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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 24 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    AN EXPERIMENT ON SENTENCE PROCESSING AND SEMANTIC MEMORY STRUCTURE
    Chen Yongming,Lei Xiaojun,Song Jun Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1992, 24 (02): 3-9.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 102 )
    This paper described an experiment on Chinese sentence compre- hension based on the paradigm of sentence verification, taking the hy- brid procedure of normal (no signal) tests and signal tests. The expe- rimental results showed: (1) The time needed for sentence comprehension depends on the subject's cognitive degree to semantic relation between concepts in the sentence; (2) Sentence comprehension is a process of partial information accumulation. From the experimental materials, the authors discussed the structure of human semantic memory and evaluated some models concerned.
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    A NEW EXPLORATION ON THE EFFECT OF STROKE-NUMBER IN THE IDENTIFICATION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS
    Yu Bolin,Cao Heqi Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, Beijing
    . 1992, 24 (02): 10-16.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 238 )
    Adopting the task of naming,the present research examined the res- ponse time(RT)of characters with high and low frequencies in the range from 2 to 15 strokes, it was discovered that (1) the RT of naming was the function of stroke-number,but basically there was no change in RT in a few small ranges of the stroke; (2) there was effect of frequency in the naming task. Finally, by using the hypothesis of parallel processing of the whole character and morphological structure, the present research preliminarily explored the mechanisms of the effects of the stroke number and the frequency.
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    SOME INFLUENTIAL FACTORS IN MEMORY OF FREQUENCY
    Gao Xiangping Department of Educational Management, Shanghai Teacher's University
    . 1992, 24 (02): 17-24.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 85 )
    This research is an attempt to examine how some factors,such as the frequency stimulus display, the form and nature of the stimulus, the depth of processing,the difficulty of operation and the effect of inten- tionality influences the memory of frequency. The result shows that the encoding of ferquency is not an independent and automatic processing sys tem. Some influential factors in other memory processes are also effective in changing the level of frequency estimation. The active role intentiona- lity played can be seen clearly when memory tasks are difficult and lack of effective cues for recall. Intentionality can promote, to some extent, the level of frequency estimation. The depth and amount of memory traces are two interrelative cues from which the information of fre- quency are derived. In addition, some important ideas concerning the memory of frequency are also reviewed briefly in this article.
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    APPLICATION OF RELATION OF FUZZY PARTIAL ORDERING IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH
    Huang Xiting,Sun Chenghui Southwest China Normal University, Chongqing, 630715
    . 1992, 24 (02): 25-31.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 126 )
    The feasible way of establishing the matrix of relation of fuzzy partial ordering is provided in this paper for the first time. According to the color preference experiment of college students, the method using the matrix to form an order is proned to be one of the best methods to make an ordinal scale.
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    EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON STEREOSCOPIC PLASTICITY
    Yao Guozheng Institute of Biophysics, Academia Sinica, Beijing 100101
    . 1992, 24 (02): 32-37.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 77 )
    Four sets of random-dot stereograms were demonstrated to explore into the relationship between the scale, position,disparity,structure of the figure and texture of the image with the plastic capacity of human stereopsis. The main results are: (1) The plastic capacity of a set of random-dot stereograms is no more than 17%; (2) The plastic capacity of stereopsis is associated with the scale and po- sition of a figure. A large,distributed figure decreases the plastic ca- pacity; (3) The plastic capacity of stereopsis is associated with the disparity and the three-dimensional configuration of a figure. Large disparities and complex configurations decrease the plastic capacity; (4) The plastic capacity of stereopsis is also associated with the texture of the image. The capacity with dots or checkboard texture is larger than that with gauze-like patterns.
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    ACQUISITION OF LANGUAGE IN 11-14 MONTHS OLD CHILDREN-ADULT'S TEACHING AND CHILDREN'S IMITATING
    Xu Zhengyuan,Guo Xiaochao Department of Psychology, Beijing University
    . 1992, 24 (02): 38-47.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 220 )
    The analysis of case records indicates that children acquire initial words at 11-14 months. Words that children get first are nouns and verbs which link with daily life and activities,then comes onomatopes. 87.5% of words and expressions children acquire in this period origi- nates from adult's teaching and children's relevant imitations. Generally adult's teaching matches with the situation and has high selection. Be- sides, children's learning is not simply imitation. Initiative and crea- tiveness is observed in the process of learning. This determines the role of adult's teaching to a certain extent. The results of this study show the factors and process of children's language acquisition.
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    A STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN'S CAPACITY IN UNDERSTANDING NUMERAL-CLASSIFIER COMPOUNDS'SOME"AND'MANY"
    Li Wenfu,Ma Mouchao Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Siences
    . 1992, 24 (02): 48-54.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 131 )
    This paper deals with the developmental characteristics of 4 to 10 -year-old children in understanding the numeral-classifier compounds "some" and "many"by the experimental method of studying children's capacity in understanding fuzzy classifiers. The results show that children's capacity in understanding these two numeral-classifier com- pounds is closely related to the given universe of discourse (number field), and that children understand the numeral-classifier compound "some" earlier than "many", which means that the developmental characteristics are as follows: 4 to 10-year-old children can understand "some" well at [0, 10] and [0, 20]; children over 6 can only under- stand the meaning of the word "many" at [0, 10]; and 4-year-old children get confused with the meaning of the words "many" and "whole".
