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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 December 1991, Volume 23 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    PREFERRED CHROMATICITY AND COLOR TOLERANCE OF THE CHINESE NATIONAL FLAG
    Sun Xiuru,Lin Zhiding,Jing Qicheng,Lin Zhongxian Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1991, 23 (04):  21-29. 
    Abstract ( 726 )  
    So far no data is available with respect to the preferred chromaticityand color tolerance of the Chinese national flag. In this experiment 45Chinese flags (five star red flag) made of cotton cloth, polyester fibre andsilk separately with various chromaticity coordinates and reflectances wereused as experimental samples. The category judgment method was employ-ed for subjective evaluation of the preferred chromaticity and color tole-rance of the Chinese national flag. The data for preferred chromaticityand color tolerance of test samples obtained in this study can be of use asthe national standard for the Chinese national flag.
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    THE CHARACTERISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF THE DIAGNOSING SCALE OF COGNITIVE ABILITY FOR CHILDREN
    Lu Jing,Xu Fen Psychology Department, Hangzhou, University.
    1991, 23 (04):  30-37. 
    Abstract ( 611 )  
    This paper analyses the characteristics of DSCAC (Diagnosing Scaleof Cognitive Ability for Children), and its use in discriminating anddiagnosing the cognitive defects of children with learning difficulty.Thescale consists of 3 subtests with 7 items. The establishment of city normis based on the sampling of 333 children from grade 1~3 in primaryschool in 10 cities of Zhejiang Province.The main results are. (1) The cog-nitive developmental trend of children in pace with age can be reflectedin the scale. (2) The scale reliability coefficients estimated by test-retestare stable and reliable. (3) The scale also has high differential validity.
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    EXPLORING THE INTER-INTRAINDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ON THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN 7-YR-OLD PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
    Fang Fuxi,Fang Ge Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1991, 23 (04):  38-45. 
    Abstract ( 581 )  
    Eight items of the cognitive tasks, which consisted of conservation(two-dimensional space, continuous quatity, weight, area, volume), classinclusion, multiplication of class and multiplication of relations, were usedto examine the same child of 7-yr-olds in the first grade of primary sch- ools for exploring the inter-intraindividual differences on the cognitive de-velopment. The results showed:1. The subjects have already mostly acquired the concepts of conservati-on (except the conservation of volume). The reasoning abilities for theclass inclusion and the logical relationship of the two-dimention developedrapidly.2. The interindividual differences of children for cognitive developmentdepended on the effects of interaction between the envirnment and activi-ties of the child. The schooling qualities, the educated levels of the par-ents and the level of intelligence of the child were the important variablesfor the individual cognitive development.3. The acquisition of the concepts which were assumed to belong to thesame cognitive structures was not synchronous. The phenomenon of hori-zontal decalage for the intraindividual cognitive development was explain-ed as the expression of the unstable state during the processes of acquiringrelevant concepts or abilities.
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    EFFECTS OF DOT MATRIX SIZE ON CHINESE CHARACTER DISPLAY ON VDT
    Zhu Zuxiang,Shen Mowei Department of Psychology, Hangzhou University
    1991, 23 (04):  46-52. 
    Abstract ( 529 )  
    Experiments were conducted to examine the visual display performanceof Chinese characters with ten different dot matrixes and less than twen-ty-three strokes. The experiments demonstrated that the effect of dot ma-trix on visual display performance is dependent on dot matrix size. Usingdot matrixes less than 24×24 and strokes with single dot width, Chinesecharacfer display performance increased with the size of dot matrixes andreached its optimum in the size of 24×24. The performance deterioratedwith further increase of size of dot matrix. This is because the strokewith single dot width is too narrow to display Chinese characters withreasonable quality. The result shows that the minimum dot matrix forChinese characters with more than twenty strokes is 20×20,strokes withsingle dot width is not appropriate for the dot matrix larger than 32×32.
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    DEPTH OF PERCEPTUAL SEARCH IN SOLITAIRE CHESS PROBLEM SOLVING
    Fu Xiaolan Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1991, 23 (04):  53-60. 
    Abstract ( 518 )  
    The ability of perceptual search was studied by visualizing moves ona stationary chessboard presented on a video monitor. The subjects were40 students from an Engineering professional school who had previous ex-periences in the game of Solitaire. Instead of actually moving a particularchesspiece, the subjects were asked to imagine the moves of the chesspie-ces on the chessboard. The results showed, if the initial state and goalstate of the problem were presented, the subjects could accomplish 12 stepsof anticipatory moves through perceptual search (average correct res-ponse rate was more than 60%); reaction time increased with the increaseof steps of anticipatory moves.
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    MENTAL ROTATION: SEQUENTIAL EFFECTS OF SUBJECT REFERENCE FRAME
    Wang Caikang Department of Psychology, South China Normal University
    1991, 23 (04):  61-69. 
    Abstract ( 714 )  
    In the present study, a kind of preceding stimuli which had strongerinformation of reference frame (RF) but very dissimilar compared to thecurrent stimuli was introduced in a new experimental paradigm of mentalrotation, in order to explore the nature of sequential effects. The results of three experiments showedthat it was not the memory-trace template but the information of RF which the preceding stimuli hadprovided for Ss' normal/reflected judgements to the current stimuli. Thisfinding negated the backward alignment process hypothesis by Koriat &Norman (1988,1989) and tended to support the probability mixture modelby Robertson et al (1987). The results of the study also showed that the effects of RF informa-tion of the proceeding stimulus was very limited and affected Ss' judge-ments only in 400ms, suggesting that the subject reference frame was hardto be rotated under general circumstances.
