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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 March 1992, Volume 24 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF GUANGZHOU ONLY AND NON-ONLY CHILDREN
    Jiao Shulan,Ji Guiping,Jing Qicheng Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    1992, 24 (01):  14-21. 
    Abstract ( 1421 )  
    A sample of 146 first grade and 171 fifth grade only and non-only children from 7 schools in Guangzhou were given 11 cognitive tasks to investigate the difference in cognitive abilities which may exist due to the special condi- tions caused by the Chinese single-child family planning program. First grade only children scored higher in verbal memory and general information than non- only children. There is a general superiority of only children in tasks related to general cognitive abilities. Grade five only children do not exhibit superiori- ty in cognitive abilities. There is a general trend that male only children scor- ed better than female only children in the general information task. The super- iority of first grade only children over non-only children was explained by higher parental investment of only children. The decrease in cognitive su- periority of only children over non-only children for fifth grade children was explained by the process of maturation and schooling.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE CORRELATION OF SPATIAL ABILITY AND GEOMETRICAL ABILITY OF 4-AND 5-GRADE STUDENTS
    Xu Fan,Shi Jiannong Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1992, 24 (01):  22-29. 
    Abstract ( 951 )  
    In the present study, 117 4-and 5-grade students were tested with spatial test and geometrical test,correlation between the students' performances on these two tests was analysed. The results showed: 1) in general, as well as on the geometrical test,the performances of the 5-grade students on the spatial test were significantly higher than that of the 4-grade students', but not in all aspects of the spatial test; 2) either in total number of subjects or in 4-and 5-grade separately, the correlations between the performances of the two tests were sig- nificant; 3) the performances of students in the research on the geometrical test can be predicted to a certain degree through the regression equation: Y ? = 0.5736X_i+0.7635.
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    A MULTIDIMENSIONAL STUDY OF THE LIFE SATIS-FACTION INDEX IN URBAN ELDERLY
    Guo Jinwu Wuhan University Hospital
    1992, 24 (01):  30-36. 
    Abstract ( 988 )  
    Life Satisfaction Index (LSI) is important in evaluating the mental health of elderly persons, many factors influence LSI of the elderly. Our study indi- cates that the sample of 355 urban elderly have a mean of 13.07±3.43 (M± SD) of LSIA scores, and there are significant differences in LSIA mean sco- res, of four variables: satisfied with the present financial situation, close friends, depressive symptoms, and subjective state of health. Multiple stepwise regression analysis reveals several variables——satisfied with the present fina- ncial situation, self-rating of health, depressive symptoms,occupation, and close friends——significantly associated with LSIA.
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    PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF REVISED LIFE EVENT EXPERIENCE SCHEDULE IN 560 PATIENTS
    Zhang Yao,Song Weizhen et al Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1992, 24 (01):  37-44. 
    Abstract ( 1046 )  
    On the basis of SRRS of Holmes and LES by Sarason, a revised life ev- ent experience schedule (LEES) was developed with the aim to meet Chinese milieu. A study of LEES was investigated in 278 psychosomatic patients,such as hypertension, coronary heart disease,and gastric ulcer, and also to 282 cancer patients, showing a high reliability and validity. Results also indicated a higher frequency of life events and a score in negtive emotion before the on- set of disease than that of healthy controls. Negative events in family events in childhood seemed to play a role of premorbid factor, they are related to experienced life events, sensetization personality, coping strategy and social support.
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    THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOCIAL GROUPS TO IMPLICIT LEADERSHIP FACTORS
    Ling Wenquan,Fang Liluo,Gao Jing,Alka Kanna Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Georgc Washington Univ. U. S. A.
    1992, 24 (01):  45-51. 
    Abstract ( 955 )  
    This study indicated that the contents of Chinese leadership theories are constructed by four major traits: personal morality, goal effectiveness, inter- personal competence, and element of versatility. The age, level of education and occupation of the rater affected ratings of leadership factors significantly. On the whole, level of education is the major variable, people of all groups tended to rate interpersonal competence as being most characteristic of leader- ship.
