years of age)participated in this study. The results show: (1) there is a high-left-handedness phenomenon(ormixed handedness)in mentally retarded childrei. The average ratio of thefrequency of left hand and right hand in giasping behavior of these sub-jects in four experiments was nearly 1:2, very similar to the same ratioof 1-2-year-old normal children's level; (2) sex and age had no significant-influence upon the handedness of retarded children; (3) the level ofretardation is significantly related with handedness. The ratio of the fre-quency of left hand and right hand of mildly retarded children in gras-ping behavior is bigger than that of the same ratio of moderately and se-verely retarded children (4) the cues, which mentally retarded childrenused in grasping objects were different in four experiments: in experime-nts Ⅰ to Ⅲ, position(closeness of hand)was the main cue while in experi-ment Ⅳ, preference, not position, was the main cue: (5) there is a directrelationship between the mixed handedness and the lack of cerebral la-teral specialization or the poor cerebral dominance. This remains an openquestion
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    THE STUDY OF IMPLICIT LEADERSHIP THEORY IN CHINA
    Ling Wenquan,Fang Liluo,Alka Khanna Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences The George Washington University, U. S. A.
    . 1991, 23 (03): 14-20.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 175 )
    Implicit leadership theory represents the construction of conceptuali-zation of leader.in people's mind in a certain specific culture. The cur-rent study reveals that the content of implicit theory of the Chinese peo-ple comprises of four factors, namely, 'Personal Morality', 'Goal Effe-ctiveness', 'Interpersonal Competence' and 'Versatility'.This result is qu-ite different from the result of eight factors in the U. S. A.. This maybe due to the difference between Chinese and American cultures. The resultof the current study is very similar to that of CPM pattern of leaderbehavior evaluation, and thus proves that CPM Pattern is a Chinesepattern that is different from Western cultures.
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    AN ANALYSIS OF CHARACTERISTICS FOR DESIGNATING VALUE TO TEMPORAL QUALIFIERS SEMANTICS
    Huang Xiting,Sun Chenghui Southwest China Normal University, Chongqing
    . 1991, 23 (03): 21-27.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 104 )
    The present paper used the method of fuzzy statistical test for desig-nating value to temporal qualifiers semantics. 260 subjects, who are uni-versity students, participated in the test. The results prove that: the giventemporal qualifiers are fuzzy concepts, and fuzziness-grade for each of themis different. There is a negative relationship between the number of assu-rance-score of evaluation and the fuzziness-grade of temporal qualifierssemantics. On the psychological scale value, the distance between each ofthem is not equal.
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    EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON TYPES AND APPROACHES OF PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK
    You Xuqun Department of Psychology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xian
    . 1991, 23 (03): 28-35.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 166 )
    The aim of this study is to search into the relationship of types andapproaches of feedback to performance. In the study, 120 subjects wererequired to finish a task both requesting quality and quantity. A 3×3experimental design (three levels of feedback crossed with three levelsof approach) with an additional control group was used. The results in-dicated: 1. In general, the performance of the feedback groups werebetter than that of the control group.2.The level of performance was affec-ted by the nature of feedback. The performance of the quality-and-qu-antity feedback was significantly better than that of other types of feedback.3.Individual performance might be improved by the free-choice andregular feedback. 4. The combination of free-choice and regular feedbackand the quality-and-quantity feedback was the best model-control withthe goal of reaching higher performance.
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    THE MEANING OF WORDS AND CEREBRAL FUNCTION LATERALIZATION.
    Wang Naiyi Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1991, 23 (03): 36-41.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 59 )
    The asymmetry of hemispheric function in recognizing Chinese singlecharacters (30 abstract and 30 concreate words) and two-characters (30abstract words) by normal hearing subjects and deaf subjects were compa-red by using tachistoscopic approach. The results indicated that the twogroups had just opposite hemispheric advantage effect when the test wordswere presented simultaneously to the right and left visual field, i. e.,thenormal subjects showed right visual field advantage (left hemisphere) inrecognizing Chinese single characters and two-characters, but the deaf sub-jects showed advantage of the left visual field (right hemisphere). How-ever, the two groups had the same scores in the right hemisphere, never-theless, the deaf subjects had significantly lower scores in the left hemis-phere than that of the normal subjects, which suggested that the absenceof the speech perception impeded severely the normal development of theleft hemisphere function mediated by the phonetic recoding. On the basesof comparison between the left and right hemisphere to recognizing accu-racy of both abstract and concreate words, we found that although the nor-mal hearing group showed left hemisphere superiority for both abstractand concreate words, their ipsilateral hemisphere had the same scores forthese two classes of words, nevertheless, the deaf group showed right he-misphere superionity for abstract words and no difference between the twohemispheres for concreate words, it was the same to these two classes ofwords to recognize in their ipsilateral hemisphere. It suggests that the twohemispheres might not have specific selectivity for both abstract and con-create words, or at least not revealed by this tachistoscopic approach.Our results are consistent with the dual-coding hypothesis in the readingprocessing mechanisms, but speech sound may play an important role indetermining hemisphere superiority action. Therefore, what was reflectedby the tachistoscopic task were the differences of the two hemisphere pro-cessing mechanisms in recognizing Chinese characters, there may not beany relation to the meaning of the words.