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    THE EFFECTS OF HUPERZINE A ON BEHAVIOR AND ECoG IN ANIMALS
    Guan Linchu,Chen Shuangshuang,Cui Qiugeng,Lu Weihua,Tang Xican Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai Institute of Material Medicin, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    1991, 23 (04):  70-77. 
    Abstract ( 554 )  
    Huperzine A is a new type of alkaloid, it was first extracted fromHuperzia Serrata in China. The pharmacological actions of huperzine Aare similar to those of physostigmine,but its toxicity is weaker than phy-sostigmine. The purpose of this paper is to observe the effects of hupe-rzine A on the response of dark avoidance in rats, and inquire into theeffects of huperzine A on ECoG in rabbits. The results are as follows: Huperzine A could antagonize memory dysfunction which was produ-ced by scopolamine. Mainly showing prolonged latency and decreased err-or response in the group of huperzine A and scopolomine than the groupof scopolamine. Huperzine A could continuously produce lower voltages and fast wavesin the whole cortex and regular theta rhythm in the hippoeampus. Theresults of ECoG indicated that there was an antagonistic action between hu-perzine A and scopolamine, and that the effects of huperzine A are closely-related to the actions on the central cholinergic system.
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    STUDY ON EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS FOR DISCRIMINATION OF VOICES
    Lin Shuzhi,Shen Zheng Department of Psychology and National Laboratory of Machine Perception, Peking University, Beijing, 100871
    1991, 23 (04):  78-83. 
    Abstract ( 1044 )  
    Event-related potentials (ERPs) in six brain areas for discriminationbetween voices of two unfamiliar speakers were stadied in 21 female students.The results showed that the sementic voices in double syllables elicitedmore obvious changes in ERPs than those evoked by the voices in singlesyllables. The voices of the two speaker's presented with differentprobability evoked more obvious changes in ERPs than those elicited bythe voices of the two speaker's presented with equal probability. The dis-crimination of the voices in single syllable increased the amplitudes ofN200 waves at the left frontal area and latencies of P300 waves at the lefttemporal area. The discrimination of the semantic voices in double syllab-les increased the amplitudes of P300 waves at the studied brain areas ex-cept the right pariental area, and decreased latencies of P300 waves at theright frontal area.
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    THE PLASMA CORTICOSTERONE IN RATS DURING PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS
    Yan Jinl,Wang Chunan,Ye Ali,Chen Yizhang Laboratory of Neuroscience, Department of Physiology, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China, 200433
    1991, 23 (04):  84-91. 
    Abstract ( 476 )  
    The plasma corticosterone level of rats was determined and used as acriterion for magnitude of stress response in this model. The rats wererandomly divided into three groups: C, control group; R, regular lightgroup; Ⅰ, irregular light group.The experiment was successively carried out in three stages:Ⅰ. adaptation (7 days); Ⅱ. development of stress(7 days);and Ⅲ. psychological induction of stress (0-24 hrs). Stage Ⅰ: all animalswere adapted to the cage and other environmental cues. Stage Ⅱ. in groupR electric shocks were applied to the tail regularly with a fixed intervalafter the lights were given. In group I the same amount of light and ele-ctric shocks were irregularly applied. In group C only irregular light wasgiven. Stage Ⅲ. all tail shocks were omitted and the same protocol oflights were used in different groups. The results showed that the plasmacorticosterone levels in the R and I groups were significantly higher thanthose in the C group (p<0.01.StageⅡ: R,24.9+\-5.8; Ⅰ,34.9+\-2.0;C,11.7+\-1.7. Stage Ⅲ. R,24.1+\-3.3; Ⅰ, 33.9+\-2.5; C,13.1+\-5.0. In every group n was 9 and the unit was ug/dl.), there was a signi-ficant difference between stress responses of R and I groups, both at stageⅡ and Ⅲ (P<0.05).
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    THE EFFECTS OF LEARNING-DEPENDENT LONG-TERM POTENTIATION IN DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENT PHASES ON NEW LEARNING
    Dai Yuanwei,Xu Shitong,Ou Yingqi Neurophysiology Research Laboratory, South China Normal University
    1991, 23 (04):  92-98. 
    Abstract ( 473 )  
    The effects of learning-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in di-fferent development phases on the learning was investigated in freely mo-ving rats. The results showed: the acquisition of new conditional responsewas facilitated by the learning-dependent LTP in both the formation pha-se and consolidation phase, appeared with the former conditioning in thehippocampal CA3 region, but the facilitated effect of learning-dependentLTP in the consolidation phase is a little larger than in the formation ph-ase. As the learning-dependent LTP was extincted, no facilitated effecton the new learning appeared. However, the enhanced population spike(PS) did not increase further during the establishment of the new condi-tioning. Therefore, it is suggested that there might be some different chan-ges in synaptic plasticity at the different development phase of learning-dependent LTP and a "saturated" phenomenon in the synaptic potentia-tion produced by behavioural training. These results support further thatlearning-dependent LTP might be one of the neuronal mechanisms under-lying behavioral learning and memory.
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    PLUTCHIK'S PSYCHOEVOLUTIONARY THEORY OF EMOTIONS
    Qiao Jianzhong,Gao Sixin Nanjing Normal University
    1991, 23 (04):  99-106. 
    Abstract ( 1108 )  
    This paper introduces the basic ideas of Robert Plutchik's psychoevo-lutionary theory of emotions. It also analyses questions of emotions andevolution, primary emotions, the quality of emotions, the structure of?motions, emotions and cognition and the question of emotions and persona-lity.
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