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    A STUDY ON CHILDREN'S EARLY TOOL-USING BEHAVIOR
    Xu Jingxing,Huang Chunyu Jilin University
    . 1992, 24 (02): 55-63.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 113 )
    The ability to use indirect tools is one of the main intelligence boundaries in differentiating human beings from modern chinipanzee. In the early stages of child education, introducing indirect tool-using games and training is a necessary means of developing the child's abi- lity to its optimal phenotype. This paper presents the results of care- ful study on the development of tool-using behavior (in children from 1.5 to 5.5 years of age) and its relation with language development and with the separation of subject and object. The results show that direct tool-using ability almost appears at the same time as the lang- uage development and subject-object separation, but the indirect tool- using ability is found to begin much later, usually at about 3-4 years of age. All these indicate: (1) The starting point of modern anthro- pological study should not focus on direct tool-making×language de- velopment×the separation of subject,but on the stages after that. (2) The age of about 3.5 is the best time to introduce tool-using games or training and also a turning period in which the level of intelligence development of the child is beyond the animal. (3) The intelligence recapitulation theory contradicts to the conjecture that humans had no spoken language until created by the homo sapiens or homo erectus at a later period.
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    BLAMING AND EXCUSE-MAKING AS A FUNCTION OF INTERNAL-EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL: FURTHER EVIDENCE
    Wang Dengfeng Department of Psychology, Peking University
    . 1992, 24 (02): 64-71.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 85 )
    This is a further research following Wang and Anderson(1990). 149 Chinese college students rated excuses under both failure and success situations, and assigned blames to self, another person, and"no one" under joint-responsible situations. Subjects also fulfilled the Revised Rotter's I-E Scale. Results indicated that externals had higher ex- cuse-tendencies than internals in both failure and success situations. Externals also assigned more blame to another person, but no differ- ences appeared on the blame assignment to self and "no one", when compared with internals. Results were discussed from the standpoint of research methodology and the psychodynamics of everyday life.
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    EFFECTS OF COMPETITION BETWEEN STUDENTS IN CLASSROOM ON THEIR ACHIEVEMENT ATTRIBUTIONS AND ACHIEVEMENT BEHAVIORS
    Liu Shikui Hubei Academy of Bocial Science, Wuhan
    . 1992, 24 (02): 72-79.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 162 )
    The purpose of this study was to examine how competition between students in classroom influenced their temperament achievement attributions and situational achievement attributions, the two diffe- rent types of achievement attribution by resea rcher and their achieve ment behaviors were differentiated. The results show: (1) competition between students had no significant influence upon their temperament achievement attributions, but it influenced significantly their situational achievement attribu- tions; (2) competition between students had no significant relation with their following achievement behaviors; (3)students' temperament achievement attributions indirectly effected their following achieve- ment behaviors.
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    EFFECTS OF MEMORY TRAINING ON IMPROVEMENT OF THE COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ADOLESCENTS,YOUNG AND OLD ADULTS
    Wu Zhenyun,Sun Changhua,Wu Zhiping,Xu Shulian Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academg of Sciences
    . 1992, 24 (02): 80-87.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 149 )
    The study was conducted on memory training with 24 adolescents. 24 young and 22 old subjects using the method of Loci. The purpose of this study focused on comparing the effects of cognitive training on improvement of the memory in different ages with the life span developmental perspective. Further this study investigated the age differences in developmental reserve capdeity of cognitive function and the transfer effect of training. The results indicated that the cog- nitive intervention strategy could improve the memory of the elderly to a certain degree. Meanwhile, it also showed that the result of old adults were obviously worse than that of the young adults and adolescents, and the two latter age groups were similar in develop- mental reserve capacity and the transfer effects of figures.
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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PERFORMANCES OF TRACKING OPERATION AND THE PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS
    Fang Liluo,Ling Wenquan,Gao Jing,Liu Dawei Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    . 1992, 24 (02): 88-94.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 105 )
    A certain relationship between the peformances of tracking opera- tion and the allowable errors was found in this study. So the optimum designing operating machines for tracking tasks has to be considered. The relationship between different personality dimensions and the performances of tracking operation was also explored in this study.
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    A STUDY ON SUMMATION IN RHESUS MONKEYS
    Lin Guobin,Gong Wenhe Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    . 1992, 24 (02): 95-100.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 90 )
    In this research, we presented on each trial three cards with 2 to 6 black-filled circles to monkeys. The monkeys were required to sum two of the three numbers and to determine which one(the sum or the third one) had the greater number of dots. The monkeys were trained on nine tasks but only one monkey met the criterion of all tasks. We concluded that monkeys were able to learn to sum up two numbers together, Our explanation is that the monkey's performance is due to perceptual fusion.
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    THE EFFECT OF EXCITATORY AMINO ACIDS ON GROANING RESPONSES IN CATS
    Ni Xin,Lin Baocheng,Zhu Henian Department of Neurobiology, Second Military Medical College
    . 1992, 24 (02): 101-106.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 130 )
    In order to investigate the vocalization mechanism of the "groa- ning center" in cats, we studied the effect of microinjection of glu- tamate and kainic acid into the "groaning center"on groaning respon- ses. It was found that the respiratory rate increased markedly and the pupils of cats dilated immediately after injection. Furthermore, the threshold of groaning responses induced by electrical stimulation reduced significantly after injection. In some cats, it was also obser- ved that groaning responses could be directly induced by kainic acid. Our results suggested that the vocalization elicited by electrical stimulation of the "groaning center" represent responses due to the activation of neuronal cell bodies.
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    SEVENTY YEARS OF CHINESE PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    Lin Zhongxian,Zhao Liru Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1992, 24 (02): 107-112.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 81 )
    This paper summarizes briefly the development of the Chinese Psy- chological Society in the past 70 years. It describes the past and pre- sent status of the Chinese Psychological Society and its activities.
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