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    LEVELS OF PROCESSING、DECLARATIVE RETRIEVAL STRATEGIES AND IMPLICIT MEMORY
    Zhu Ying,Wang Hongbin,Fan Jin,Zhou Aibao Department of Psychology, Beijing University Laboratory of Cognitive Science, Uneversity of Science and Technology
    . 1991, 23 (03): 42-49.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 135 )
    Our reasearch includes two experiments. The first one includes 3 le-vels of processing and 3 implicit memory tests, we found no levels ofprocessing effect in primed word fragment completion. Whether there werelevels of processing effect in word stern completion or not had no relationto the possibility of word stems which could be completed to form manydefferent words or just to form one word. The second experiment, using aquestionnaire technique, asked the subjects to answer whether he(she) usesdeclarative retrieval strategies (DRS) during the completion. We found thaksubjects who used DRS completed a higher proportion of semantically en-coded words than structurally encoded words, whereas the performance ofthe subjects who had not used DRS was not affected by semantic versusstructural encoding. So there were no levels of proessing effect in wordslem completion.
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    VISUAL RECOGNITION PROCESSES OF CHINESE CHARACTERS: A RESEARCH TO THE EFFECT OF GRAPHEME AND PHONEME
    Tan Lihai,Peng Uanling Psychology Department, Beijing Normal University
    . 1991, 23 (03): 50-56.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 164 )
    Using lexical decision task, the experiment was designed to test whe-ther feature analysis is a necessary stage of visual recognition process ofChinese characters and whether phonetic activation of Chinese charactersocctirs during lexical access (prelexically) or after lexical access (postle-xically). The results showed that the multi-pronunciation character of the pri-ming word helped not only the judgement of the target item consistentwith the appropriate pronunciation of multi-pronunciation character, butalso the judgement of the target item consistent with the inappropriatepronunciation of multi-pronunciation character and the judgement of tar-get items of similar grapheme. We take the result to suggest that the fea-ture analysis is a necessary stage in visual recognition processes of Chi-nese characters and the phonetic properties of familiar Chinese words havebeen activated automatically before they reach mental lexicon.
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    THE DIFFERENCE OF PERCEPTION TIMES ON STEREOPSIS AND FORM VISION BETWEEN NORMAL AND AMBLYOPIC SUBJECTS
    Xue Jintang,Cai Daqing,Liu Dan Vision Res. Lab., Dept. of Biology, Univ. of Sci. and Tech. of China, Hefei
    . 1991, 23 (03): 57-62.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 100 )
    The perception times (PT) of stereopsis and form vision in normaland anisometropic amblyopic subjects were measured using StereoscopicTest Charts (S-M Yan, and Z-Y Zheng, 1985). These charts consist ofanaglyph (red-green) random dot stereograms (RDS) which have a rangeof zero (20-320 sec arc), and crossed, uncrossed (12-60 min arc) dispa-rities. The forms defined by stereoscopic disparity include common figuressuch as triangles, squares, etc. Tachistoscopic (Gl136, Gerbrands Corp.)presentations were used to control test stimulus and mask durations. Forboth normal and amblyopic subjects the perception of depth preceded theperception of form. For normal subjects about 100 ms were required toperceive depth while an additional 10 or more ms were needed to perceiveform. Stereopsis and form PT were independent of absolute disparity.Amblyopic subjects needed longer time for stereopsis and form perceptionscompared to normal subjects, The difference of PT between stereopsis andform in the amblyopic subjects was also longer than those of the normal. Two recovered amblyopes were also tested. The long term recoveredsubject had perception times within the normal range. Interestingly, therecent recovered patient who appeared clinically normal, still had eleva-ted perception times. This technique may prove to be a particularly sensi-tive measure of recovery from amblyopia beyond that of visual acuity.
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    NAMING ASYMMETRY A CHINESE CASE WITH STAGED CALLOSAL SECTION
    Zhang Daren,Chen Lin,Tan Qifu,He Sheng,Shi Hongxiao,Xie Wei Dept. of Biology & Cognitive Science Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China
    . 1991, 23 (03): 63-69.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 106 )
    Before and after the posterior callosal section, series of experimentswere run on a patient with staged callosal section (1st was the anteriorcallosal section). Before the posterior section, there were no significantdifferences between performance of the left and right sides (T-scope na-ming, object naming and copying), while the transfer of visual and tactilesensory information between the two hemispheres was basically intact.After the posterior section, the right visual field and right hand namingwas superior to the left ones, and the copying of the left hand seemed tobe better; at the same time the deficit of the transfer of the sensoryinformation was found. Naming score of the left visual field and left handwas higher than chance level, this might be relative to the "Right BrainLanguage". The data of orientation comparison and other tests providedsome new evidences supporting the hypothesis of coordination of the twohemispheres.