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    THE TEXT CONTEXTUAL EFFECT ON CHINESE WORD RECOGNITION IN READING
    Zhu Xiaoping Shanghai Institute of Education
    1992, 24 (01):  52-59. 
    Abstract ( 947 )  
    The text contextual effect on Chinese word recognition in reading is exa- mined in three experiments. In experiment 1 and 2, the influence of text con- text on lexical decision task is studied with two different presentation speeds of the text, which indicates that only under highspeed (150ms per character) presentation and high predictability(above 90%) condition, there exists the fa- cilitation and inhibition effects of the context, showing an inhibition dominant pattern. A further exploration of this effect is done with proofreading task in experiment 3, which is more similar to the natural reading situation. A significant contextual effect is found in high constraint context, also showing an inhibition dominant pattern. According to these results, the processes of word recognition in the text and the machanism of the text context effect are discussed.
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    A STUDY ON CONSERVATION OF QUANTITY IN RHESUS MONKEYS AND ASSAMESE MACAQUE
    Lin Guobin Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1992, 24 (01):  60-67. 
    Abstract ( 925 )  
    The purpose of this study was to apply Piaget's theory and methods to in- vestigate the cognitive abilities of rhesus monkeys and assamese macaque. Do monkeys have prerequisite skills for conservation of quantity? Are there any evidences for conservation of quantity in monkeys? And specifically, might they respond differentially to equivalent and unequivalent numerousness cues? Four monkeys were trained to make sameness-difference judgments of numerous- ness. Several controls were used to insure that the monkeys did not merely learn specific stimulus properties or patterns of stimuli. Three monkeys responded significantly and differentially to pairs of same numerousness versus pairs of di- fferent numerousness. They met criterion in 80, 160, and 200 trials respective- ly on the final task. The discussion includes problems of Piaget's theory and method involving conservation of quantity in primates and possible underlying processes to explain the numerousness judgments.
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    DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL RELATIONSHIP OF INFANT GOLDEN MONKEYS IN BREEDING GROUP: A CASE STUDY
    Su Yanjie,Ren Renmei,Qi Hanjun,Liang Bing,Bao Wenyong Department of Psychology, Beijing University Beijing Raising and Training Center of Endangered Animals
    1992, 24 (01):  68-74. 
    Abstract ( 1008 )  
    The development of behavior and social relationship of two infant golden monkeys in two breeding cages respectively were recorded 22 months continually with instantaneous sampling method. The results show: (1) They weaned at 19 -20 months of age; (2) Aunt behaviors, which include snatching, protecting and caring, are conspicuous among group females; (3) The relationship between father and infant is affiliated and tolerant; (4) Before weaning, infants were the subjects which all the group members protected, then, after they began to enter into the social relationship net of the group, they gradually were sli- ghtly blamed blt the group members. In addition, the occurrence of some social behavior patterns was noticed.
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    INVESTIGATION INTO ANIMAL MODELS OF LEARNING AND MEMORY DISORDER INDUCED BY ANISODINE
    Guan Linchu,Cui Qiugeng Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1992, 24 (01):  75-81. 
    Abstract ( 931 )  
    Using anisodine to prepare animal models of learning and memory disorder with water maze test, step clown test and step through test in mice was intro- duced in this paper. The results showed, anisodine (10 mg/kg)could significantly induce learning disorder in mice. Time through all pathways in the water maze was prolonged and errors in passing the blind alleys obviously increased. Anis- odine(10mg/kg)could significantly produce mempry dysfunction in mice: the latencies of the step down test and step through test were significantly shorten- ed, and errors of response in the step down test and step through test increased. The results futher indicated that the step through test is more sensitive than the step down test for testing memory dysfunction in mice.
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    SPATIAL COGNITIVE ABILITY: THE DIFFERENTIAL ROLE OF SEPTUM AND PARIETAL CORTEX
    Sui Nan,Kuang Pei-zi Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1992, 24 (01):  82-90. 