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    REVISON OF ROTTER'S INTERNAL-EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL SCALE WITH SAMPLE OF CHINESE COLLEGE STUDENT
    Wang Dengfeng Department of Psychology, Beijing University
    . 1991, 23 (03): 70-76.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 231 )
    Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale was revised forChinese college students. Factor analysis indicated that the scale had onlyone main factor. After deleting 4 items with the lowest correlations withthe total score of the scale and the main factor, each of the remaining 19items had significant correlations with the above two variables, and thediscrimination indexes were all above 0.20. The half split reliability andhomogeneity reliability were 0.78 and 0.81, respectively. Test-retest reli-ability with a 3 week interval was 0.94. The score distribution and limi-tations in using this scale were also discussed in this paper.
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    A STUDY ON TWO KINDS OF METHODOLOGY IN THE HISTORY OF WESTERN PSYCHOLOGY
    Liu Xiangping Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University
    . 1991, 23 (03): 77-83.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 269 )
    This paper is a study on the conflict of Phenomenonology with Po-sitivism in the history of Western psychology. The first part of this pa-per discusses the viewpoints of Positivism and Phenomenology, analysingtheir influence upon Structural psychology and Gestalt psychology. Thenit deals with direct influences of Positivism on Bahavioristic psychologyand Phenomenology on Humenistic psychology. Finally this paper evalu-ates the experience and lesson of Chinese psychology from the conflictsof these two kinds of methodology in Western psychology.
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    ON THE DYNAMICS IN KURT LEWIN'S PSYCHOLOGY
    Shen Heyong Department of Psychology, South China Normal University
    . 1991, 23 (03): 84-90.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 251 )
    In this paper the author focused upon the problem of dynamics inKurt Lewin's psychology. He analysed and discussed Lewin's dynamicconcepts, dynamic model, and dynamic point of view, expounded the his-torical and theoretical significance and the methodological significance init. The author holds that "dynamics" is the heart of Lewin's psycholo-gical study and the basis of his theoretical construct. So that in order tounderstand Kurt Lewin and his theory, one must understand the dynamicsin it.
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    WANG SHIZHEN'S THINKING IN PSYCHOLOGY OF LITERATURE
    Yu Tiecheng Quanzhou Educational College
    . 1991, 23 (03): 91-96.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 99 )
    The core of Wang Shizhen's poetic theory is romantic charm. Ittouches upon temperament and learning, expression of emotion and argu-ment, conception and inspiration, the psychological distance in literarycreation, and a series of other problems concerned which is of psycholo-gical meaning to a certain degree.
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    INTRODUCTION OF A METHOD IN ESTABLISHING A NEW LEARNING AND MEMORY MODEL WITH CHICKS
    Guan Linchu,Chen Shuangshuang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1991, 23 (03): 97-102.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 83 )
    Gibbs and Ng conducted a series of experimental studies using one-tri-al taste-avoidance task in one day-old chicks and proposed a new hypo-thesis of three-stage model of memory formation, which is short-termmemory (STM), intermediate-term memory (ITM)and long-term memory(LTM). Since 1986 Patterson et al., have replicated and extended someof the key findings of Gibbs and Ng, But Roberts expressed doubts towardthis model. Now debate on both sides is still continuing. Recently, weundertook an experiment to study the stages of memory formation in nor-mal one-day-old chicks. Our results were similar to those of Gibbs andNg. Using chicks as a model for thestudy of learning and memory is ofgreat value and it has many advantages. This method is worthy of note.
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    A STUDY OF IMPLEMENT "SHARING" NORM AMONG FRIENDS IN MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS
    Yang Yiyin Beijing College of Economic
    . 1991, 23 (03): 103-111.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 127 )
    The purpose of this study was to analyse the social psychologicalsubstance of friendship by studying the norms implemented among friendsof middle school students. Using the methods of questionnaire, story pro-jection, and field study on "sharing", the study was to find out (1) theimplement limit, role difference and justice principle; (2) the correlationbetween "sharing" and "collectivism orientation"; and (3) whether "shar,ing" is effected by social opinion or not. The results show: (1) the limit which Chinese middle school friendsimplemented is from "both for others and myself" to "just for others butmot for myself"; the role difference effected the sharing behavior; themain principle is "sharing equally". (2) the sharing norm implementedby Chinese middle school friends is positively correlated with collectivismorientation. (3) under social opinion the behavior of the ego approachessocial norms. These results show that the value orientation as a variablemust be consided when we interprete the social psychological substance offriendship,and under the tradition of collectivism the substance of friend-ship is not "reciprocity and exchange" but "sharing and integration".
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