    Abstract ( 957 )  
    Separate groups of rats with lesions in the septum or parietal cortex were tested for acquisition and retention of the Morris water maze spatial cognitive task. Some of them in each lesion group received preoperative training in the task. Others in each group received no preoparative training. The results in- dicated that although both lesions lead to a spatial cognitive impairment in both the acquisition and retention of the task, the animals with septum lesions were more severely impaired than were the animals with parietal cortex lesions, as indicated by quantitative measures. Searching strategies were used as an index to eximine the qualitative difference of the animal's swimming beha- vior. The septum damaged animals tended to use "nonmapping" strategies to solve the task, and the strategies emerged a dynamic change. All of these su- ggested that the qualitative nature of the impairment differed from that of the parietal cortex damaged animals. The results of this study support the hypo- thesis that septum plays an important role in the processing of spatial mapping cognition.
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    COMPARISON OF PSYCHOPHYSICAL EXPERIMENTS AND VEPS IN STEREOPSIS RESEARCH
    Cheng Lihai,Le Wendi,Zhao Ning,Wang Yizhong,Zhu Lixin,Jin Guichang,Zhou Guirong Institute of Biophysics, Academia Sinica
    1992, 24 (01):  91-97. 
    Abstract ( 1117 )  
    Psychophysical experiment is the main method in the study of stereopsis. YEP was first used in the study of stereopsis since the 1970's with much re- sult. As YEP is very complicated the results were not satisfactory. In this paper we compared psychophysical experiments and VEPs in the research of stereopsis. The results showed that the first positive peak of VEP related to brightness of the stimulus; latence of N2 and P3 are useful for determining stereopsis; the latence of N2 is about 240 to 280ms for stereopsis and latence of N2 for none stereopsis is about 290 to 310ms; the latence of P3 is about 280 to 310ms for stereopsis and the latence of P3 is about 340 to 360ms for none stereopsis; the coefficient of coherence of VEP between stereopsis and none stereopsis is below 0.1; the density of power spectrum for stereopsis has a peak of around 8hz; the results with forced choice in psychophysical expe- riments is fairly reliable; the latence of N2 and P3 for stereopsis shows regu- larity while disparity was changed.
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    DIGITAL EMG DISPLAY INSTRUMENT AND APPLICATION IN SPORT AREA
    Liu Mingzhe,Dong Dekang,Li Xiang,Sun Bo,Tsinghua University,Zhang Shao Ying Division Of Biomedical Engineering Departmemt Of Electrical Engineering 100084 Beijing, P. R. of China National Shooting Field
    1992, 24 (01):  98-104. 
    Abstract ( 1261 )  
    In this paper a digital EMG display instrument was introduced. The EMG signal detected by a microelectrode passed through the amplifier displayed by this instrument in digital form. Since it has the function holding the output and providing different time interval displaying the value of the F. MG, it can be used to estimate and analyze the nervousness of the human body. This in- strument was used for psychological training of the national shooting team.
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    MEMORY DISORDER AND CSF NEUROPEPTIDES IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC CEREBRAOVASCULAR DISEASES
    Wu Weiping,Kuang Peigen,Zhang Fengying,Liu Jiexiao Neurotrasmitter Research Laboratory, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Postgraduate Medical School
    1992, 24 (01):  105-109. 
    Abstract ( 713 )  
    Nine patients with ICVD and two control groups were examined with clinical memory scales. Their levels of CSF SP, VIP and SS were assayed after onset of ICVD. The results were as follows. 1. The total memory scores and MQ in ICVD were significantly lower than those of the two con- trol groups. In the subtest scores, the scores of associative learning and image recall also decreased. 2. The levels of CSF SS in patients with ICVD significantly decreased as compared with the controls. 3. The levels of CSF SS in patients with ICVD had a possitive correlation with MQ. The results suggested that there were memory disorders in patients with ICVD and the assay of CSF SS may be valuable to evaluate the memory conditions in patients with ICVD.
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    The Moral Character Development of Schoolchildren
    Huang Li Populational Institute of Anhui University
    1992, 24 (01):  110-114. 
    Abstract ( 511 )  
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